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October 25, 2023



The Indian government is set to introduce DNA and face-matching systems at 1,300 police stations across the country. This initiative is in line with the Criminal Procedure Identification Act passed in April 2022, which empowers law enforcement agencies to collect, store, and analyze physical and biological samples, including retina and iris scans of arrested individuals.

Key Points:

Implementation of the Criminal Procedure Identification Act:

  • The Criminal Procedure Identification Act was passed in April 2022, and its rules were notified in September of the same year.
  • The Act allows the police and Central investigating agencies to collect, store, and analyze physical and biological samples of arrested individuals.

DNA and Face-Matching Systems:

  • While the Act and rules do not explicitly mention DNA collection and face-matching, the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) has informed State police officials that these measures will be implemented at around 1,300 locations.

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs):

  • The NCRB is tasked with finalizing the SOPs to guide police officials in the collection and management of data under the Act.

National Database Repository:

  • The Union Home Ministry has set up a Domain Committee with representatives from State Police, Central law enforcement agencies, and other stakeholders to ensure successful Act implementation.
  • The NCRB will maintain the national database repository.

Integration with Existing Systems:

  • The National Automated Fingerprint Identification System (NAFIS), managed by NCRB, has workstations and scanners in approximately 1,300 police stations.
  • NAFIS, which contains fingerprint details of accused and convicts, will be integrated with the Criminal Procedure Identification Act.

Replacement of the 1920 Act:

  • The Criminal Procedure Identification Act replaces the 100-year-old Identification of Prisoners Act, 1920, which had a limited scope for capturing fingerprints, footprints, and photographs of convicted prisoners and specific categories of arrested persons.

Data Security and Safeguards:

  • The NCRB emphasizes the need for safeguards to prevent misuse of databases, restricting access to designated officials in real-time.


  • Challenges include training and resource constraints, with the burden of secure internet lines and operating costs borne by the states.
  • Technological, legal, and forensic soundness and accreditation of tools and systems used by the police are essential.



Chaos theory delves into the study of complex, dynamic systems that appear to behave unpredictably, even though they are governed by deterministic physical laws. This concept is often illustrated by the famous “butterfly effect,” where small changes in initial conditions can lead to significantly different outcomes. This chaos can be observed in both classical and quantum systems, but they exhibit distinct characteristics.

Classical Chaos:

  • Deterministic Chaos: Classical chaotic systems, such as a pinball machine, follow deterministic physical laws but are incredibly sensitive to initial conditions. Accurate predictions of their behavior require precise knowledge of the initial state.
  • The Butterfly Effect: This sensitivity is exemplified by the butterfly effect, where minor changes can lead to drastically different outcomes over time. Classical chaos is present in systems like weather, where the Earth’s atmosphere’s complex dynamics make long-term predictions challenging.
  • Lyapunov Time: The predictability of a classically chaotic system depends on factors like the accuracy of initial conditions and the Lyapunov time. For instance, chaotic electrical circuits may have a Lyapunov time of about 1 ms, while weather systems may be predictable for a few days.

Quantum Chaos:

  1. Quantum Mechanics: Quantum systems, particularly at the subatomic level, operate according to the probabilistic laws of quantum mechanics. The lack of point-like locations for subatomic particles makes deterministic predictions meaningless.
  2. Quantum Chaos: In quantum chaos, scientists study the dynamics of classically chaotic systems within the framework of quantum mechanics. While quantum mechanics is inherently probabilistic, quantum chaos explores aspects of unpredictability in these systems.
  3. Rydberg Atoms: Rydberg atoms serve as a bridge between classical and quantum chaos. By exciting an atom to a high energy state, it can exhibit a continuum of energies that align with classical mechanics. Quantum chaos can be studied in the distribution of energy levels in these systems.
  4. Regularities in Chaos: Unlike classical chaos, where randomness prevails, chaotic quantum systems exhibit intriguing regularities. The energy levels in such systems show strong correlations and appear to maintain safe distances from each other.

Uncharted Territory and Implications:

Quantum chaos is a relatively new and exciting area of research. It has gained interest for its implications in various fields, including thermalization, quantum information, and the study of black holes. This emerging field offers significant challenges in terms of conceptual, experimental, and computational aspects.


Classical chaos is characterized by deterministic systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions, leading to unpredictability. In contrast, quantum chaos explores probabilistic aspects in systems governed by quantum mechanics, revealing unique patterns and regularities amidst the apparent unpredictability. This field holds promise for advancing our understanding of complex systems in both classical and quantum realms.



Bhutan and China recently held their 25th round of boundary talks, marking a significant development in their relations, which had seen limited progress since the last round in 2016. This round of discussions took place alongside an official visit by Bhutan’s Foreign Minister to China, indicating a willingness to address border issues and improve bilateral relations. The talks aimed to reach an agreement on demarcating their boundaries.

Progress in Border Talks:

  • Substantive Progress: The fact that Bhutan’s Foreign Minister, Tandi Dorji, visited China and the continuation of boundary talks indicate substantive progress made by expert groups from both countries. This is a positive sign of cooperation.
  • Cooperation Agreement: During the discussions, Dr. Dorji and Sun Weidong, Vice Foreign Minister of China, signed a “Cooperation Agreement.” This agreement outlines the functioning of a Joint Technical Team (JTT) responsible for the “Delimitation and Demarcation of the Bhutan-China Boundary.” The agreement was initially agreed upon in August.
  • Diplomatic Relations: China expressed its hope for establishing diplomatic relations with Bhutan. Bhutan has maintained a cautious approach to diplomatic ties, as it does not have relations with any UN Security Council Permanent Member (P-5) country.

India’s Perspective:

  • India’s Concerns: India closely follows these talks due to security implications, especially near the trijunction point near Doklam. Any agreement that involves a “swap arrangement” between areas close to India’s “Siliguri corridor” would be of concern, as it connects northeastern Indian states to the rest of the country.


Bhutan and China’s progress in their 25th round of border talks and the willingness to establish diplomatic relations is a positive step in their relations. These developments are of interest not only to the two countries involved but also to India, considering the strategic implications in the region. The continuation of these discussions signifies a commitment to resolving longstanding border issues through diplomatic means.



Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) play a pivotal role in India’s economy, contributing over 28% to the GDP. These entities are essential for generating employment and trade opportunities. However, they are increasingly vulnerable to cyber threats such as data breaches, malware, phishing, and denial-of-service attacks. In a digitally-dependent era, the financial and legal consequences of cyber risks cannot be ignored. Cyberattacks pose a significant threat to SMEs and MSMEs, making cyber insurance a vital first step towards enhancing cybersecurity.

SMEs as Soft Targets:

  • SMEs have become prime targets for cybercriminals due to their limited resources for cybersecurity investments.
  • Unlike larger corporations, they often lack dedicated security teams.
  • Studies reveal that around 43% of all cyberattacks are directed at small businesses and start-ups, resulting in financial losses, reputational damage, and operational disruptions.

The Role of Cyber Insurance:

Cyber insurance offers a financial safety net to SMEs and MSMEs, covering expenses related to data breaches, ransomware attacks, and cyber incidents. For cash-strapped entities, cyber insurance can mean the difference between survival and insolvency.

Tailored Solutions:

Understanding the unique challenges faced by SMEs and MSMEs, insurers now provide specialized cyber insurance solutions tailored to their specific needs. These policies consider the scale of operations, level of digital reliance, and the specific cyber risks they encounter.

Coverage Details:

Cyber insurance addresses a range of costs, including notification expenses for informing affected parties about a data breach, legal fees associated with a data breach, and data recovery costs.

It also covers business interruption, compensating for lost income during downtime resulting from a cyber incident.

Intangible Costs:

  • Beyond financial losses, SMEs and MSMEs experience intangible costs such as reputation damage. Trust is a crucial aspect of their business, and a data breach can erode customer confidence, leading to client loss, revenue impact, and difficulty in attracting talent.
  • Cyber insurance policies often include provisions for reputation management, helping businesses navigate the aftermath of an attack and rebuild trust with stakeholders.



The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) recently faced criticism for its reading material on Chandrayaan-3, aimed at schoolchildren. The material has been accused of blending science with mythology and giving undue emphasis to Prime Minister Narendra Modi over the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and its scientists. This controversy has raised concerns about the portrayal of science and mythology in educational content.

Issues Raised:

  • Mixing Science with Mythology: Critics argue that the reading material blurs the lines between science and mythology by referencing ancient texts and myths in the context of Chandrayaan-3’s success.
  • Prime Minister’s Emphasis: The material extensively quotes Prime Minister Modi’s remarks, seemingly giving him more prominence in the achievement than ISRO and its scientists.
  • Use of ‘Bharat’: The reading material consistently refers to India as ‘Bharat’ in all instances throughout the 17-page script, raising questions about linguistic choices.

Critics’ Perspective:

  • Imposition of Ideology: Critics argue that the government is attempting to impose a particular ideological viewpoint by blending mythology with science in educational content.
  • Need for Scientific Temper: Educationists and students’ organizations emphasize the importance of fostering scientific temper and critical thinking among students rather than perpetuating myths.


The controversy surrounding the NCERT material on Chandrayaan-3 highlights the delicate balance between science and mythology in educational content. Critics are concerned that such content may influence young minds and undermine scientific inquiry. This issue underscores the importance of maintaining objectivity and promoting rational thinking in educational materials to nurture future generations.



Dalit politics in India has seen the emergence of various independent Dalit political parties, such as the Republican Party of India (RPI), the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), and others, over the years. These parties have played a crucial role in advocating for the rights and empowerment of Dalits in the country. However, the current state and future prospects of independent Dalit politics in India are a subject of debate and concern.

The Decline of Independent Dalit Politics:

  1. Organizational Weakness: Many independent Dalit political parties are experiencing a decline in their organizational strength and electoral performance. This is evident in their actions and the erosion of their political base.
  2. Fragmentation and Desertion: There has been a noticeable fragmentation and a trend of leaders leaving these parties to join dominant regional and national political parties. These leaders often seek tickets for elections, posts, and political positions, contributing to the weakening of independent Dalit politics.
  3. Loss of Voter Base: Parties like the RPI and the BSP have lost a significant portion of their voter base to dominant political entities like the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and, in some states, the Congress.

The Changing Socio-Political Landscape:

  • Influence of Democracy: The transformation in Dalit politics is interconnected with the changing landscape within Dalit communities, driven by the influence of democracy.
  • State-Led Affirmative Actions: Affirmative actions undertaken by the state have led to the percolation of education at the grassroots, benefitting Dalits and creating a segment aspiring for political representation.
  • Rising Developmental Aspirations: Dalit communities now seek a more substantial role in politics due to their rising developmental aspirations.

Emerging Challenges and Aspirations:

  • Aspirations for Political Space: Independent Dalit political parties have not adequately addressed the aspirations of a section of Dalit communities who are politically inclined. These individuals are increasingly seeking political opportunities in other parties.
  • Individual Ambitions: The growing impatience to gain political power and fulfill individual ambitions has led to a drift away from Dalit-led political parties.

The Role of Social Welfare Schemes:

Impact of Welfare Schemes: Social welfare schemes implemented by major political parties have created a link between marginalized Dalit communities and the ruling or potentially ruling parties. This support fosters political aspirations and contributes to the emergence of a ‘new Dalit mentality.’

Challenges Faced by Independent Dalit Political Parties:

  • Outdated Political Approaches: Many independent Dalit political parties continue to rely on traditional approaches, emphasizing identity, dignity, and representation without effectively addressing broader goals.
  • Lack of Economic Focus: These parties often fail to integrate economic aspects with their identity-based programs, overlooking the changing landscape of Dalit aspirations.
  • Need for Democratic Functioning: A lack of internal democracy within these parties hinders grassroots leaders from gaining proper political space. Additionally, some parties have not effectively curbed dynastic political culture.


The future of independent Dalit politics in India is undergoing transformation due to evolving socio-political dynamics. The aspirations of Dalit communities are changing, focusing on socio-economic mobility rather than mere identity. To remain relevant, independent Dalit political parties must adapt their political programs and actions to reflect these new aspirations and demands.



  • The COTP (Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products) film regulations have been extended to include the OTT (over-the-top) platform, as clarified by the government.

  • The OTT rules for 2023 came into effect on September 1, 2023. As per these regulations, all OTT platforms are now required to showcase static messages and audio-visual disclaimers concerning the harmful consequences of tobacco use.
  • The COTP Act of 2003 aims to restrict the promotion and govern the business activities related to the manufacturing, supply, distribution, and trade of cigarettes and various other tobacco products.



October 25, 2023
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