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December 4, 2023 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm


Climate smart farming (CSF), also called Low-carbon farming (LCF) and often referred to locally as Sustainable Agriculture (SA), practices can deliver on all of these three counts. And as the world moves to implement market-based measures to promote GHG mitigation, markets can offer an additional incentive for small-holder farmers to adopt climate smart practices. The primary reason to adopt CSF should be common sense: the farmers should adopt CSF because they see the direct economic benefits that help promote the well-being of their families and communities.

Key Highlights:

Global Challenges: Identifying climate change and food insecurity as pressing global issues with far-reaching consequences.

Impact on Agriculture: Exploring the detrimental effects of climate change on agriculture, leading to heightened challenges for farmers worldwide.

Holistic Solution: Introducing CSA as a holistic approach that combines adaptation and mitigation strategies to address the complex challenges posed by climate change.

Emphasizing Importance: Stressing the pivotal role of CSA in fortifying resilience, elevating productivity, and curbing greenhouse gas emissions for sustainable agriculture.

Government Initiatives: Citing Indian government initiatives, including the National Adaptation Fund and Soil Health Mission, as proactive steps toward promoting CSA.


Climate Risks: Analyzing the substantial risks climate change poses to agricultural productivity, with India potentially facing a significant 9% decline in crop yield.

Need for Reforms: Discussing the imperative need for significant reforms in the agriculture sector to adapt traditional farming practices in the face of climate change.

Transformative Approach: Emphasizing the requirement for a radical transformation of the agriculture sector, aligning with sustainable development goals to effectively combat climate change.

Key Terms/Phrases:

Holistic Approach: Exploring the three pillars of CSA, focusing on productivity, adaptation, and mitigation.

Precision Farming: Highlighting the importance of precision farming as a component of CSA in optimizing agricultural methods.

Climate-Resilient Agriculture: Describing CSA’s role in building resilience against climate change, ensuring agricultural sustainability.

Agroforestry and Carbon Sequestration: Identifying specific CSA measures, including agroforestry, for environmental benefits and carbon sequestration.

Paris Agreement: Linking CSA to global initiatives such as the Paris Agreement, reinforcing the commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Examples and References:

Global Efforts: Noting community-supported agriculture efforts worldwide as tangible examples of CSA in action.

Specific Measures: Citing studies from the northwest Indo-Gangetic Plain, showcasing the tangible benefits of CSA, particularly in wheat production.

Government Support: Referring to government initiatives in India, such as the Soil Health Card Scheme, as concrete steps supporting CSA.

International Frameworks: Connecting CSA to international frameworks like the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals, underlining its global relevance.

Key Facts/Data:

Climate Impact: Highlighting the potential 9% decline in crop yield in India due to climate change, underscoring the urgency of CSA adoption.

GHG Emissions: Noting agriculture’s significant share (17%) in greenhouse gas emissions in 2018, emphasizing the need for mitigation through CSA.

Economic Autonomy: Pointing out the economic autonomy gained by farmers through CSA implementation, showcasing its positive socio-economic impact.

Government Initiatives: Providing data on government spending on initiatives like the National Adaptation Fund, indicating a commitment to supporting CSA.

Critical Analysis:

Urgency of Action: Emphasizing the urgency of addressing climate change’s impact on agriculture and the need for a comprehensive approach like CSA.

Positive Outcomes: Discussing the positive outcomes of CSA, including economic autonomy for farmers and benefits to biodiversity conservation.

Localized Responses: Highlighting the importance of localized responses to climate change and the role of CSA in meeting international obligations.

Way Forward:

Investment in Capacity-Building:

Recommending continued investment in capacity-building programs for CSA to empower farmers with knowledge and resources.

Knowledge Dissemination:

Emphasizing the importance of providing practical tools and knowledge for the widespread adoption of CSA practices.

Triple Goals:

Stating the role of CSA in ensuring food security, empowering farmers, and protecting ecosystems, presenting a comprehensive approach.

Unique Juncture in India:

Recognizing the unique juncture in India where CSA adoption is essential due to climate vulnerability and the agricultural sector’s significant contribution to the nation’s economy.

Mains Question:

  1. Discuss the significance of Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) in India, considering its role in addressing climate change, ensuring agricultural sustainability, and fostering economic autonomy for farmers. Examine the challenges and reforms required in the agricultural sector for effective CSA implementation. (150 Words)


December 4, 2023
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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