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06-July-2024-Daily-Current-Affairs

July 6 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm

KERALA VILLAGE COMPILES IN-DEPTH BIODIVERSITY REGISTER 

TOPIC: (GS3) SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY – SOURCE: THE HINDU 

The People’s Biodiversity Register (PBR) is a comprehensive documentation of the biodiversity present within a specific local body such as a grama panchayat, municipality, or corporation. It involves the identification of resources, discoveries, traditional knowledge, ongoing changes, and the impact of climate change on local biodiversity. 

 The register is instrumental in conservation efforts, sustainable resource utilization, and protection of traditional knowledge. Thazhakara grama panchayat in Kerala’s Alappuzha district is a noteworthy example, having recently published an updated and detailed PBR. 

Overview of Thazhakara Grama Panchayat’s PBR 

  • Location: Thazhakara grama panchayat, Alappuzha district, Kerala 
  • Significance: First panchayat in Alappuzha and one of the first in Kerala to publish a comprehensive PBR 
  • Document Details: 261-page document detailing regional biodiversity 

Key Findings of Thazhakara’s PBR 

  • Declining Species 
  • Indian Black Turtle (Indian Pond Terrapin) 

Reason for Decline: Poaching for meat 

  • Previous Status: Once common in Thazhakara 
  • Indian Garden Lizards, Barn Owls, Indian Flying Foxes 
  • Reason for Decline: Not specified, but generally includes habitat loss and human interference 
  • Plants (Henna and Palash) 
  • Conducted by: Trained volunteers 
  • Key Contributors: Local communities 

Role of PBR in Conservation 

  • Purpose: Conservation, sustainable resource utilization, protection of traditional knowledge 
  • Target for Updates: 50% of local bodies to update PBR by 2024 

Conclusion 

The People’s Biodiversity Register of Thazhakara grama panchayat serves as a vital tool for biodiversity conservation, offering a detailed account of the local ecosystem, species, and traditional knowledge. This initiative reflects the active involvement of local communities and sets a benchmark for other regions in Kerala and beyond. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the People’s Biodiversity Register (PBR) and its implementation in Thazhakara grama panchayat is/are correct?
  1. The Thazhakara grama panchayat in Kerala’s Alappuzha district has published a comprehensive PBR as the first panchayat in Alappuzha with local community involvement. 
  1. The PBR includes information on declining species such as the Indian black turtle due to poaching for meat. 
  1. The PBR has not provided any insights into medicinal plants and agricultural practices in the region. 
  1. The PBR document is static and does not require periodic updates. 

Select the correct answer using the code given below: 

  1. 1 and 2 only 
  1. 2 and 3 only 
  1. 1, 2, and 3 only 
  1. 1, 2, and 4 only 

ANSWER – A 

EXPLANATION: 

Thazhakara grama panchayat is the first in Alappuzha to publish a comprehensive PBR with community involvement. 

The PBR includes information on the declining population of the Indian black turtle due to poaching for meat. 

The PBR has provided insights into medicinal plants and agricultural practices. 

The PBR is a dynamic document requiring periodic updates. 

‘FOOD COSTS LIFT VEG THALI PRICE 10%’ 

TOPIC: (GS3) SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY – SOURCE: THE HINDU 

The cost of vegetarian and non-vegetarian meals in India rose significantly in June, driven by high inflation rates in essential food items. Crisil’s food cost tracker highlights these trends ahead of the official inflation data. 

Rising Food Plate Costs 

  • Increased by 10% year-on-year, hitting a six-month high. 
  • Cost in June: ₹29.4, a 6% increase from May. 

Non-Vegetarian Meal Costs: 

  • Increased by 4% sequentially, reaching ₹58, the highest since November. 
  • Despite a 4% rise from May, costs were 4% lower than the previous year. 

Key Drivers of Inflation 

  • Tomato, Onion, Potato (TOP): 
  • Tomato prices surged by 30%. 
  • Onion prices increased by 46%. 
  • Potato prices rose by 59%. 

Other Contributors: 

  • Rice prices up by 13% due to reduced acreage. 
  • Pulses prices increased by 22% due to a dry spell affecting production. 

Headline inflation: It captures the overall rise in prices consumers experience for a basket of goods, including volatile items like food and energy. 

Core inflation: It focuses on price changes excluding food and energy to give a clearer picture of underlying inflation trends. 

Headline vs. core: Volatility matters. Headline inflation can jump around more due to food and energy price swings, while core inflation is generally more stable. 

THALINOMICS 

Thalinomics is a term used to analyze the economics behind a thali, a traditional Indian platter meal consisting of various dishes. It’s basically studying how affordable, or expensive, a thali is and how these costs change over time. 

Thalinomics: 

  • What it is: It’s an indicator of how economic changes impact everyday life, especially food consumption costs for the average person in India. 
  • Why it’s important: By tracking thali prices, economists can understand trends in food affordability, inflation rates, and the general cost of living. 
  • How it’s used: The concept was introduced in the 2019-20 Economic Survey of India. Researchers looked at vegetarian and non-vegetarian thali prices in 25 states and union territories over a period of 13 years. This allowed them to see how affordable thalis became between 2006 and 2019. 

Thalinomics is a unique way to understand economic issues through the lens of a common Indian meal. 

Conclusion 

Crisil’s data indicates a continuing trend of rising food costs, reflecting broader inflationary pressures in essential commodities. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. Consider the following statements regarding headline inflation and core inflation in India:
  1. Headline inflation is calculated using the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and includes the prices of all goods and services. 
  1. Core inflation excludes the prices of food and fuel from the CPI basket. 
  1. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) prioritizes core inflation while formulating monetary policy. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only 
  1. 2 and 3 only 
  1. 1 and 3 only 
  1. 1, 2 and 3 

ANSWER – B 

EXPLANATION: 

Headline inflation is indeed calculated using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). CPI tracks the price changes of a basket of goods and services that households typically purchase. 

Core inflation excludes the prices of food and fuel from the CPI basket. This is done because food and fuel prices can be volatile due to seasonal variations, global factors, or temporary supply chain disruptions. Excluding them helps to isolate the underlying inflationary trends in the economy. 

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) prioritizes core inflation while formulating monetary policy. Since core inflation reflects the more persistent inflationary pressures, it provides a clearer picture of the long-term inflation trajectory. Headline inflation can be influenced by temporary factors, making it less suitable for guiding monetary policy decisions. 

AVOID ARREST OF BOYS WHO GO ON A DATE: HC IN RESPONSE TO PIL ON GENDER DISCRIMINATION 

TOPIC: (GS2) POLITY AND GOVERNANCE – SOURCE: THE HINDU 

The Uttarakhand High Court addressed the issue of arresting boys involved in teenage dating, emphasizing the need to reconsider such actions unless serious offenses are involved. 

Court Observations: 

  • Boys should not be arrested for dating unless they commit an offense under POCSO Act Sections 3 to 7. 
  • The State should consider if a statement under CrPC Section 161 suffices to avoid arrest. 

State’s Role: 

  • Potential issuance of general police directives. 
  • Boys could be advised against dating rather than being arrested. 

Public Interest Litigation (PIL): 

  • Filed by advocate Manish Bhandari. 
  • Addresses gender discrimination and wrongful arrests in teenage dating cases. 

PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION (PIL) 

Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in India is a legal mechanism that allows individuals or groups to seek judicial intervention in matters of public interest, ensuring justice for the marginalized and promoting accountability. 

History of PIL in India 

  • PIL was introduced in the late 1970s and early 1980s. 
  • Instrumental in broadening the access to justice for underprivileged and marginalized sections of society. 

Pioneering Cases: 

  • Hussainara Khatoon vs. State of Bihar (1979): Focused on the rights of prisoners and led to the release of thousands of undertrial prisoners. 
  • S.P. Gupta vs. Union of India (1981): Recognized the concept of PIL and expanded the scope of locus standi, allowing any public-spirited individual to file a PIL. 

Expansion in Scope: 

  • Bandhua Mukti Morcha vs. Union of India (1984): Addressed bonded labor issues, expanding PIL to include the rights of workers. 
  • Vishaka vs. State of Rajasthan (1997): Established guidelines for preventing sexual harassment at the workplace. 

Significant Developments: 

  • Environmental PILs: Cases like M.C. Mehta vs. Union of India led to significant environmental reforms, including the Ganga pollution case. 
  • Social Justice: PILs have addressed issues like child labor, human trafficking, and the right to education. 

Criticism and Concerns: 

  • Judicial Overreach: Critics argue that PILs can lead to judicial overreach, where courts interfere in executive and legislative domains. 
  • Frivolous PILs: Increasing instances of frivolous PILs have burdened the judiciary 

Conclusion 

The court highlights the importance of treating teenage dating situations with sensitivity and fairness, focusing on counseling rather than criminalizing young boys. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. Consider the following statements regarding Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in India:
  1. PIL allows individuals to approach the judiciary for addressing public grievances, even if they are not directly affected by the issue. 
  1. The concept of PIL was first recognized by the Supreme Court of India in the case of Vishaka vs. State of Rajasthan. 
  1. PILs have been instrumental in addressing issues related to environmental protection and human rights in India. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 2 only 
  1. 1 and 3 only 
  1. 2 and 3 only 
  1. 1, 2, and 3 

ANSWER – B 

EXPLANATION: 

PIL allows individuals to approach the judiciary for addressing public grievances, even if they are not directly affected by the issue. 

The concept of PIL was first recognized by the Supreme Court of India in the case of S.P. Gupta vs. Union of India (1981), not Vishaka vs. State of Rajasthan. 

PILs have been instrumental in addressing issues related to environmental protection and human rights in India. 

AFRICAN SWINE FEVER OUTBREAK REPORTED IN KERALA’S THRISSUR 

TOPIC: (GS3) SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY – SOURCE: BUSINESS STANDARD 

African Swine Fever (ASF) is a deadly pig disease with no cure. This outbreak highlights the importance of biosecurity measures in animal husbandry. 

  • Location: Madakkathara grama panchayat, Thrissur district, Kerala. 
  • Affected Farm: A private farm in Veliyanthara ward reported ASF cases. 

Control Measures: 

  • Culling: 310 pigs to be culled by a team of veterinarians and assistants. 
  • Disinfection: Disinfection measures will be taken around the affected farm. 
  • Movement Restrictions: Movement of pigs, pork, and feed banned within a 10 km radius. 

Impact: 

  • This outbreak can significantly impact pig farmers in the area. 
  • Travel restrictions may disrupt the pork supply chain. 

Further Action: 

  • Awareness campaigns to educate farmers about ASF prevention. 
  • Strict enforcement of biosecurity protocols at pig farms. 

AFRICAN SWINE FEVER (ASF) 

Cause: Viral (Asfarviridae family) – NOT bacterial 

Symptoms: 

  • High fever (up to 42°C) 
  • Loss of appetite 
  • Lethargy 
  • Reddened or darkened skin, especially ears and snout 
  • Diarrhea (may be bloody) 
  • Labored breathing and coughing 
  • Abortions, stillbirths, weak litters 
  • Sudden death without prior symptoms 

Diagnosis: 

  • Clinical signs: Observing the symptoms listed above. 
  • Laboratory tests: Analyzing blood or tissue samples for the ASF virus. 
  • Exclusion of other diseases: Ruling out other diseases with similar symptoms. 

Important Points: 

  • ASF is highly contagious and often fatal for domestic pigs. 
  • No vaccine or cure currently exists. 
  • Early detection and control measures are crucial to prevent spread. 

LEANG KARAMPUANG CAVE 

TOPIC: (GS1) HISTORY – SOURCE: INDIAN EXPRESS 

Leang Karampuang Cave in Sulawesi, Indonesia, houses one of the oldest known paintings, dating back at least 51,200 years. This discovery highlights early human artistic and storytelling capabilities. 

  • About Leang Karampuang Cave 
  • Location: Sulawesi island, Indonesia. 
  • Type: Limestone cave. 

Painting Description: 

  • A scene featuring humans and a pig. 
  • Painted in a single dark red pigment. 
  • The pig is depicted upright, with three smaller human-like figures around it. 

Details of the Figures: 

  • One figure holds an object near the pig’s throat. 
  • Another figure is upside-down above the pig’s head, legs splayed. 
  • The third, larger figure holds an unidentified object and possibly wears a headdress. 

Significance: 

  • Predates European cave paintings (e.g., El Castillo, Spain, 40,800 years old). 
  • Considered the oldest-known evidence of storytelling in art. 
  • Demonstrates the advanced mental capacity of early humans in Sulawesi. 

Conclusion 

The painting in Leang Karampuang Cave not only predates European rock art but also showcases the complexity and narrative ability of early human societies, emphasizing their advanced cognitive and artistic skills. 

THE AHOM MOIDAMS, 

TOPIC: (GS3) HISTORY – SOURCE: INDIAN EXPRESS 

Ahom Moidams Recommended for UNESCO World Heritage Status  

The Ahom Moidams, burial mounds for Assamese royalty, have received a significant boost towards becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) recommends their inclusion. 

 

About ICOMOS: 

  • Established in 1965 to advise UNESCO on World Heritage Sites. 
  • Non-governmental organization dedicated to heritage preservation. 
  • Composed of professionals, experts, and local representatives. 

Moidams:  

  • Mound-burial system of the Ahom dynasty (13th-19th centuries). 
  • Similar to royal tombs of ancient China and Egyptian pyramids. 
  • Enshrine the remains of Ahom royalty (highly venerated). 
  • Located in Charaideo, the first Ahom capital (founded 1253). 
  • Reflect the spread of Tai-Ahom culture across Southeast Asia. 

Shift in Burial Practices: 

  • After the 18th century, Ahoms adopted cremation. 
  • Cremated remains were entombed within the Moidams. 

THE TYPHON WEAPONS SYSTEM 

TOPIC: (GS3) SECURITY – SOURCE: TIMES OF INDIA 

The Typhon Weapons System, used in joint military exercises between the United States and the Philippines, is set to be withdrawn. This system showcases advanced missile technology developed by the U.S. Navy. 

About Typhon Weapons System 

  • Name: Also known as Strategic Mid-Range Fires (SMRF) System. 
  • Capability: Fires Standard Missile 6 (SM-6) and Tomahawk Land Attack Missile. 
  • Components: Four launchers, command post, reload, and support vehicles. 
  • Targeting: Uses offboard sources for targeting information. 
  • Launchers: Derived from the Mk 41 Vertical Launch System (VLS). 

Key Facts about Tomahawk Missile 

  • Type: Long-range cruise missile. 
  • Launch Platforms: Ship or submarine. 
  • Purpose: Deep-land attack warfare, targeting fixed sites in high-risk environments. 

Features: 

  • Subsonic speed and low altitude flight. 
  • Uses satellite navigation and TERCOM radar. 
  • Range: Up to 2,400 km (1,500 miles). 
  • Propulsion: Solid propellant for launch, turbofan engine for flight. 
  • Difficult to detect on radar and infrared. 
  • Can carry conventional or nuclear payloads. 

Conclusion 

The Typhon Weapons System, with its advanced missile capabilities, exemplifies cutting-edge military technology, enhancing strategic operations and defense readiness. 

KAVERI RIVER 

TOPIC: (GS3) ECONOMY – SOURCE: HINDUSTHAN TIMES 

The Karnataka state government has established a nine-member committee to investigate the contamination of the Kaveri River, a major and sacred river in southern India. 

About Kaveri River 

  • Names: Also known as Cauvery River. 
  • Significance: Considered sacred by Hindus. 
  • Course of the River 
  • Origin: Brahmagiri Hill, Western Ghats, Karnataka. 
  • Elevation: 1,341 meters (4,400 feet) above sea level. 

Flow Path: 

  • Flows south and east through Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. 
  • Crosses southeastern lowlands. 
  • Empties into the Bay of Bengal through two principal mouths. 
  • Length: 800 km. 

Basin and Boundaries 

  • Western Ghats to the west. 
  • Eastern Ghats to the east and south. 
  • Ridges separating it from Krishna and Pennar basins to the north. 

Cauvery Basin: 

  • Covers Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, and Puducherry. 
  • Drainage area: 81,155 sq km. 

Tributaries 

  • Left Bank Tributaries: Harangi, Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavati. 
  • Right Bank Tributaries: Lakshmantirtha, Kabbani, Suvarnavati, Bhavani, Noyil, Amaravati. 

Dams 

  • Krishna Raja Sagara Dam 
  • Mettur Dam 
  • Banasura Sagar Dam (on the Kabini River, a tributary of Kaveri). 

Conclusion 

The investigation into the contamination of the Kaveri River aims to address environmental concerns and ensure the preservation of this vital water resource. 

Details

Date:
July 6
Time:
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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