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November 8, 2023 @ 7:30 am - 11:30 pm


The Delhi Declaration under India’s G20 presidency has highlighted crucial commitments to fortify global health architecture by promoting resilient, inclusive, and sustainable health systems.

This initiative focuses on implementing the One Health approach, enhancing pandemic readiness, and strengthening infectious disease surveillance.

Additionally, it emphasizes tackling the growing concern of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) through research, infection control, and stewardship within National Action Plans (NAPs).

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR):

Definition and Causes of AMR:

Definition: AMR occurs when microorganisms no longer respond to medicines, making infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of severe illness and death.

Causes: Resistance in microorganisms can arise naturally or through mutation, horizontal gene transfer, misuse of antimicrobials, lack of clean water and sanitation, inadequate infection prevention, and lack of awareness.

Health Concerns Related to AMR:

A Lancet report in 2021 estimated 4.95 million deaths associated with bacterial AMR globally, a magnitude equivalent to diseases like HIV and malaria.

Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia experienced the highest death rates due to susceptibility to AMR.

AMR poses a threat not only to infectious disease treatment but also to areas like cancer treatment and transplants.

Main Drivers of AMR:

Overuse and misuse of antimicrobials, lack of access to clean water and sanitation, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, contribute to AMR.

Concerns of Antimicrobial Resistance in India:

High Rates and Burden of AMR:

India faces one of the highest rates of AMR globally, leading to over 60,000 newborn deaths yearly from antibiotic-resistant infections.

Infectious diseases like tuberculosis, malaria, typhoid, and pneumonia are harder to treat due to the emergence of AMR.

Contributing Factors:

The unregulated antibiotic market, lack of surveillance, inadequate infection control measures, and limited research and innovation exacerbate the AMR crisis in India.

Government Measures to Address AMR:

National Action Plan (NAP) and Delhi Declaration:

India introduced a National Action Plan in 2017 to increase awareness, strengthen surveillance, and improve infection prevention and control.

The Delhi Declaration on AMR seeks a collaborative effort involving research institutes, civil society, industry, and public-private partnerships.

Specific Initiatives:

Antibiotic Stewardship Program (AMSP), ban on inappropriate fixed dose combinations (FDCs), and Colistin ban in animal feed.

The government is working on a One Health approach focusing on zoonotic diseases, food safety, and antibiotic resistance.

Measures to Address AMR:

Global and Local Strategies:

Collaborative action plans among G20 nations, international funding mechanisms, and patent reforms can combat AMR at a global level.

Nationally, focusing on NAPs, surveillance, utilizing government initiatives, public awareness, academia involvement, and benchmarking with successful international models are crucial.

Benchmarking International Examples:

Learning from successful national action plans of countries like the US and the UK could provide valuable insights for India’s AMR containment strategies.


Addressing Antimicrobial Resistance requires a multifaceted approach at the global and national levels. India’s commitment through the NAP, Delhi Declaration, and various initiatives is a positive step, but further concerted efforts involving surveillance, public awareness, research, and international collaborations are essential to tackle this critical global health issue effectively. Benchmarking with successful global models and prioritizing tailored strategies will play a significant role in mitigating the rising threat of AMR in India.

Mains Question:

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) has emerged as a global health crisis. Discuss the multifaceted challenges associated with AMR, particularly in the context of India, highlighting the causes, health concerns, and the role of government initiatives. How can international collaborations and benchmarking with successful models aid in addressing this critical health issue effectively? (150 Words) 10M


November 8, 2023
7:30 am - 11:30 pm
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