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June 4 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm



The right to property has been a contentious and evolving issue in the constitutional history of post-colonial India. Once envisioned as a fundamental right akin to liberty, property rights have witnessed a tumultuous journey characterized by a persistent tug-of-war between the judiciary and the legislature. 

 This battle has shaped the contours of property rights through landmark amendments and pivotal Supreme Court decisions. 

Early Struggles 

  • Bela Banerjee Case: The Supreme Court ruled that compensation for property acquisition must be a “just equivalent.” 
  • Fourth Amendment (1955): Amended Article 31(2) to prevent courts from questioning compensation adequacy. 

Legislative and Judicial Tussles 

  • Courts’ Response: Devised that while final compensation wasn’t justiciable, principles to determine it were open to review. 
  • Twenty-Fifth Amendment (1971): Replaced “compensation” with “amount” to avoid judicial scrutiny on adequacy. 

Landmark Judgements and Significant Constitutional Changes 

  • Kesavananda Bharati Case: Supreme Court upheld the Amendment but allowed courts to examine principles behind compensation. 
  • Shift to Socialist Goals: Parliament aimed for a socialist state, seeing property rights as bourgeoisie strongholds. 
  • Forty-Fourth Amendment (1978): Deleted Article 19(1)(f) and Article 31, moved property rights to Article 300-A as a constitutional right. 

Judicial Interpretations 

  • Justice K.K. Mathew: Asserted property ownership’s link to civilization quality. 
  • Prof. P.K. Tripathi: Critiqued deletion of Article 31; emphasized the need for compensation in property acquisition. 

Recent Developments 

  • M.C. Mehta Case: Supreme Court ruled that property deprivation laws must be just, fair, and reasonable. 
  • B.K. Ravichandra Case: Stated that Article 300-A has similarities with Articles 21 and 265, ensuring strong protection. 

Kolkata Municipal Corporation Decision 

  • Seven Protected Facets: Identified by the Supreme Court include notice, hearing, reasoned decision, public purpose, fair compensation, efficient process, and conclusion. 
  • Reaffirmation of Compensation: Reinforced that compensation must be just and reasonable, echoing the Bela Banerjee case. 
  • Full Circle: Modern interpretation reinstates robust protection for property rights as envisaged by Prof. P.K. Tripathi. 


Before 1978: The right to property was a fundamental right under Article 19(1)(f) and Article 31 of the Constitution. This meant it had strong protection from government interference. 

1978 Amendment: The 44th amendment in 1978 downgraded the right to property from a fundamental right to a constitutional right. This was done to allow the government to acquire land for public purposes more easily. Article 300-A was introduced, stating that “no person shall be deprived of his property except by authority of law.” 

The government can still acquire private property, but it must be done legally. 

Right to Property in India: A Shift in Status 

Initially a Fundamental Right: 

  • Guaranteed by Articles 19(1)(f) and 31. 
  • Freedom to acquire, hold, and dispose of property. 
  • Protection against deprivation without legal justification. 

The Need for Change: 1st Amendment (1951): 

  • Recognized need for social reforms (land redistribution). 
  • Paved the way for limitations on the right to property. 
  • Addressed social inequalities. 

A Dramatic Shift: 44th Amendment (1978): 

  • Removed right to property from fundamental rights category. 
  • Articles 19(1)(f) and 31 omitted. 
  • Downgraded the right’s status. 

The Rise of Article 300-A: A New Legal Right: 

  • Acknowledges right to property, but as a legal right. 
  • Subject to legal regulations and restrictions. 

Current Status: A Balanced Approach (Article 300-A): 

  • No deprivation of property without legal authorization. 
  • Right is not absolute, can be regulated for the greater good. 

Landmark Cases and their Influence: 

  • A K Gopalan v. State of Madras (1950) – Balancing act with state power. 
  • Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala (1973) – Basic structure doctrine (indirect influence). 
  • Minerva Mills Ltd. v. Union of India (1980) – Upheld amendment, clarified right remains (constitutional, not fundamental). 
  • Jilubhai Nanbhai Khachar v. State of Gujrat (1995) – Right to property not part of basic structure. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. Consider the following statements about Right to Property in India:
  1. Right to Property is a fundamental right guaranteed by the Constitution. 
  1. The government can acquire private property for public purposes without compensation. 

Which of the following statements is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only 
  1. 2 only 
  1. Both 1 and 2 
  1. Neither 1 nor 2 



Right to Property was initially a fundamental right under Articles 19(1)(f) and 31 of the Constitution. However, the 44th Amendment (1978) removed it from the list of fundamental rights. 

Article 300-A, introduced by the 44th Amendment, now guarantees the right to property as a legal right, not a fundamental right. This means the government can acquire private property for public purposes with compensation as determined by law. 



As India embarks on its journey towards Amrit Kaal, the path for the agriculture sector is fraught with challenges. Despite the critical role agriculture plays in the nation’s economy and livelihood of millions, the sector has struggled to evolve from outdated models, leaving farmers without dignified livelihoods.  

The road ahead is further complicated by irreversible climate change, unfair international trade practices, and the inherent limitations of small land holdings. Additionally, the global push for low food prices and the escalating water crisis add to the sector’s woes. 

Current Problems 

  • Climate Change: Irreversible changes leading to erratic weather, impacting crop production and livelihoods. 
  • World Trade Organisation: Unfair rules and a weakened dispute-settlement mechanism, limiting India’s flexibility. 
  • Small Land Holdings: 85% of arable land is in small holdings, making dignified livelihoods difficult for farmers. 
  • Low Food Prices: Global priorities for low consumer prices reduce farm-gate prices, making farming unsustainable. 
  • Water Scarcity: Depleting aquifers threaten irrigation viability, and drinking water is becoming scarce. 

Areas Needing Action 

  • Agricultural Research: Investment in research and extension services is below inflation levels, reducing economic returns. 
  • Market Inequities: Agricultural markets are unfair and state governments often prioritize short-term populist measures over long-term investments. 
  • Public Distribution System: Low prices for cereals through the system drive down farm-gate prices, making farming unviable. 
  • Input Subsidies: Skewed subsidies, like those for fertilizers, lead to overuse, harming health and the environment. 
  • Public Debt: High debt levels reduce financial flexibility for long-term planning; some states are nearly bankrupt. 
  • Governance: Inept governance and lack of accountability in agriculture ministries hinder progress, often due to overconfidence among leaders. 

Key Challenge 

  • Inclusive Growth: Focus on not just improving productivity but ensuring sustainable and broadly shared productivity gains. 
  • Urgency: Immediate, fundamental changes are needed in policy framing to avoid worsening the situation. 


GDP (Gross Domestic Product): 

  • Current Status (around 18%) 
  • India’s agricultural sector contributes around 18% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as of 2022-23. This signifies a decline from its share of 35% in 1990-91. 
  • Reason for Decline The decline is not due to a decrease in agricultural output, but rather a rapid expansion in the industrial and service sectors of the economy. 


  • Significant Share (around 58%) The agriculture sector employs a significant portion of the Indian workforce, estimated to be around 58%. This highlights its role in providing livelihood opportunities for a large section of the population. 

GVA (Gross Value Added): 

Fluctuating Share (around 18%) The share of agriculture and allied sectors (including forestry, fishing, and livestock) in India’s Gross Value Added (GVA) has fluctuated around 18% in recent years. While it reached a high of 20.2% in 2020-21, it has settled around 18.3% in 2022-23. 

Budgetary Contributions to the Agri Sector in India 

Percentage of the total budget allocated for the agricultural sector can vary slightly year to year, it typically falls around 2.5% to 3%.Direct Income Support Schemes: 

  • A significant portion of the budget goes towards schemes that provide direct financial assistance to farmers.  
  • PM-Kisan Samman Nidhi: This scheme provides income support of Rs. 6,000 per year in three installments to eligible small and marginal farmers. 
  • While these schemes offer some relief, some argue that a larger allocation towards development initiatives might be more beneficial in the long run. 

Agricultural Credit: 

  • The government sets ambitious targets for agricultural credit disbursal every year. This aims to ensure easy access to loans for farmers at subsidized interest rates. 
  • In the 2024 Interim Budget, the target was raised to Rs. 20 lakh crore, emphasizing the importance placed on credit availability. 

Challenges and Considerations: 

  • Distribution and Effectiveness: Ensuring that budgetary allocations reach the intended beneficiaries and achieve their desired impact remains a challenge. 
  • Focus on Welfare vs. Development: The balance between direct income support schemes and investments in long-term development initiatives is a point of ongoing discussion. 
  • Transparency and Accountability: Effective monitoring and evaluation of how these funds are used is crucial to maximize their impact. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. Consider the following statements about Minimum Support Price (MSP) in India:
  1. MSP is a guaranteed price at which the government directly purchases crops from farmers. 
  1. All agricultural crops grown in India have a pre-determined MSP. 

Which of the following statements is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only 
  1. 2 only 
  1. Both 1 and 2 
  1. Neither 1 nor 2 



The government does not directly purchase crops from farmers at MSP. Instead, it announces MSP before the sowing season to act as a price floor. If market prices fall below MSP, government agencies or designated procurement agencies intervene and buy crops at MSP from farmers to prevent distress sales. 

MSP is announced for a select number of major agricultural crops, not all crops grown in India. The government aims to cover key food grains and some other commercially important crops under MSP. 

Additional Information: 

MSP is recommended by the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) based on various factors like cost of production and market prices. 

The effectiveness of MSP in supporting farmers’ income is a subject of debate. While it offers a safety net, challenges in procurement infrastructure and timely payments can limit its reach. 



In response to the severe heatwave conditions, the Delhi government has announced the closure of all anganwadi centres for one month, until June 30. This measure aims to protect the health and safety of children and mothers who are the primary beneficiaries of these centres. 

Government Measures 

  • Closure of Anganwadi Centres 
  • All Anganwadi centres in Delhi will remain closed until June 30. 
  • The decision was taken to safeguard the health and safety of children and mothers from the extreme heat. 

Provision of Supplementary Nutrition 

  • Take Home Ration (THR): During the closure, the government will provide supplementary nutrition food items directly to beneficiaries’ doorsteps. 
  • Target Beneficiaries: Children aged 3-6 years, who usually receive hot-cooked meals at the centres, will benefit from this initiative. 

Official Statements and Compliance 

  • Minister’s Statement: Women and Child Development Minister Kailash Gahlot emphasized the importance of ensuring the health and safety of children and mothers. He stated that doorstep delivery of supplementary nutrition will help beneficiaries avoid the extreme heat. 
  • Compliance and Monitoring: The Secretary of the Women and Child Development (WCD) department has been directed to ensure compliance with the order and to provide daily reports. 

Anganwadi’s: Combating Malnutrition at the Grassroots  

A 2016 study by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) found a decrease in stunting (low height-for-age) in children who received anganwadi services 

  • Launched in 1975 under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, anganwadis are India’s village-level centers dedicated to child and maternal well-being. 

Role in Nutrition: 

  • Supplementary Nutrition: Anganwadis provide hot cooked meals or take-home rations (THR) to children aged 3-6 and pregnant/lactating mothers. These rations are rich in essential nutrients like protein, iron, and vitamins, crucial for growth and development 
  • Nutrition Education: Anganwadi workers (AWWs) educate mothers on infant and young child feeding practices, promoting healthy dietary habits for children  
  • Early Identification: AWWs monitor children’s growth and identify cases of malnutrition for timely intervention and referral to health services. 
  • Impact on Malnutrition: Studies suggest a positive impact of anganwadis on reducing malnutrition. 
  • Accessibility and Affordability of Healthcare: Significant challenge in providing healthcare to rural populations, especially mothers and children. 
  • Establishment of Social Connections within the Community: Anganwadi centres offer women involvement opportunities within their communities. 
  • Nutritional Support: Essential for healthy physical and mental development in children. Adequate early childhood nutrition increases chances of healthy adulthood. 
  • Holistic development of a child’s social, emotional, cognitive, and physical needs. 
  • Provides information on proper healthcare practices, nutrition, and hygiene. Offers counselling on family planning, immunizations, and education. 
  • Poverty Alleviation: Addresses health and nutritional needs, contributing to poverty reduction. Healthy, well-nourished individuals can better participate in education and employment opportunities. 
  • Women Empowerment: Employs a significant number of female workers, contributing to their empowerment. 

Government Initiatives 

  • Collaboration with MGNREGA: Building 400,000 Anganwadi Centres nationwide. 
  • Digitalization of Services: Use of smartphones for POSHAN tracking systems. 
  • Enhanced Training Approach: Comprehensive training strategy for Anganwadi workers. 

Challenges in Functioning of Anganwadi Services 

  • Cramped and Poorly Ventilated Centres: Many centres lack adequate space and ventilation, hindering children’s play and learning. 
  • Insufficient AWCs: Discrepancies between approved and functioning centres, with disparities ranging from 2% to 8.37%. 
  • Lack of Basic Facilities: Over 80% of rural Anganwadi centres lack basic toilet facilities and access to safe drinking water. 
  • Lack of Awareness: Communities often lack awareness about the role and services of Anganwadi centres. 
  • Operational Ineffectiveness: Many Anganwadi workers lack essential devices like smartphones, impacting their effectiveness. 
  • Issues with Budgetary Allocation: Inconsistent budget allocations and insufficient rental budgets for centres. 
  • Inadequate Human Capital: Significant number of vacant positions for supervisors, workers, and helpers in several states. 
  • Lack of Proper Training: Initial training is insufficient to prepare workers for the multifaceted challenges they face. 


Despite challenges, Anganwadi’s play a significant role in providing crucial nutrition and promoting healthy practices to combat malnutrition in India. Continued efforts to address staffing shortages, ensure delivery efficiency, and maintain quality control are essential for maximizing their impact. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. Consider the following statements about Anganwadi’s and Poshan Abhiyaan (National Nutrition Mission):
  1. Anganwadi’s are village-level outreach centres offering pre-school education and supplementary nutrition to children under 6 and pregnant/lactating mothers. 
  1. Poshan Abhiyaan aims to reduce stunting in children under 6 years by 2% annually, but does not involve Anganwadi’s in its implementation strategy. 

Which of the following statements is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only 
  1. 2 only 
  1. Both 1 and 2 
  1. Neither 1 nor 2 



Anganwadis are a crucial component of the ICDS program and provide a range of services, including supplementary nutrition through hot cooked meals or take-home rations, to targeted beneficiaries. 

Poshan Abhiyaan, launched in 2018, aims to improve nutritional outcomes across the country. It leverages existing platforms like anganwadis for service delivery and capacity building of anganwadi workers (AWWs) to strengthen the program’s reach and effectiveness. 

Additional Points: 

Poshan Abhiyaan focuses on convergence of various ministries and schemes to address malnutrition holistically. 

AWWs play a key role in Poshan Abhiyaan by raising awareness on nutrition, promoting dietary diversity, and monitoring child growth. 



As India envisions its future with the ambitious plan for Viksit Bharat 2047, marking 100 years of Independence, the journey towards becoming a developed nation requires careful contemplation. While the allure of transforming into a developed country akin to the US or UK is strong, it is crucial to define what true development means for India. 

Historical insights from India’s rich past, coupled with lessons from global examples, challenge the conventional notion of development. 

Definition of Development 

  • Common Vision: High infrastructure, urban amenities, quality goods/services similar to the US or UK. 
  • Historical Perspective: Indian historical models like the Harappan Civilisation offer alternative development views. 

Urban Planning 

  • Indus Valley Civilisation: Early planned cities with sewage systems. 
  • Mughal Era: Wealthy nation with homes designed based on vaastu for energy efficiency and comfort. 
  • Traditional Wisdom: Use of natural elements in architecture for health and psychological benefits. 

Modern Urban Challenges 

  • Western Influence: Current cities modeled after Western designs with high-rise buildings. 
  • Slum Redevelopment: Projects like Dharavi’s redevelopment replace community living with isolated high-rise apartments. 
  • Community and Nature: Traditional living close to nature and community has mental and physical health benefits. 

Alternative Models 

  • Saudi Arabia’s NEOM: Futuristic city project, later scaled back, raising questions on its practicality. 
  • Bhutan’s GNH: Measures progress by Gross National Happiness instead of GDP. 

Key Considerations for Viksit Bharat 

  • Meaning of Development: Need to redefine development considering India’s history and unique needs. 
  • Learning from the Past and Others: Combining traditional wisdom with modern needs to create a model that ensures a happy, thriving society. 
  • Inclusive Growth: Development that values community, environment, and well-being over mere economic growth. 



Recent study shows rock and ash from Hunga-Tonga eruption collapsed into the ocean, creating fast-moving, destructive underwater debris flow. 


About Hunga-Tonga  

  • Location: Hunga-Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai (HTHH) is a submarine stratovolcano in the Tongan archipelago, southern Pacific Ocean. 
  • Components: Includes small islands (Hunga Tonga, Hunga Ha’apai) and shallow reefs on a larger submarine edifice. 
  • Proximity: 30 km south of Fonuafoʻou volcano, 65 km north of Tongatapu (main island of Tonga). 
  • Volcanic Arc: Part of the active Tonga-Kermadec Islands volcanic arc, extending from New Zealand to Fiji. 
  • Formation: Created by subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Indo-Australian Plate. 
  • Activity: Erupts regularly over the past decades. 

Stratovolcano Characteristics 

  • Shape: Tall, steep, cone shaped. 
  • Comparison: Higher peaks than flat shield volcanoes. 

  • Location: Found above subduction zones, often in active volcanic regions like the Ring of Fire. 
  • Composition: Mostly (~60%) of Earth’s volcanoes; eruptions usually involve andesite and dacite lavas, which are cooler and more viscous than basalt. 
  • Eruptions: Viscous lavas build up gas pressures, leading to explosive eruptions. 
  • Structure: Comprised of half lava, half pyroclastic material, leading to layered structure known as composite volcanoes. 
  • Crater: Small crater at the peak, potentially filled with water, ice, or a volcanic dome during inactivity. 



Scientists at the Institute of Advanced Virology (IAV), Thiruvananthapuram, have developed a novel method to create non-infectious Nipah virus-like particles (VLPs) in the lab. This breakthrough holds significant potential for vaccine development against the Nipah virus.


About Virus-like Particles (VLPs) 

  • Definition: VLPs resemble viruses but are non-infectious due to the lack of viral genetic material. 
  • Vaccine Use: Effective in creating vaccines for diseases like HPV, hepatitis B, and malaria. 
  • Immune Response: VLPs trigger an immune response without causing disease symptoms, leading to future immunity. 

Structure of VLPs 

  • Size: VLPs are tiny, with a radius of 20 to 200 nm, allowing them to enter lymph nodes easily. 
  • Composition: Composed of structural proteins, sometimes arranged in multiple layers. 
  • Outer Envelope: May include an outer lipid layer that protects the inner genetic material. 
  • Production Methods: Can be created using bacterial, yeast, insect, or mammalian cells. 
  • Immunogenic Response: High-density epitopes display and multiple protein presentation enhance immune response. 
  • Nanomachine Use: Employed to deliver active pharmaceutical products to specific body sites and cells. 

Key Facts about Nipah Virus 

  • Transmission: Zoonotic virus transmitted from animals to humans, through contaminated food, or directly between people. 
  • Symptoms: Causes illnesses ranging from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory illness and fatal encephalitis. 
  • Animal Impact: Affects animals like pigs, causing significant economic losses. 
  • History: First outbreak in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999. 
  • Treatment: No specific drugs or vaccines; intensive supportive care is recommended for severe cases. 

This innovation by IAV scientists is a promising step towards developing a vaccine for the Nipah virus, potentially preventing future outbreaks and saving lives. 



The Pench Tiger Reserve (PTR) in Maharashtra recently captured the first photographic evidence of the spot-bellied eagle-owl. This significant sighting highlights the diverse wildlife present in the reserve. 

About Spot-Bellied Eagle Owl 

  • Scientific Name: Ketupa nipalensis 
  • Common Names: Spot-bellied eagle-owl, forest eagle-owl 


  • Habitat: Found in tropical and subtropical forests, woodlands, and savannas. 
  • Regions: India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and parts of Southeast Asia. 



  • Length: 50 to 65 cm 
  • Weight: 1500 to 1700 grams 
  • Wingspan: Up to 1.7 meters 


  • Upper body: Rich chocolate brown with white spots. 
  • Wings and Tail: Barred with alternating brown and white shades. 
  • Belly and Breast: Light cream color with bold black spots. 


  • Primarily nocturnal. 
  • Apex predator: Diet includes rodents, small mammals, reptiles, and insects. 
  • Solitary and territorial, maintaining a home range. 

Conservation Status 

  • IUCN Status: Least Concern 
  • Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule IV 
  • CITES: Appendix II 


June 4
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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