Chapter 1: Ethics and Human Interface

What is Ethics?

  • Ethics is a set of principles that influences our decisions and determines the direction and goal of our lives.
  • A society’s own set of ethical norms serves as a guide for its people’s behavior, decisions, and actions.
    • The preservation of principles and ideals is also a part of it.
    • It takes more than just following a tradition or custom, rather, it necessitates research and assessment of these rules in the context of universal truths.

What is the difference between Ethics and Morality?

  • Ethics and Morality are used interchangeably
  • In linguistics (the scientific study of language and its structure) even the synonyms are not supposed to be synonyms
  • William Van Orman Quine: Linguistic Philosopher
  • Complete Synonyms and Incomplete Synonyms
  • Ethics-Greek Word Ethica – Customs and Traditions. Ethos also used to denote internal characteristics of a culture.
  • Morality- Latin Word – More (It also means customs and traditions)
  • On the basis of Etymological meaning, they are almost similar and that there is no concrete difference.

Ethics & Morality Differences










Can Ethics and Morality be different?

Ethical Dilemma

  • Ethical Vs Ethical – Doctors (Save Patient & Informed Consent)
  • Moral Vs Moral – (Mother Vs Father)
  • Ethical Vs Moral – (Doctor-Burns patient; Lawyer defending for Terrorist; Police officer arresting a established criminal)




  1. Branch of Philosophy that studies knowledge.
  2. It is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge.
  3. It attempts to answer the basic question-what differentiates the true knowledge from false knowledge.
  4. It established skepticism about different knowledge claims.

B) METAPHYSICS: Reality Vs Existence.

  1. It is a philosophical discipline concerned with exploring the basic principles that govern the nature of reality. (Does God Exist; What happens to soul after death; is there life after death)
  2. Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the fundamental nature of reality, including the first principles of: being or existence, identity and change, space and time, cause and effect, necessity, and possibility.


  • Objective of Life
  • Means to achieve the purpose of this life
  • What we need to aspire for life – Purushartha.


ETHICS AS A SOCIAL SYSTEM: Society is basically a system which is complex.

Differentiate between Simple and complex system.

How Society is Complex?

Economic System; Political System; Educational System; Religious System and System of Social Control.


  • Human action is referred to as the conduct of an individual.
  • In these actions, ethics become the guiding light in determining what is right and what is wrong.
  • Thus, the essence of ethics in human action implies the observance of good versus the bad in the
    • Thought
    • Conduct and
    • Behaviour
  • The human action mostly manifests in the nature of choice between two or more courses of action.
  • Determination of a course of action as right or wrong is not easy
    • Wildlife Photographer
    • News reporter witnessing a scene of crime
    • District Magistrate : Three district hit by floods
  • Action become ethical if it
    • Is mandated by Nature
    • Is approved by society as right
    • Doesn’t not cause harm to others neither immediately nor in the long run.


In Ethics, Values are highest ideals which we try to emulate as the society believes they are the basic principles of a good social life.

Characteristics of Value

  1. Ideal Standards
  2. Abstract in Nature
  3. They are learned
  4. Deep rooted in our personality
  5. Generally Stable
  6. Values are used as standard for evaluating people.
  7. Values become virtues
  8. Values are arranged in a hierarchy (Differs from Person to person)

Types of Values

  1. Terminal Values
  2. Instrumental Values
  3. Positive Values
  4. Negative Values
  5. Foundational Values
  6. Area Specific Values
  7. Religious Values
  8. Secular Values
  9. Universal Values
  10. Parochial Values

1. Terminal Values

  1. Inner Harmony
  2. State of Bliss
  3. Self-Respect
  4. Family Security
  5. Peacefulness
  6. An exciting life

2. Instrumental Values

  1. Honesty
  2. Punctuality
  3. Responsibility
  4. Helping
  5. Integrity
  6. Probity



3. Positive Values

  1. Gratitude
  2. Honesty
  3. Compassion
  4. Forgiveness
  5. Helpfulness

4. Negative Values

  1. Thanklessness
  2. Revengeful
  3. Dishonesty
  4. Cruelty
  5. Quarrelling

6. Area Specific Values

  1. Anonymity
  2. Secrecy
  3. Bold
  4. Courageous


5. Foundational  Values

  1. Sharing
  2. Respecting Elders


Other Classification of Values

Religious Value:

Secular Value:

Universal Value:

Parochial Value:

Values Subjective or Objective

Value as Objective:

Based on Fact which cannot be refuted or based on reasoning which cannot be refuted.

Eg: Narendra Modi is the PM of India

Value as Subjective:

Which exists in the subject and the acceptance depends upon the individual’s opinion.

  1. Eg: Narendra Modi is the best PM of India
  2. Humans can be subject and objects as well
  3. Plants and Animals can only be objects?? Debatable

Explaining Deontology and Teleology


  1. A school of thought in Philosophy
  2. It believes that rules and norms are absolute
  3. They have to be accepted without any deviations
  4. In general religious ethics are close to Deontology
  5. Hebrew Ethics/Old Testament/10 rules of morality are all examples of Deontology


  1. A school of thought in Philosophy
  2. It believes that the ends/targets/objectives are more important than the rules or norms.
  3. In order to achieve an objective, if we need to change the rule, then we should change the rule
  4. Objective is more important than the rule
  5. In general, secular ethics are closer to teleology.
  6. Utilitarianism believes in Teleology. (Jeremy Bentham and J S Mill)

Continuum Approach

Coming back to the question:

Are Values Objective or Subjective?

If we say the values are objective – Do 100% of the world believe in that value. The answer is NO.

If we say the values are subjective – Do 100% of the world believe in that value. The answer is NO. No two persons have same values.

That is why it is believed that 100% objectivity or 100% subjectivity is not visible in the society.

Here comes the proposition of the Continuum Approach

Golden means or ends? – Taking care of the present


“So, pure objectivity and pure subjectivity of values are just mental constructs, these are not the possibilities of the real world”

Inculcation of Values

  1. It is a process through which values are given to a child or a human being, that values become a part of his/her personality.
  2. How Values become part of a personality, this process is called the Inculcation of Values.
  3. E.g. A child who mugs up and a child who internalizes the education.
  4. The level of understanding of both the children will be different

Role of Family in Inculcation of Values

  • Environment of Family: The family shapes the child’s attitude towards people and society, and helps in mental growth in the child and supports his ambitions and values.
    • For example, a blissful and cheerful atmosphere in the family will develop love, affection, tolerance, and generosity.
  • Learning By Modelling: A child learns his behaviour by modelling what he sees around him and thus family plays a major role in helping a child socialize.
  • Traditions & Customs: Ideas passed down from generation to generation make up family values.
    • Customs And Traditions followed and taught by the family leads a disciplined and organized life.
  • Preparing Base for Next Generation: It teaches the individual how to behave and project himself to the next younger generation and the emotional support adds the importance of family values.
  • Elementary Introduction to Ethics: A child has a strong sense of what is right and wrong and are less likely to become victims of deviant influences.

Role of Educational Institutions in Inculcation of Values

The prime concern of education is to evolve the good, the true and the divine in man so as to establish a moral life in the world. It should essentially make a man pious, perfect and truthful.

The welfare of humanity lies neither in scientific or technological advancements nor in acquisition of material comforts.

The main function of education is to enrich the character. What we need today more than anything else is moral leadership founded on courage, intellectual integrity and a sense of values.

Since education is a powerful instrument of social change and human progress, it is also a powerful tool to cultivate values in an individual.

Therefore all the educational institutes have greater responsibility to impart learning and cultivation of values through education.

For inculcating values many educationists have suggested different ideas such as

  • Provision of value based curriculum
  • Designing special orientation program for teachers
  • Value based foundation courses
  • Publication of literature based on values
  • Necessity to develop code of conduct for teachers and students
  • Inculcation of philosophical view towards life among teachers and students.

Further to cultivate values among the new generations we are to design a curriculum from out of our accumulated cultural heritage

Role of teachers in inculcating values among students | Saraswati  Shishukunj | Values education, Student motivation, Teachers

Role of teachers in inculcating values among students | Saraswati Shishukunj

Role of Society in Inculcation of Values

These are values which are essential for people to behave like humans. Since a person is born as human different from animals therefore, society has evolved some values due to human interface, and interaction with other fellow humans.

They are values which guide the behaviour of two or more humans. Compassion, empathy, and solidarity are some examples of human values.

  1. Religion and culture are somewhat intertwined, and the inculcation of values through societal channels is most influenced by their codes. Hindu teachings, for instance, strongly influence Indian values such as tolerance and reciprocity.
  2. Tradition and customs are fundamental components of any society structures. Some of the basic principles of tradition and custom include allegiance (Raksha-Bandhan), belonging (Holi), and so on.
  3. Depending on the type of political state, which can be either democratic or authoritarian, the population are taught the appropriate values. However, occasionally our values regarding the current system can be influenced by the politics of other states.
  4. Values held by society’s participants are also influenced by its economic structure. The socialist economy, for instance, encourages the virtue of equity, whereas the market economy instils the qualities of inventiveness and competition.
  5. The importance of mass media has increased in the digital age. E.g. The recent issue over social media corporations disclosing user information to private organisations for the purpose of analysing voter behaviour for political gain (Cambridge Analytica case). It has a role to develop community values or promote hatred toward the people of other communities.
  6. Civil society influences people’s values by organising people around a common cause and employing media, protests, etc. to further that cause. The MKSS campaign, which resulted in the RTI Act, 2005 in India, for instance, promoted openness and transparency in government.
  7. Through demonstration or persuasion, leaders can change the attitudes of their followers. Celebrities, for instance, have an impact on how others dress, eat, behave, etc.

Thus, society helps a long way in the inculcation of different human values like compassion, sympathy, cooperation, etc.

Human Values | Concept of human values | What is human values | Importance  of human values


What are NORMS?

  1. Individuals with lesser IQ won’t be able to understand the connotation of values which are abstract in nature.
  2. In this backdrop, it becomes necessary to convert this abstract values into concrete shape and size so that everyone irrespective of their IQ levels can comprehend them.
  3. When we make a concrete method to follow a value, these concrete methods are known as NORMS.

Eg: Respecting elders is a value; touching the feet is a norm. (Adherence to NORMS here becomes adherence to VALUES)

The Process of Evolution of NORMS?

  1. The custom of Namaste (Use this as an example)
  2. Hugging
  3. Kissing
  4. Rubbing the Nose


25 Cultural Norms Examples (2023)

The Process of Evolution of NORMS?

  1. Any NORM to start or to get popularized need an individual to start
  2. An individual with full of respect for his parents would have touched their feet
  3. The parents would have liked the gesture and accepted the gesture
  4. Gradually it becomes an individual habit.
  5. When people around looked, some may have ridiculed, some may have laughed, but some may have accepted it
  6. This will gradually turn into a group habit
  7. It will gradually get the acceptance of the society and becomes a Social NORM
  8. It then turns into an expectation of practice of this NORM
  9. The expectation then tries to regularize the  Social NORM. This finally take the shape of Social Custom
  10. Now Expectations become rigid
  11. From Customs or Traditions, it becomes a More (Social More)
  12. The Society is expected to follow it religiously
  13. If not, a possible outcome is a Social Sanction
  14. This will gradually turn into a group habit
  15. When Mores have specific rules and regulations, then we call them Institutions. (This is how Marriage as an institution was born); Family as a Social Institution
  16. Many a times, these rules and regulations are transformed into LAW

The Process of Evolution of NORMS?

  1. In the evolutionary process, people have forgotten the purpose for which a NORM evolved, and the practice of NORM itself became sacred. (E.g Sikhs wearing Kripan)
  2. This is how many of the provisions of the Hindu Marriage Act are influenced by the NORMS/Customs and Traditions.
  3. Also, Muslim Marriage Laws and other Religion Laws as well.
  4. If you have noticed, NORMS finally took the shape of a LAW and demanded societal acceptance.

Where lies the problem?

Following a NORM without using brain or reasoning, is called being ritualistic or being orthodox.

This finally culminates into Orthodox Ethics or Absolute Ethics.

Opinion of Deontologists & Teleologists on NORMS

Deontologists oppose any changes in the NORMS

Teleologists/Utilitarian’s support logic in the continuation of the NORM

Ethics says that people with higher IQ, maturity and progressive mindset support the approach of Teleologists.

Mains Questions

  1. Discuss the role of Society in the inculcation of ethical values in the society? Give an example one ethical value imbibed in your surrounding influenced by the society. (200 Words)
  2. Elucidate the evolutionary process of NORMS in a society? Also, highlight the role of society in giving the norm a sacred testament? (200 Words)
  3. Describe how adherence to the Instrumental Values pave way for the development of Terminal Values? (200 Words)
  4. Discuss the belief system upheld by the Deontologists in the continuation of a value system in the society? (200 Words)


What is CONDUCT?

Definition 1

Conduct is a voluntary action/s (moral and immoral) by human being or an organisation which defines its character.


Voluntary Actions- Conscious or Habitual

Voluntary and Involuntary Actions

  1. Voluntary Actions: What we do consciously and with our will.

E.g., Helping Someone, hurting someone knowingly.

  1. Involuntary Actions: Actions that we do without having a will behind that, without having a sense of doing that action.

E.g., Actions by Physically unfit, Intoxicated, mentally retarded, child etc

What is Moral, Immoral and Non-Moral Act

Moral: Something which is treated as standard behaviour in a society.

What is construed as moral may differ from society to society. 

Immoral: Something which is Anti-Moral or against morality.

E.g., Disrespecting national symbols

Can inaction be an immoral Act?


  1. The action that cannot be defined as moral or immoral
  2. The act done by a person who doesn’t understand the consequences of that act is a non-moral act.
  3. An action that has nothing to do with morality.

Conduct doesn’t include non-moral actions



  1. It is the set of instincts and tendencies displayed.
  2. One needs to understand that the instincts and the tendencies need not be displayed immediately on birth. E.g. Diabetic
  3. It is innate and genetic
  4. Initially as an infant it would be 100% innate or genetic, gradually the social aspect in the society influence a person’s nature.
  5. The complexities of the proportions of these instincts and tendencies show up as nature. E.g. A child always happy; a child always crying.

Can Nature be changed??

Changeability of Nature?

Biological Factors:

  1. With Age-harmonal changes, aggressiveness reduces drastically.
  2. Reduction in sexual desires with age
  3. An onset of a disease may change the human nature.

Social Factors:

  1. Exposure to new Society


  1. Character is nothing but the constant repetition of ……………??
  2. Character is majorly a learned or a developed thing
  3. It is not an innate or a genetic thing.
  4. Character is a stable approach or a stable mindset or a stable personality that becomes on the basis of frequent  or continuous repetition of conduct

Character is a stable approach or a stable mindset or a stable personality that becomes on the basis of frequent or continuous repetition of conduct.

Conduct is external

Character is internal

Can the Character be Changed?

Yes – But Rare

What is CONDUCT?

Definition 2

Conduct is when we are able to control our nature to some extent with the help of super ego that has been developed through the process of socialization.

Determinants of Ethical Values and Norms in a Society

Legal Interpretations

The need to control, legislate and regulate, the ethical conduct at the government, individual, and corporate levels has its roots back to the ancient world.

For example, one of the earliest law codes developed, the Code of Hammurabi, made Bribery a crime in Babylon during the eighteenth century B.C

Most ancient societies’ shares common ethical codes, such as against murder, causing injury to fellow human, and attacks on honour and reputation of an individual.

In modern world societies, Law and justice to the public are closely related to ethics and they enforce certain rights and duties in an attempt to repress and punish deviations from these standards.


The culture and the country, in which an individual is based, influence one’s ethical decisions or behaviour.

All cultures differ in values and morals. In western culture, one may look into the person’s eyes when one is conversing or talking to them. But in certain Asian cultures such as Korea, it is very rude to converse with a person that is “higher” status (age, work etc.) while looking into their eyes.

Thus, what is ethical in a country may not be ethical in other countries.

Individual factors

The individual factors that determine the ethical standards of a person are moral development, personal values, family influences, Peer Influences and Life experiences.

Stages of moral development

Moral development is the process through which children develop proper attitudes and behaviors toward other in society, based on social and culture norms, rules and laws.

Personal values and morals

An individual’s values and morals will also influence his or her ethical standards. A key variable which affects the ethical behavior is “locus of control”. An individual with an internal locus of control believes that he/she can control the events in his/her life. An individual with an external locus of control believes that fate or luck or other people affect his life.

Family influences

Individuals start to form ethical standards as children in response to their perception of their parent’s behaviour and are likely to adopt high ethical standards if they see that their family members adhere to high ethical standard. They develop lower ethical standards if their family members are involved in unethical behaviours.

Peer influences

Peers are colleagues who are always around us in conducting our daily work. The behaviors and attitudes of peers influence an individual’s decisions in their life. They play an important role in ethical decision making. Thus, an employee must establish good relationships with colleagues. If there are no good relations among colleagues, there is no harmonious atmosphere which further leads to failure in achieving one’s goal.

Life experiences

Individual’s life experiences analyze key ethical concepts such as “right”, “wrong,” and “permissible.” It lets us explores possible sources of moral obligation such as God, human reason, or the desire to be happy. It seeks to establish principles of right behavior that may serve as action guides for individuals and groups.

Determinants of Morality of Individual Acts

  1. Social Context
  2. Act in itself
  3. Actor (Doer)
  4. Object (upon whom the act has been done)
  5. Consequence of the Act
  6. Social Context

In the world of Ethics, it is believed that nothing in this world by itself is Moral or Immoral.

Everything becomes Moral/Immoral only when it is put in a context and that context is Social Context.

A single Act can be Moral Act or an Immoral Act if the Social Context changes.

Muslims: Marriage amongst the cousins is permitted

Hindus: Marriage amongst the cousins is a Sin

So, we need to keep in mind the importance of social context before defining an Act to be Moral or Immoral.





  1. The Act

What is the Act in itself + Its intensity

How it is interpreted in the social context

E.g The Act of Adultery

Iran: The testimony of husband has been given sacred testimony.

The Story of Soraya M

Somalia: A 13-year-old stoned to death for complaining rape.



France: More liberal societies

  1. The Actor
  2. The Actor

1. AGE

2. SEX


















1. AGE

2. SEX









Determinants of Ethics in Human Action

The actions performed by human beings cannot be genuinely called human actions, if any of the aforesaid conditions, i.e., ignorance, passion or violence, are present. This action is not human and hence cannot be subjected to scrutiny in ethics.

  • However, when there is reason or knowledge involved, when the acts are voluntary, it can be determined whether a given human act is good or bad. As per moral theologians there are certain determinants of the moral quality of our actions. These are:
    • Nature/Object of the Act:
      • One of the criteria of judging the morality/goodness of human acts is its object/nature. Every action has a particular nature/essence that makes it different from other actions. An act thus specified may, when considered in itself, be good, bad, or indifferent. Thus, helping a blind person across the street is a good act in itself, to blaspheme is bad in itself, and learning to shoot is in itself an indifferent act and learning to shoot is in itself an indifferent act.
      • However, there are certain types of acts that are called intrinsically evil/immoral by its very nature, that is, by its inherent moral meaning. An intrinsically evil act is an act that is always bad, always sinful. It is never good, never appropriate, and never useful irrespective of the ulterior intentions of the one acting and the circumstances.
        • Reason also attests that some of the human acts by their very nature are incapable of being good because they radically contradict the notion of good, for instance, rape, murder of innocent children, or blasphemy.
      • Meanwhile, there are some specific acts such as abortion, embryonic stem cell research, same sex marriage, euthanasia, etc. that are considered intrinsically immoral as per moral codes of certain societies/religion. Even though intentions may sometimes be good, and circumstances frequently difficult, these acts are considered non-negotiable and hence punishable by such societies.
        • However, such instances of judging morally of an act as evil or sinful prior to a consideration of the circumstances and intentions might be questionable, debatable or even invalid in some other societies.
    • Intention/Purpose of the Action:
      • Actions may be either good or bad, depending on why we do them. According to Aristotle and teleological theorists every human action, no matter how trivial, has some purpose/ motive/intention behind it. A person has the moral responsibility for all such actions (deliberate or omissions, doing or withholding from an action, trying or attempting to bring about a certain result) that involves agent’s foresight, cause, desire, or motivation. Therefore, the intention of the person in action is an element essential to the moral evaluation of an action. The manner in which purpose/intention affects the ethics of an action is outlined below:
        • For a human act to be morally good the agent or doer must have good intentions.
        • The motive of an agent can change an act morally good by nature into a morally evil act.
        • A good intention, no matter how good, does not make something essentially immoral into something morally good.
        • An action that has a good object can become more or less good because of its purpose.
        • An action which is inherently wrong may become a greater or lesser wrong depending on the purpose of the moral agent.
    • Circumstances of the Action:
      • Every human act in a concrete order is done under particular circumstances. Circumstances may therefore affect the morality of an action and add something to the moral quality. Circumstances of a human action include such things as the act being done at a particular time, in a particular place, by a particular agent, in a particular manner. How the differing circumstances change the rightness or wrongness of actions can be understood as outlined below:
        • Sometimes circumstances affect the morality of the action only in degree, that is, they contribute to increasing or diminishing the moral goodness or evil of human acts. For example, stealing is bad by object, stealing a rare object/or stealing from a destitute/poor increases the malice of the action. On the other hand, if a robber acts like Robin Hood by stealing from the rich to help the poor, his robberies become less immoral.
        • Some circumstances impart a new type of goodness or badness to an action by the effect of when and where it takes place.
          • When: Whether it is done during war or peace. For instance, there is an increase in the guilt of an intelligence officer who, when caught by an enemy country at the time of war, succumbs to threat of violence and discloses highly confidential information that severely affects national secrets.
          • Where: Similarly, where the action takes place can affect its morality. For instance, a murder in a church/cathedral adds an additional moral evil to murder itself as it involves the profanation of a consecrated place of worship and hence the additional evil of sacrilege.
        • Circumstances can also diminish or lessen the agent’s responsibility. For instance, a woman who kills the person who attacks her chastity is absolved from the guilt of killing someone.
  • Thus, since all human actions occur at a certain time and at a certain place, the circumstances must always be considered in evaluating the moral quality of any human act. Meanwhile, it must be understood that ‘a morally good act requires the goodness of the object, of the end, and of the circumstances together’. If any one of the three is evil, then the human act in question is evil and should be avoided.
    • Agents that influence/ determine the ethicality of human action:
      • Individual personality traits
      • Culture or country of the individual
      • Organization/ industry

Consequences of Ethics in Human Action

The consequences are the effects caused by an action. Many of our actions, decisions, and choices of everyday life are made with an eye to the consequences. Human beings by nature tend to be consequence oriented. That means we have a tendency to seek intended results and the quality of these results/consequences depend on how much goodness they contain.

    • An action is judged to be good or bad on the basis of its outcome. If other people suffer, it is wrong. If people benefit, it is right. Consequences, then, are an important consideration in our analysis of ethical conduct. The cases where the consequences of an action are attributable to the doer who is held responsible for an effect, involve the following conditions:
      • If the doer holds notice (even if vaguely) or knows ahead what the consequences of a particular choice or action will be, he/she is presumed to have willed the effect. For example, in case of a bad effect, if a hunter sees an object, but is unsure whether it is a man or a deer. The hunter anticipates vaguely what the consequences of firing a shot may be killing of dear or killing of men. If the hunter chooses to shoot anyhow, he has willed the effect, whether the killing of dear or killing of men.
      • If the actor does not perform the act but causes another one to do it (in the form of help, encouragement or persuasion), the first person is still morally responsible for the consequences of the act to the degree that he or she foresaw those consequences. For instance, if a politician gives a hate speech that incites communal violence in a sensitive area, he will be considered guilty of the commission of a wrong act.
      • If one remains silent or does not take any action – If a person witnesses a road accident and refrains from helping the victim in critical condition, he fails to perform the duty of a good Samaritan therefore, is guilty of errors of omission and the bad consequences (death of the victim) that follow.
  • Thus, whatever increases, lessens or destroys the liberty and knowledge that are essential for a moral act also increases, lessens or destroys the responsibility of the actor.

Ethics in Public Relationships Basic Determinants

  • Public Relations are governed by Power
  • Formal and Instrumental in Nature
  • Diversity of opinion and expectation in Public
  • Public relations are very instrumental in success of organization
  • It is necessary to Engage with public due to work/benefit.
  • Expectation for respect
  • Role of public servant in preserving and maintaining faith of public
  • Need of ensuring Accountability and maintaining transparency

Ethics in Public Life

  1. Celebrity or Public Figures
    • People emulate as Role Models
    • Expected Behaviourism
    • Non-Controversial
    • Good relations with the government
    • Media Averse
    • Maintain Social Distance
    • Cautious of political affiliations
    • Strong Fan Base
  2. Public Officers
    • Placing public interests over and above private interests
    • Prompt custody of Funds of people
    • Regulatory Compliance
  3. Regulators
    • Ethics in formulation of Regulation
    • Ethics in Execution of a Regulation
    • Regulator – Conflict of Interest
    • Regulatory Overreach
  4. Ethics in the Public life of a common man
    • Impact on other health
    • Impact on the pleasant experience of the other fellow citizens
    • Social Acceptance
    • Fear of Social Sanction
    • Peer Pressure

Ethics in Private Life Basic Determinants

  1. Do need Privacy
  2. Based on Emotions
  3. Have very less/no impact on Society (Though law tries to control relations)
  4. Permanent/Relatively Permanent  in nature
  5. More Scope for Imperfections

Ethics in Private Life

  1. Ethics in dealing with Self
  • First tenet of ethical thinking is thinking well and not ill of others
  • Consistency between words and actions
  • Be what you project yourself to be
  • Do before you tell other to do, be before you tell others to be
  1. Ethics in One’s Marital Life
  • Fidelity
  • Confidentiality
  • Honesty
  • Love
  • Tolerance
  • Compassion
  • Time
  1. Ethics in dealing with One’s Children
  • Love, Care and Compassion.
  • Be a strong moral role model and mentor
  • Make caring for others a priority and set high ethical expectations
  • Provide opportunities for children to practice caring and gratitude
  • Expand your child’s circle of concern
  • Promote children’s ability to be ethical thinkers and positive change-makers in their communities
  1. Ethics in dealing with One’s friends
  • Showing the Right Path
  • Encouragement and motivation
  • Emotional Support
  • Empathy
  • Trust
  • Confidentiality
  • Non-Judgmental

Difference in Ethics in Private and Public Relationships



Love, Caring, Personal Integrity, Tolerance, Compassion, trustworthiness, reciprocity are the basic values

Professional Integrity, Probity, Honesty, Integrity, Objectivity, neutrality etc are the basic values

Unconditional Commitments are high

Conditional Commitments are high

More Tolerance towards Imperfections

Less Tolerance for Imperfections

Subjectivity has more scope

(Patriarchal Family, Matriarchal Family etc)

Scope of Objectivity is more

(Universal Structure of Relationships)

More Cultural Impact on Private Relationships

(Social Pressure on Divorce)

Less/Negligible Cultural Impact

Based on Emotions

Based on Rules

Fear of Personal Integrity, Social Pressures and Personal Peace

Fear of Professional Integrity and Punishments

Mains Questions

  1. Discuss how temperature plays an important role in inculcation of certain values in a society? Give one example to support your view point. (200 Words)
  2. Describe how Ethics in personal life is shaped? Also, highlight the basic determinants of Ethics in Personal Life  (200 Words)
  3. Elucidate the consequences of Ethics in Human Action? Give a detailed consequence of Ethics at Individual level. (200 Words)
  4. List out the determinants of morality of individual acts? (200 Words)