Loading Events

« All Events

  • This event has passed.


June 6 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm


Coalition government refers to a system where multiple political parties cooperate to form a government. This collaboration is often necessary when no single party achieves a clear majority in elections. Coalition governments are built on agreed programs and shared objectives to exercise political power together. 

Features of Coalition Government 

  • Multiple Parties: At least two or more political parties join hands to form the government. 
  • Pragmatic Approach: Decisions are made based on practicality rather than strict ideology. 
  • Dynamic Nature: Coalition partnerships are fluid, with parties and groups frequently forming new alliances. 
  • Minimum Common Program: The government operates on a mutually agreed minimum program, which may not fully satisfy all coalition partners. 
  • Pre-poll and Post-poll Coalitions: 
  • Pre-poll Coalition: Parties come together before elections, presenting a joint manifesto to attract voters. 
  • Post-poll Coalition: Formed after elections, this coalition aims to share political power and govern collectively. 

Merits of Coalition Government 

  • Balanced Decision-Making: Different parties collaborate, ensuring that decisions cater to diverse interests. 
  • Representation of Diversity: Reflects India’s varied cultures, languages, and communities, making it more representative. 
  • Strengthens Federalism: More attentive to regional needs, reinforcing India’s federal structure. 

Demerits of Coalition Government 

  • Instability: Frequent policy disagreements among coalition partners can lead to government collapse. 
  • Restricted Authority: The Prime Minister must consult coalition partners, limiting their autonomy. 
  • Steering Committee Influence: Functions like a ‘Super-Cabinet,’ reducing the cabinet’s governing authority. 
  • Influence of Smaller Parties: Minor parties may demand disproportionate power in Parliament. 
  • Regional Party Influence: Regional leaders can pressure the central government to address their specific issues. 
  • Larger Council of Ministers: More parties in the coalition mean a larger council to satisfy all major partners. 
  • Avoidance of Accountability: Members may evade responsibility by blaming each other, undermining collective and individual accountability. 

Historical Context and Role in Reforms 

Since 1991, India has frequently experienced coalition governments, which have implemented significant economic reforms. The leading party often lacked a majority but still managed to drive substantial changes. 

Notable Reforms by Previous Coalition Governments 

P V Narasimha Rao Government (1991-1996): 

  • Economic Liberalisation: Removed the licence-permit raj, welcoming global competition. 
  • WTO Membership: Joined the World Trade Organisation, integrating India into the global economy. 

Deve Gowda Government (June 1996-April 1997): 

  • Dream Budget: Reduced tax rates and fostered a better economic environment for taxpayers and businesses. 

Atal Bihari Vajpayee Government (March 1998-May 2004): 

  • The Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act: Established fiscal discipline by curbing government borrowing. 
  • Disinvestment and Infrastructure: Promoted the sale of loss-making PSUs and improved rural infrastructure through initiatives like the PM Gram Sadak Yojana. 
  • Information Technology Act, 2000: Laid the foundation for India’s booming e-commerce sector. 

Manmohan Singh Government (2004-2014): 

  • Rights-Based Reforms: Enacted laws such as the Right to Education Act, Right to Information Act, Right to Food, and Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MG-NREGA). 
  • Economic Deregulation: Implemented deregulation of fuel prices, launched direct benefit transfers, and advanced the development of the Aadhaar and GST systems. 


Coalition governments, despite their challenges, provide a platform for diverse voices, fostering consensus-driven policies. A successful coalition is built on mutual respect, strong leadership, and a commitment to national progress. 


June 6
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
Event Category:
error: Content is protected !!