Loading Events

« All Events

  • This event has passed.

01-July-2024-Daily-Current-Affairs

July 1 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm

END OF PETRODOLLAR? WE WOULDN’T HOLD OUR BREATH 

TOPIC: (GS3) ECONOMY – SOURCE: THE HINDU 

In the past decade, both Western and Eastern countries have shifted towards self-sufficient economic and political policies, moving away from a previously global approach. This shift has sparked debates about the future of the U.S. dollar as the world’s reserve currency, with some predicting its replacement by the Chinese yuan. 

Arguments for the Yuan as the Reserve Currency 

Decline of U.S. Influence: 

  • Observers claim a reduction in U.S. economic and political influence globally. 
  • A decrease in global trade using the U.S. dollar as economies expand and trade more with other currencies. 

Rise of Chinese Influence: 

  • China’s Belt and Road initiative has increased its economic and political influence among neighboring and developing countries. 
  • Examination of U.S. Influence 

Political Influence: 

  • The U.S. remains a key global player, evident from its support for Ukraine in the Russo-Ukraine War. 
  • China has maintained neutrality in the conflict, avoiding rebuke from Western nations. 

Economic Influence: 

  • The U.S. dollar remains a preferred investment choice. 
  • In 2022-23, investments surged to the U.S. after the Federal Reserve raised rates, showing high investor confidence. 
  • Central banks globally adjusted interest rates in line with the Federal Reserve, underscoring the significance of U.S. monetary policy. 
  • Challenges to the Yuan as the Reserve Currency 

Debt-trap Diplomacy: 

  • China’s Belt and Road initiative has faced criticism for poor economic management and exploitative pacts. 
  • Examples include Sri Lanka’s debt issues and other countries feeling pressured by Chinese loans. 
  • Economic Issues: 
  • China’s zero COVID policy and real estate collapse have strained its economy. 
  • The Chinese yuan is closely monitored, limiting its free maneuverability, which is a major hurdle for becoming a global reserve currency. 

Petrodollar vs. Petroyuan 

Shift in Alliances: 

  • The U.S. shale oil revolution and energy independence have led traditional oil-producing allies, like Saudi Arabia, to seek alliances with China. 
  • Despite this, Saudi Arabia prefers U.S. treasury bills and high-tech imports from the U.S. 

Investment Prospects: 

  • China’s restricted markets and low-quality exports make it a less attractive investment prospect compared to the U.S. 

Conclusion 

While there are significant challenges for China in displacing the U.S. dollar as the world’s reserve currency, it is possible that over time these obstacles may be overcome. However, for a new currency or a group of currencies to gain global importance, it must be freely tradeable, supported by a stable economy, and ensure value stability for those who use it. 

CARBON DERIVED FROM COCONUT HUSKS CAN POWER SUPERCAPACITORS, FIND RESEARCHERS 

TOPIC: (GS3) SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY – SOURCE: THE HINDU 

Researchers at the Government College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram, have developed a method to produce activated carbon from coconut husks, an abundant agricultural residue in Kerala. This material shows great promise for high-performance supercapacitors. 

Material Source: 

  • Coconut husks, an eco-friendly and low-cost resource. 
  • Potential for sustainable energy solutions. 

Innovative Method: 

  • Microwave-assisted method developed at the Centralised Common Instrumentation Facility (CCIF). 

Advantages of Coconut Husk-Derived Activated Carbon 

Efficiency: 

  • Prototype supercapacitors are four times more efficient than existing ones. 
  • Findings published in the American Sustainable Resource Management Journal. 

Supercapacitor  

Supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors, bridge the gap between batteries and regular capacitors. They hold much more energy than regular capacitors (10-100x more) but less than batteries. However, they shine in two key areas: 

  • Higher capacitance and energy storage compared to conventional capacitors. 
  • Essential for sustainable energy storage solutions. 
  • Rapid Charge & Discharge: Supercapacitors can absorb and release energy extremely quickly, making them ideal for short bursts of power. 
  • High Cycle Life: They can withstand many more charge/discharge cycles compared to batteries. 

Applications: 

 

  • Regenerative Braking: Capturing energy during braking in electric vehicles, buses, and trains. 
  • Power Backup: Providing short-term power for static memory (SRAM) in computers. 
  • Peak Power Assist: Delivering extra power during peak loads in wind turbines or industrial motors. 

Materials: 

  • Electrodes: Primarily activated carbon, with high surface area to store energy. 
  • Electrolyte: Conducts ions between electrodes, often organic or ionic liquids. 

India’s Role: 

  • India has a strong position in some raw materials for supercapacitors: 
  • Activated Carbon: India is a significant producer of coconut shells, a good source material. 
  • Electrolyte Solvents: The country has a growing chemical industry that can potentially contribute to electrolyte production. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. Consider the following statements regarding conductors and superconductors:
  1. Conductors allow the flow of electric current with some resistance, while superconductors allow the flow of electric current with zero resistance at a critical temperature. 
  1. Superconductors exhibit the Meissner effect, which expels magnetic fields from their interior. 
  1. Copper and aluminum are examples of superconductors. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 2 only 
  1. 2 and 3 only 
  1. 1 and 3 only 
  1. 1, 2, and 3 

ANSWER – A 

EXPLANATION 

Conductors have some resistance to the flow of electric current, whereas superconductors exhibit zero electrical resistance at or below a certain critical temperature. 

Superconductors expel magnetic fields from their interior, a phenomenon known as the Meissner effect. 

Copper and aluminium are good conductors but are not superconductors. Superconductors are materials that exhibit zero resistance below their critical temperature, such as certain ceramics and alloys. 

NEW CRIMINAL LAWS IN FORCE; CR. PC, IPC APPLICABLE ONLY FOR OLD CASES 

TOPIC: (GS2) POLITY AND GOVERNANCE – SOURCE: INDIAN EXPRESS 

Three new criminal laws, the Bharatiya Nagrik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS), Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS), and Bhartiya Sakshya (BS), come into effect across India, despite objections from some non-BJP ruled states. 

Historical Context of IPC 

  • The Charter Act of 1833 established a law commission in 1834. 
  • Thomas Babington Macaulay was appointed its chairman. 

Need for Codification: 

  • The mix of Hindu, Muslim, and British laws required consolidation. 
  • Different presidencies had varied punishments for the same crime. 
  • The IPC was enacted by the British colonial government in 1860 and came into effect in 1862. 

Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC): 

  • Enacted in 1973, the CrPC provides the procedure for law enforcement. 
  • Has seen several revisions to adapt to changing legal and social contexts. 

Indian Evidence Act: 

  • Enacted in 1872, it lays down the rules for the admissibility of evidence in Indian courts. 
  • Updated periodically to align with modern legal requirements. 

New Criminal Laws 

Bharatiya Nagrik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS): 

  • Replaces the Code of Criminal Procedure (Cr.PC). 
  • Prescribes procedures for arrest, bail, and custody. 
  • States can amend provisions as needed. 

Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS): 

  • Replaces the Indian Penal Code, 1860. 
  • Amendments may soon include provisions for sexual crimes against men and transgender persons. 
  • Police officers advised to use allied sections for such complaints until amendments are made. 

Bharatiya Sakshya (BS): 

  • Replaces the Indian Evidence Act, 1872. 

Implementation 

  • From July 1, over 650 district courts and 16,000 police stations must adopt the new system. 
  • Cognisable offences registered under Section 173 of BNSS instead of Section 154 of Cr.PC. 
  • IPC and Cr.PC will still apply to pending cases and crimes reported after July 1 but committed before that date. 

Key Provisions of the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) Bill 

  • Sedition: IPC’s Section 124-A prescribes life imprisonment for sedition.BNS Bill’s provision 150 addresses acts endangering India’s sovereignty and unity. 
  • Mob Lynching: Specific provision with punishments from seven years to the death penalty. 
  • Terrorism: Terrorism defined as acts disturbing public order and threatening national security. Punishments range from five years to life imprisonment or death. 
  • Organized Crime: Comprehensive definition including offenses like kidnapping, robbery, and cybercrimes committed by crime syndicates. 
  • Community Service: Introduced as punishment for petty offenses, similar to practices in the US.Proposed Changes in BNS 
  • Adultery and Gender-Neutral Provision: Recommends criminalizing adultery in a gender-neutral manner.Aims to protect marriage while adhering to Supreme Court’s 2018 ruling. 
  • Non-Consensual Sex and Bestiality: Clause to criminalize non-consensual sex among all genders and acts of bestiality. 
  • Definition of Terms: Improved definitions for terms like “community service” and “life imprisonment.” 

Positive Changes: 

  • Removal of Section 124A (Sedition). 
  • Provisions for prosecuting offenses in foreign countries. 
  • Arguments for Legalizing and Criminalizing Adultery 
  • Legalizing Adultery: Recognizes individual autonomy and right to privacy. 
  • Criminalizing Adultery: Protects marital sanctity and family structure. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. The establishment of a Law Commission in India for codifying laws is associated with the:
  1. Government of India Act, 1858 
  1. Regulating Act of 1773 
  1. Charter Act of 1833 
  1. Rowlatt Act of 1919 

ANSWER – C 

EXPLANATION 

The Charter Act of 1833, passed by the British Parliament, introduced several reforms in British India. One of the key provisions was the establishment of a Law Commission tasked with codifying existing laws. This commission played a crucial role in creating a more unified and systematic legal system in India. 

SHOULD EDUCATION BE BROUGHT BACK TO THE STATE LIST? 

TOPIC: (GS2) POLITY AND GOVERNANCE – SOURCE: THE HINDU 

The governance of education in India has undergone significant changes since independence, particularly with the shift of education to the concurrent list during the Emergency period.  

This change was aimed at creating a uniform education policy across the nation but has since sparked debate on its effectiveness and relevance.  

Government of India Act, 1935: 

  • Created a federal structure and distributed legislative subjects. 
  • Education was under the provincial list. 

Post-Independence: 

  • Education remained part of the State list. 

Emergency Period (1975-1977): 

  • Swaran Singh Committee recommended placing education in the concurrent list. 
  • Implemented through the 42nd Constitutional Amendment (1976). 

Post-Emergency: 

  • Janata Party attempted to revert education to the State list via the 44th Amendment (1978), but it wasn’t passed in the Rajya Sabha. 

International Practices 

United States: 

  • State and local governments set educational standards. 
  • Federal government focuses on financial aid and ensuring equal access. 

Canada: 

  • Education is managed entirely by provinces. 

Germany: 

  • Legislative powers for education lie with the landers (States). 

Arguments for Concurrent List: 

  • Uniform education policy. 
  • Improvement in standards. 
  • Synergy between Centre and States. 

Arguments for State List: 

  • Diversity necessitates tailored policies. 
  • Majority of education expenditure (76%) is by States. 
  • Centralization doesn’t eliminate issues like corruption and lack of professionalism. 

Conclusion 

Given the significant expenditure on education by States and the need for tailored policies, a discussion on moving education back to the State list is essential. This would enable States to frame specific policies for syllabus, testing, and admissions while central institutions can continue to regulate higher education standards. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. Consider the following statements about education in India:
  1. The content of school education curriculum is decided by the Central Government. 
  1. The Right to Education Act (RTE) is implemented by the State Governments. 
  1. Setting up and managing government schools is a responsibility of the Central Government. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 2 only 
  1. 2 and 3 only 
  1. 3 only 
  1. None of the above 

ANSWER – B 

EXPLANATION 

The content of school education curriculum is primarily decided by the State Governments, although there might be some centrally mandated guidelines. 

The Right to Education Act (RTE) is implemented by the State Governments. They are responsible for setting up infrastructure, recruiting teachers, and ensuring its implementation. 

Setting up and managing government schools is a responsibility of the State Governments. The Central Government manages centrally administered schools like Kendriya Vidyalayas. 

OROPOUCHE FEVER 

TOPIC: (GS3) SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY – SOURCE: DOWN TO EARTH 

Oropouche Fever is caused by the Oropouche Virus (OROV), belonging to the orthobunya virus family.  

Incubation Period: 4 to 8 days. 

About Oropouche Fever: 

Symptoms 

  • Common Symptoms: Include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and nausea. 
  • Severe Cases: Can lead to meningitis or encephalitis, which are serious conditions affecting the brain and spinal cord. 
  • Duration: Most patients recover in about a week, but some may experience lingering symptoms for several weeks. 

Transmission 

  • Vectors: The disease is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected midge (small fly) or mosquito. 
  • Risk Factors: Urbanization, deforestation, and climate change contribute to the spread of the disease by increasing the habitats and populations of the vectors. 

Treatment 

  • Vaccination: Currently, there are no vaccines available to prevent Oropouche fever. 
  • Medical Care: There is no specific antiviral treatment for Oropouche fever. Medical care focuses on managing and alleviating the symptoms, such as pain and fever, to support recovery. 

Prevention 

  • Vector Control: Efforts to reduce the population of midges and mosquitoes, such as using insect repellent, installing screens on windows, and eliminating standing water where these insects breed, can help reduce the risk of transmission. 
  • Public Health Measures: Monitoring and responding to outbreaks, educating the public on preventive measures, and conducting research on the disease and its vectors are important steps in controlling the spread of Oropouche fever. 

SAUBHAGYA SCHEME 

TOPIC: (GS2) POLITY AND GOVERNANCE – SOURCE: HINDUSTHAN TIMES 

The Government of India launched the Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana (SAUBHAGYA) in October 2017. 

Objective: Achieve universal household electrification by providing electricity connections to all un-electrified households in rural areas and all poor households in urban areas. 

Key Features 

Last-Mile Connectivity: 

  • Ensure that electricity connections are provided to all households in rural areas that currently do not have access to electricity. 
  • Ensure last-mile connectivity for economically poor un-electrified households in urban areas. 

Solar Photo Voltaic (SPV) Systems: 

  • Provide SPV-based standalone systems for un-electrified households in remote and inaccessible villages/habitations where grid extension is not feasible or cost-effective. 

Free Connections for BPL Families: 

  • In rural areas, BPL (Below Poverty Line) families receive LED bulbs, wires, holders, switches, etc., free of cost. 
  • Urban BPL families receive free power connections. 

Affordable Connections for Non-BPL Families: 

  • In rural areas, non-BPL families receive electricity connections for Rs. 500, payable in 10 equal instalments of Rs. 50 each. 

Implementation 

  • Nodal Agency: The Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) is assigned as the nodal agency for the Saubhagya scheme. 
  • Beneficiary Identification: The beneficiaries eligible for free electricity connections are determined using the data from the Socio-Economic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011. 

Special Provisions 

  • Solar Energy: Families in rural areas, where grid supply is not feasible, are provided with solar energy solutions. 
  • Exclusion of Non-Poor Urban Households: Non-poor urban households are excluded from the benefits of this scheme. 

NATIONAL STATISTICS DAY 

TOPIC: (GS2) POLITY AND GOVERNANCE – SOURCE: THE HINDU 

National Statistics Day is celebrated on June 29 in honour of Professor Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis. The day aims to raise awareness about the significance of statistics in planning and policymaking. 

Significance 

  • Recognition: Honors the contributions of Professor (late) Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in statistics and economic planning. 
  • Objective: To create public awareness, especially among the younger generation, about the role and importance of statistics in socio-economic planning and policy formulation for the development of the country. 

Themes 

  • Annual Themes: Since 2007, each year features a theme of contemporary national importance. 
  • 2024 Theme: “Use of data for decision-making.” 

Importance of Data-Driven Decision Making 

  • Concept: Emphasizes the importance of making informed decisions based on data. 
  • Understanding Statistics: Enhances understanding of statistical information from official statistics. 
  • Evidence-Based Decisions: Facilitates evidence-based decision-making across various fields. 

SENNA SPECTABILIS 

TOPIC: (GS3) ENVIRONMENT – SOURCE: THE HINDU 

Kerala Forest Department and Kerala Paper Products Limited (KPPL) are working together to eradicate the invasive plant Senna Spectabilis. 

 

Threat to Wildlife 

  • Impact: Poses a threat to wildlife habitats in the Nilgiri biosphere, including the Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (WWS) and other sanctuaries. 

Origin and Uses 

  • Native Region: Originates from Tropical America. 
  • Uses: Grown as an ornamental plant and used in traditional medicine. 

Characteristics 

  • Soil Preference: Thrives in deep, moist, sandy, or loamy soils but can also grow in poor soils. 

Tree Type: 

  • Evergreen: In climates with rainfall throughout the year. 
  • Deciduous: In areas with dry seasons. 

Details

Date:
July 1
Time:
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
Event Category:
error: Content is protected !!