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July 4 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm


The Leader of Opposition (LoP) in the Lok Sabha (LS) plays a crucial role in the Indian parliamentary system. 

Recently, the LoP used the symbolic image of Lord Shiva and the ‘Abhay Mudra’ in Parliament to criticize the government’s actions against the idea of India and the Constitution. 

Leader of Opposition (LoP) in Lok Sabha 

Definition and Criteria 

  • Member of Parliament (MP): The LoP is an MP who is the leader of the largest opposition party in the LS. 
  • Minimum Seats: The opposition party must have at least one-tenth of the total seats in the LS. 

Roles and Responsibilities 

  • Committees: The LoP is a member of crucial committees such as Public Accounts (Chairman), Public Undertakings, Estimates, and several Joint Parliamentary Committees. 
  • Selection Committees: Involved in appointing heads of statutory bodies like the Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, CBI, NHRC, and Lokpal. 
  • Constructive Criticism: Provides constructive criticism of government policies and offers an alternative government. 

Legal and Constitutional Status 

  • Statutory Recognition: The office of the LoP in both Houses received statutory recognition under the Salaries and Allowances of Leader of Opposition in Parliament Act, 1977. 
  • Entitlements: Entitled to the salary, allowances, and other facilities equivalent to that of a cabinet minister. 
  • Constitutional Mention: The office of the LoP is not mentioned in the Constitution. 

Abhay Mudra 


  • Mudras: Hand gestures used in Indian dance, yoga, and meditation practices to convey meanings and emotions. 
  • Prana: Mudras facilitate the flow of prana (vital energy) in the body and have therapeutic benefits. 

Specific Mudras 

  • Dance and Meditation: Used in Indian classical dance to convey emotions and themes, and in yoga/meditation for concentration and relaxation. 
  • Buddhist Art: Retained five main mudras for Buddha representations: DharmaChakra Mudra, Bhumisparsha Mudra, Varada Mudra, Dhyana Mudra, and Abhay Mudra. 

Abhay Mudra 

  • Gesture of Fearlessness: Represents fearlessness with the right hand facing outward at shoulder height, fingers pointing upwards. 
  • Origin: Associated with Lord Buddha after enlightenment, symbolizing security, serenity, and compassion. 
  • Buddha Taming the Elephant: Represents the moment Buddha tamed a mad elephant, showing his ability to grant fearlessness. 
  • Other Religions: Found in Christian and Jain iconography. 

Other Types of Mudras in Buddhism 

DharmaChakra Mudra 

  • Hand Position: Hands in front of the chest, thumb and index finger forming a circle, other fingers extended upwards. 
  • Symbolism: Represents the Three Jewels of Buddhism and the initiation of teaching the Dharma. 

Bhumisparsha Mudra 

  • Hand Position: Right hand touching the ground, left hand on the lap. 
  • Symbolism: Represents Buddha’s enlightenment and the earth witnessing his attainment. 

Varada Mudra 

  • Hand Position: Right hand extended downward, palm facing outwards. 
  • Symbolism: Represents the five perfections: generosity, morality, patience, effort, and meditative concentration. 

Dhyana Mudra 

  • Hand Position: Hands on the lap, right hand on top of the left, thumbs touching. 
  • Symbolism: Represents meditation, concentration, and inner peace. 

Anjali Mudra 

  • Hand Position: Palms together in front of the chest, fingers pointing upwards. 
  • Symbolism: Represents respect, greeting, and gratitude. 

Vitarka Mudra 

  • Hand Position: Right hand up, thumb and index finger forming a circle. 
  • Symbolism: Represents the transmission of knowledge and the Buddha’s teachings. 

Uttarabodhi Mudra 

  • Hand Position: Left hand fingers pointing upward, right hand fingers pointing downward, thumbs together creating a triangle. 
  • Symbolism: Represents the union of wisdom and compassion. 

Karana Mudra 

  • Hand Position: Left hand at the heart, index and little fingers pointing upward. 
  • Symbolism: Symbolizes protection and dispelling negativity. 

Jnana Mudra 

  • Hand Position: Index finger and thumb forming a circle, other fingers extended outwards. 
  • Symbolism: Represents the unity of individual and universal consciousness. 

Tarjani Mudra 

  • Hand Position: Index finger extended upward, other fingers curled towards the palm. 
  • Symbolism: Represents warning or protection against evil forces. 


  • The LoP plays a significant role in Indian democracy by providing checks and balances to government policies. 
  • The use of symbolic gestures like the Abhay Mudra highlights the importance of cultural and historical references in political discourse. 
  • Understanding the roles and responsibilities of the LoP and the significance of mudras enriches our comprehension of India’s political and cultural landscape. 


July 4
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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