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April 6 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm



Many states in India are facing a water crisis due to stress on surface and groundwater sources, exacerbated by urbanization.

  • Over-extraction and sewage mismanagement have deteriorated groundwater quality, making it unfit for consumption.

ASR as a Solution:

  • Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) involves injecting surface water into local aquifers through recharge wells or shafts for future use.
  • Pilot Projects: States like Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Telangana have initiated pilot projects under Managed Aquifer Recharge interventions.


Research Findings:

  • DOC Contamination: Injecting polluted surface water with high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into aquifers can worsen groundwater quality.
  • DOC Attenuation: Microbial biodegradation reduces organic carbon concentration, improving water quality.
  • DIR Process: Dissimilatory Iron Reduction (DIR) facilitates DOC attenuation by providing iron as an electron acceptor for microbial activity.


 Traditional methods of water conservation have been employed across various regions of India for centuries, showcasing indigenous wisdom and sustainable practices.

These methods involve harvesting rainwater and storing it for future use, as well as recharging groundwater.

Here are some examples of traditional water conservation methods in different Indian regions:

  • Rajasthan: Utilizes structures such as tanks, khadins, and nadis to capture and store rainwater, ensuring availability during dry periods.
  • Maharashtra: Implements tals and bandharas, which are traditional reservoirs or check dams, to capture rainwater runoff and prevent soil erosion.
  • Karnataka: Relies on kattas, which are stone structures built across streams or rivers to divert water for irrigation and domestic use.
  • Himachal Pradesh: Implements kuhls, which are small channels or aqueducts used to divert water from streams or rivers for agricultural purposes.
  • Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh: Utilizes bundhis, which are earthen embankments or small dams constructed across streams or rivers to store water for irrigation.
  • Kerala: Implements surangams, which are traditional tunnel wells dug into hillsides to tap into groundwater sources and provide water for drinking and irrigation.

Role of Nitrate:

  • Presence of nitrate enhances DOC attenuation process and transforms amorphous iron compounds into crystalline ones, vital for DIR.
  • Microbial Activity: Nitrate acts as an electron acceptor for microbial metabolism, aiding in reducing DOC concentration.

Importance of ASR:

  • ASR is considered a vital solution for addressing environmental concerns and escalating water demands.
  • It’s crucial to improve both water quantity and quality, especially in vulnerable areas.
  • Findings from research can be replicated at larger scales to enhance water security.
  • Expert Endorsement: Sudhir Srivastava, senior scientist at Central Groundwater Board, supports the study, emphasizing the significance of low Dissolved Oxygen concentrations and nitrate presence in facilitating the oxidation of organic carbon compounds during the ASR process.

ASR presents a promising solution to India’s water problems, emphasizing the importance of ensuring water quality alongside quantity for sustainable water management.

Previous year question:

  1. Identify the organism that functions as a filter feeder:
    1. Catfish
    2. Octopus
    3. Oyster
    4. Pelican



The conclusion of the 17th Lok Sabha on a Saturday prompts us to assess the state of parliamentary involvement in India. It is essential to assess how well the Lok Sabha has performed and how effectively the Parliament has overseen legislative matters.

Performance of Ministries:

Changing Focus:

  • Ministries like Health and Family Welfare and Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare have become more important, indicating shifting priorities.
  • However, there’s less attention on national security and internal matters, with the Ministry of Home Affairs losing prominence.

Economic Outlook:

  • The Ministry of Finance, responsible for the country’s finances, has seen reduced interest from lawmakers, signalling a need for more attention in financial matters.
  • Despite the COVID-19 challenges, education remains a key concern, although there are worries about the effectiveness of oversight in this area.

Utilization of Parliamentary Tools

More Use of Zero Hour:

  • There’s been a significant rise in Zero Hour usage, showing a focus on pressing issues and clarifications from the government.
  • However, other parliamentary tools are being used less, highlighting the need for a balanced approach to address various issues.



Question Hour in Indian Parliament

  • Scheduled period at the beginning of parliamentary sessions for MPs to ask questions to ministers regarding public interest matters.
  • Typically occurs during the first hour of each sitting in both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

Types of Questions:

Starred Questions:

  • Require oral answers from ministers.MPs can ask supplementary questions.
  • Printed in green color.

Unstarred Questions:

  • Require written answers from ministers. MPs cannot ask supplementary questions.
  • Printed in white color.

Short Notice Questions:

  • Can be asked with less than 10 days’ notice. Answered orally.
  • Printed in light pink color.

Questions to Private Members:

  • MPs can ask questions to private members on relevant matters.
  • Printed in yellow color.
  • Purpose: Facilitates accountability of the executive to the legislature and provides a platform for MPs to seek information on various issues.

Zero Hour in Indian Parliament

  • Unscheduled period following Question Hour until regular business is taken up.
  • Timing: Immediately after Question Hour.


  • Allows MPs to raise matters without prior notice.
  • Not mentioned in parliamentary rules, making it an informal device.
  • Provides an avenue for addressing urgent issues and grievances.

No-Confidence Motion

  • Expression of lack of confidence in the Council of Ministers, leading to the fall of the government.
  • Allows the Lok Sabha to voice dissatisfaction with the government’s performance or policies.
  • If passed, results in the resignation of the government or dissolution of the House.

Calling Attention Motion

  • Raises issues of public importance for a reply from the concerned minister without oral discussion.
  • Draws attention to specific matters requiring immediate attention and clarification.
  • Provides an avenue for addressing concerns without engaging in lengthy debates.

Short Duration Discussion

  • Allows brief discussion on recent occurrences for which the government is not directly responsible.
  • Provides an opportunity for MPs to express views and concerns on emerging issues.
  • Covers topics of public interest that do not require extensive deliberation.
  • Offers flexibility in parliamentary proceedings and enables MPs to highlight pressing concerns for immediate attention.

Previous year question:

  1. Regarding the Parliament of India, assess the following statements:
  2. A private member’s bill is a legislative proposition introduced by a Member of Parliament who is nominated by the President of India rather than being elected.
  3. Recently, the Parliament of India passed a private member’s bill for the first instance in its history.

Which of the statements provided above is/are accurate?

  1. Only statement 1
  2. Only statement 2
  3. Both statements 1 and 2
  4. Neither statement 1 nor statement 2



The Supreme Court halted the enforcement of an Allahabad High Court ruling that invalidated a 20-year-old law regulating madrasas in Uttar Pradesh. The High Court’s decision mandated the transfer of madrasa students to mainstream schools.

  • A three-judge Bench led by Chief Justice of India issued an interim order suspending the implementation of the High Court’s verdict, despite the Uttar Pradesh government’s acceptance of the judgment.
  • Initially, Uttar Pradesh vigorously defended the Uttar Pradesh Board of Madrasa Education Act, 2004, in the High Court.
  • However, it ultimately acknowledged the High Court’s stance that the Act posed a threat to secular principles and violated the Constitution’s Basic Structure.


  • The State asserted that madrasas’ curriculum lacked diverse subjects like mathematics, science, and social studies.
  • Court questioned how invalidating the regulation of madrasas would ensure students receive instruction in these subjects, emphasizing the importance of a well-rounded education.



 (NCERT) has proposed changes, including the addition of DNA analysis findings from Rakhigarhi in the Class 12 history book and the exclusion of references to the Narmada Dam project’s impact on tribal communities in the sociology book.

These changes reflect new insights into the genetic roots of the Harappans, suggesting continuity in South Asian populations and dispelling theories of large-scale Aryan migration.

Genetic History of Harappans:

  • NCERT proposes adding findings from DNA analysis of Rakhigarhi skeletal remains to Class 12 history textbooks.
  • DNA study suggests genetic continuity of Harappans dating back to 10,000 BC, ruling out large-scale Aryan migration.

Impact of Narmada Dam:

  • References to adverse effects of Narmada Dam project on tribal communities dropped from sociology textbooks.
  • Original sentence altered to state that the dam displaced adivasis from their habitats without mentioning adverse consequences.

Babri Masjid Demolition:

  • NCERT eliminates mentions of the Babri Masjid demolition from political science textbooks.
  • Emphasis was placed on Ram Janmabhoomi Temple movement instead.

Social Group Characteristics:

  • Sentence highlighting poverty, powerlessness, and social stigma faced by Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes removed from sociology textbooks.

Continuity of Indian Genetic History:

  • Research indicates unbroken genetic continuity in Indian population, with Harappans considered indigenous to the region based on DNA analysis of Rakhigarhi remains.

Challenges Associated with Changes in NCERT Syllabus

Implementation Challenges:

  • Sudden removal and addition of topics may require additional training for teachers.
  • Schools may need to invest in new resources like updated textbooks.

Controversial Changes:

  • Removal of topics like Babri Masjid demolition has raised concerns about political motives.
  • Some view changes as an attempt to rewrite history to fit a specific agenda.

Impact on Student Learning:

  • Removal of key historical events or figures may lead to biased understanding or incomplete knowledge.

Resistance to Change:

  • Stakeholders, including teachers, students, and parents, may resist changes, seeing them as unnecessary or undermining the education system’s credibility.

Unequal Access to Resources:

  • Schools may face challenges in affording new resources, leading to unequal access based on socioeconomic background.

Impact on Standardized Tests:

  • Changes in syllabus could affect standardized tests and college admissions, which often assess knowledge based on the old syllabus.

What should be done:

  • Engage in Constructive Dialogue
  • Conduct Thorough Research and Analysis
  • Ensure Diversity and Inclusivity
  • Provide Adequate Training to Teachers



 Recently, India successfully tested the Agni-Prime missile. It’s part of the Agni series, known for its nuclear capabilities, developed by the DRDO and tested by the SFC.

Key Features:

  • Agni-Prime is a two-stage, lighter missile compared to its predecessors, with enhanced guidance and propulsion systems. Its weight reduction allows for easier transport by road and rail and longer storage periods

Range and Capabilities:

  • This new missile has a range between 1,000 to 2,000 kilometers, making it suitable for various strategic purposes.
  • It employs a cold launch mechanism, facilitating rapid deployment and firing in salvo mode if needed.


Ballistic Missile Overview:

  • Ballistic missiles are weapons launched directly into the upper atmosphere, where they travel outside Earth’s atmosphere.
  • They carry payloads, such as conventional or nuclear warheads, and upon reaching a certain altitude, they detach from the missile and descend toward their target.

Launch Platforms:

  • Ballistic missiles can be launched from various platforms including land, submarines, ships, and aircraft, making them versatile tools for military strategy and defence.

Previous year question:

  1. Consider the following statements:
  2. Ballistic missiles maintain jet propulsion at subsonic speeds throughout their flights, whereas cruise missiles rely on rocket propulsion solely during the initial phase of flight.
  3. Agni-V is categorized as a medium-range supersonic cruise missile, while BrahMos is classified as a solid-fueled intercontinental ballistic missile.

Which of the statements above is/are correct?

  1. Only statement 1
  2. Only statement 2
  3. Both statements 1 and 2
  4. Neither statement 1 nor statement 2



Paira cropping is a traditional agricultural practice mainly found in regions like Bihar, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, and Odisha.

  • It entails planting lentil, lathyrus, urdbean, or mungbean seeds within the mature rice crop approximately two weeks before its harvest.
  • This relay method doesn’t require additional agronomic interventions like tillage, weeding, irrigation, or fertilization.


  • Paira cropping capitalizes on the moisture present in the soil at the time of rice harvest, which would otherwise be lost.
  • Research indicates that lentil yield is higher in paira cropping compared to conventional planting methods after rice harvest.

Efficient Resource Utilization:

  • This practice optimizes resource use for sustainable crop intensification, enhancing land productivity without relying on external inputs.

Climate Change Impact:

  • Despite its benefits, paira cropping has seen a decline due to climate change-induced challenges.
  • Sustaining and reviving this practice could contribute to resilient agriculture in affected regions.


  • Relay cropping involves planting a second crop before harvesting the first, optimizing land use and resource efficiency.
  • It capitalizes on residual nutrients and moisture from the initial crop, leading to enhanced yields and reduced soil erosion risk.
  • This method aids in weed control and provides additional income streams for farmers.
  • Overall, relay cropping promotes agricultural resilience and sustainability in varying environmental conditions.

Previous year question:

  1. How is biochar utilized in agriculture?
  2. Biochar can be incorporated into the growing medium for vertical farming.
  3. Incorporating biochar into the growing medium promotes the proliferation of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms.
  4. The inclusion of biochar in the growing medium facilitates prolonged water retention.

Which of the statements above is/are accurate?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2, and 3



Sannati Buddhist Site: Situated along the Bhima river near Kanaganahalli in Karnataka’s Kalaburagi district, gained attention after ASI excavations in the 1990s. It also houses the famous Chandrala Parameshwari Temple.

Historical Significance:

  • The site reveals three constructional phases spanning from the Maurya to Early and Later Satavahana periods, dating from the 3rd century B.C. to the 3rd century A.D.
  • The Ranamandala area offers a unique chronology from prehistoric to early historic times.

Major Findings:

  • Notable discoveries include an inscription in Prakrit using Brahmi script and a rare stone sculpture depicting Mauryan Emperor Ashoka surrounded by his queens and attendants.
  • Around 60 dome slabs depicting Jataka stories, life events of Buddha, and Shatavahana monarchs were also uncovered.

Nagavi Ghatikasthana:

  • Around 40 km from Sannati lies the ancient Nagavi Ghatikasthana, once likened to Takshashila of the South.
  • It served as a prominent education hub during the Rashtrakuta and Kalyana Chalukya dynasties between the 10th and 12th centuries.


Previous year question:

  1. Consider the following statements:
  2. The idea of the Stupa originates from Buddhism.
  3. Typically, a Stupa served as a storage place for relics.
  4. In the Buddhist tradition, the Stupa functioned as a votive and memorial structure.

Choose the correct answer:

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None



World Health Organization (WHO) introduced S.A.R.A.H., Smart AI Resource Assistant for Health. a digital health promoter prototype.

  • It utilizes generative artificial intelligence (AI) to offer empathetic responses and enhance user experience
  • WHO spearheads its launch with the aim to empower individuals in exercising their right to health, regardless of their location


  • A.R.A.H. is equipped to provide information on various health topics, including healthy habits and mental well-being.
  • It educates users about risk factors associated with major causes of death like cancer and heart disease.
  • Additionally, it offers guidance on quitting tobacco, maintaining physical activity, adopting a healthy diet, and managing stress.


  • Available 24/7 in eight languages, S.A.R.A.H. engages users across multiple health topics, accessible on any device.

Its transition to generative AI enhances its responsiveness, ensuring accurate real-time assistance.


April 6
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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