Loading Events

« All Events

  • This event has passed.


June 27 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm


The Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) is an agreement between India and Pakistan, signed on September 19, 1960, with the World Bank as a broker. This treaty outlines how the water from the Indus River and its tributaries is shared between the two nations. 

Key Provisions 

Water Sharing 

  • Rivers Covered: The treaty involves six rivers – Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej. 


  • Pakistan: Granted unrestricted use of the three western rivers – Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab. 
  • India: Granted unrestricted use of the three eastern rivers – Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej. 
  • Distribution: 80% of the water is allocated to Pakistan and 20% to India. 

Permanent Indus Commission 

  • Establishment: Both countries must set up a Permanent Indus Commission. 
  • Meetings: The commission is mandated to meet annually to discuss and manage treaty-related issues. 

Dispute Resolution Mechanism 

Three-Step Process: 

  • Questions: Issues can be resolved within the Permanent Commission. 
  • Inter-Government Level: Unresolved issues can be taken up by the governments of both countries. 
  • Neutral Expert: If still unresolved, a Neutral Expert appointed by the World Bank can be consulted. 
  • Court of Arbitration: Decisions by the Neutral Expert can be appealed to a Court of Arbitration set up by the World Bank. 

Various Projects to be Inspected Under IWT 

Pakal Dul and Lower Kalnai 

  • Pakal Dul: A hydroelectric project on the Marusudar River, a tributary of the Chenab. 
  • Lower Kalnai: Developed on the Chenab River. 

Kishanganga Hydroelectric Project 

  • Location: A run-of-the-river project located in Jammu & Kashmir. 
  • Objections: Pakistan argued it would affect the flow of the Kishanganga River (called Neelum River in Pakistan). 
  • Ruling: In 2013, the Permanent Court of Arbitration allowed India to divert the water with certain conditions. 

Ratle Hydroelectric Project 

  • Location: A run-of-the-river hydroelectric power station on the Chenab River, in Jammu & Kashmir. 


Indus River and Its Tributaries 


  • Origin: The Indus River originates in Tibet near Mansarovar Lake in the Trans-Himalaya. 
  • Path: It flows through Tibet, India, and Pakistan, supporting about 200 million people in its drainage basin. 

Course and Major Tributaries 

  • Entry into India: The Indus enters India through Ladakh, then flows through Jammu and Kashmir before reaching Pakistan’s Gilgit-Baltistan region. 
  • Left-Bank Tributaries: Zaskar, Suru, Soan, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Satluj, and Panjnad rivers. 
  • Right-Bank Tributaries: Shyok, Gilgit, Hunza, Swat, Kunnar, Kurram, Gomal, and Kabul rivers. 
  • Termination: The Indus empties into the Arabian Sea near Karachi in southern Pakistan. 

Major Tributaries  


  • Source: Spring at Verinag, Kashmir Valley. 
  • Joins: Chenab at Trimmu, Pakistan. 


  • Source: Chandra and Bhaga streams near Bara Lacha Pass. 
  • Joins: Satluj after receiving Jhelum and Ravi. 


  • Source: Kullu hills near Rohtang Pass. 
  • Joins: Chenab near Rangpur, Pakistan. 


  • Source: Near Rohtang Pass. 
  • Joins: Satluj at Harike Barrage, India. 


  • Source: Manasarovar-Rakas Lakes, Tibet. 
  • Joins: Indus a few kilometers above Mithankot, Pakistan. 

Way Forward 

  • Focus on Technical Dispute Resolution Utilize the existing framework of the treaty for resolving technical disputes. 
  • Transparency and Data Sharing Both countries can share hydrological data to address mutual concerns. 
  • Joint Basin Management Climate change and population growth present common challenges in the Indus basin, urging joint management for water conservation, flood control, and sustainable usage. 
  • Political Commitment and Dialogue Achieving sustainable solutions necessitates both governments to prioritize dialogue and cooperation over conflict. 


June 27
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
Event Category:
error: Content is protected !!