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November 9, 2023 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm



The Group of Seven (G-7) Foreign Ministers recently convened in Tokyo to address the ongoing Israel-Hamas conflict and its humanitarian consequences. Their joint statement called for humanitarian pauses, aid delivery, the release of hostages, and a broader peace process in Gaza. This marked the second joint statement from the G-7 since the conflict began with an attack by Hamas in October.

The ministers emphasized Israel’s right to self-defence while underscoring the importance of protecting civilians and adhering to international humanitarian law. They also affirmed their commitment to finding sustainable long-term solutions and reiterated support for a two-state solution.

Key Points:

  • Humanitarian Pauses and Aid Delivery:
  • The G-7 called for humanitarian pauses and corridors to facilitate urgent assistance and the release of hostages.
  • The ministers acknowledged the dire need for aid to reach Gaza and emphasized the importance of ensuring civilian movement.

Israel’s Right to Self-Defence:

  • The G-7 recognized Israel’s right to defend itself, acknowledging the security concerns that have led to its military actions.

Long-term Solutions and Peace Process:

  • The ministers expressed their commitment to preparing sustainable long-term solutions for Gaza.
  • They advocated for a return to a broader peace process based on internationally agreed parameters.

Two-State Solution:

  • The G-7 members reiterated that a two-state solution remains the most viable path toward achieving a just, lasting, and secure peace in the region.

Support for Ukraine and Engagement with China:

  • The joint statement also reiterated the G-7’s support for Ukraine in its conflict with Russia.
  • It highlighted the need for continued engagement with China and condemned North Korea’s missile tests and arms transfers to Russia.


  • The G-7’s call for humanitarian pauses and a broader peace process in Gaza reflects international concerns about the ongoing conflict’s humanitarian impact.
  • It underlines the importance of addressing immediate humanitarian needs while seeking long-term solutions for lasting peace. The G-7’s support for a two-state solution and its stance on other global issues, including Ukraine and China, further exemplify the group’s commitment to addressing international challenges.
  • While the G-7 faced challenges in reaching a unified approach to the conflict, its joint statement marks a significant step in addressing the crisis in Gaza and its broader implications for regional stability.



As India concludes its G-20 Presidency with two upcoming virtual summits, Brazil aims to maintain the momentum and priorities set by India’s leadership. India is hosting the Voice of Global South Summit and the G-20 Virtual Summit, chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Brazil, set to host the G-20 in 2024 and the COP30 Climate Change Summit in 2025, intends to work closely with its partners, including India and Indonesia.

            Key Points:

Continuity of Priorities:

  • Brazil’s President, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, is confirmed to attend both the Voice of Global South Summit and the G-20 Virtual Summit.
  • Brazil aims to ensure that the interests and challenges of the Global South remain central to the G-20 agenda.

Multilateral Focus:

  • Brazil sees its G-20 presidency as an opportunity to build on India’s efforts and emphasize issues such as fighting hunger, poverty, sustainable development, and the reform of the multilateral system.

Shared Goals with India:

  • While Brazil may have different emphases on certain issues, its overarching goals align with India’s as members of the developing world.
  • Brazil and India collaborate in various international groupings, including BRICS, IBSA, and the G-4, to support each other’s objectives, such as UN Security Council membership.

Future Host of Key Summits:

  • Brazil currently hosts IBSA, and it is set to host the G-20 in 2024 and the COP30 Climate Change Summit in 2025.
  • The country aims to foster close cooperation with partners like India, South Africa, and Indonesia, all integral to the “extended troika” hosting G-20 summits.

Global Solidarity and Achievements:

  • During India’s G-20 Presidency, a joint proposal by India, Indonesia, Brazil, and South Africa led to a breakthrough joint statement, showcasing global solidarity on key issues.
  • The proposal emphasized the Ukraine conflict and was considered a rare moment of consensus within the group.


As India hands over the G-20 Presidency, Brazil’s commitment to maintaining the priorities of the Global South and continuing the work initiated by India is significant. Brazil’s upcoming leadership role in the G-20 and the COP30 Climate Change Summit reflects the collective efforts of developing countries to address global challenges. The alignment of goals with India and cooperation within international groupings underscore the shared commitment to promoting the interests of the Global South on the world stage. The collaboration between these nations is expected to drive the G-20’s agenda and further global cooperation in the pursuit of common objectives.



The Indian government has issued a directive to social media companies, including X, Facebook, and Instagram, urging them to take down content related to deep fakes and misinformation, even in the absence of a formal complaint.

This directive is based on the provisions of the Information Technology Act and is aimed at countering the harmful impact of deep fakes, such as a recent deep fake video of actress Rashmika Mandanna.

The government has emphasized that existing laws provide sufficient protection to address issues like deep fakes, and it has warned of penalties for non-compliance.

What are deep fakes?

  • Deepfakes, a product of advanced artificial intelligence technology, refer to manipulated digital media—videos, audios, and images—that can cause harm to individuals and organizations.
  • Through the use of sophisticated AI algorithms, deepfakes can alter visual and auditory content, leading to potential repercussions such as damaging reputations, creating false evidence, deceiving the public, and eroding trust in democratic institutions.
  • The term ‘deepfake’ is a combination of ‘deep learning,’ a facet of machine learning employing artificial neural networks, and ‘fake.’

Key Points:

Directive to Social Media Firms:

  • The Indian government has instructed social media platforms to remove deep fakes and similar misleading content promptly, even without a formal complaint.
  • Failure to comply with this directive may lead to legal consequences under Section 66D of the Information Technology Act, 2000, including imprisonment and fines.

Deep Fake Concerns:

  • The context of this directive is a recent deep fake video of actress Rashmika Mandanna that circulated on social media.
  • Although the actress did not file a formal complaint, notable figures acknowledged the video’s falseness.

Intermediary Rules and Penalties:

  • Intermediary rules under the IT Act require social media platforms to remove misleading content within 36 hours upon receiving a report.
  • Non-compliance may invoke legal action, enabling aggrieved individuals to take platforms to court under the Indian Penal Code.

Government’s Commitment to Safety:

  • The government emphasized its commitment to ensuring the safety and trust of citizens, particularly women and children who are often targeted by deep fakes.
  • The Minister of State for Electronics and IT encouraged impacted individuals to file First Information Reports (FIRs) and seek remedies under the Information Technology rules.

Need for a Regulatory Framework for AI:

  • India is working on a Digital India Bill to address challenges posed by emerging technologies.
  • Experts stress the importance of responsible AI principles, training AI algorithms to detect deep fakes, and enhancing AI tools for identifying fabricated content.

Global Perspective:

  • The rapid development and adoption of AI present challenges globally.
  • Some countries, like South Korea, have made deep fakes illegal, while the EU’s Artificial Intelligence Act has received mixed responses.


The government’s directive to social media firms reflects its commitment to addressing the threat of deep fakes and misinformation. By leveraging existing laws, the government aims to protect citizens from the harmful consequences of manipulated content. The directive also underscores the need for responsible AI principles and the development of advanced AI tools to combat deep fakes effectively. As India works on a Digital India Bill to regulate emerging technologies, it is crucial to strike a balance between ensuring safety and fostering the positive impact of AI on society. The global perspective suggests that countries are grappling with similar challenges related to AI and deep fakes, emphasizing the importance of comprehensive regulatory frameworks and responsible AI use.



Electric power transmission is pivotal for economic development and the prosperity of nations. The process involves complex networks and various elements that enable the transmission, distribution, and utilization of electricity. From power generation to its consumption, a robust and efficient transmission system is crucial. Understanding the basics of transmitting electricity, the intricacies of alternating current (AC) power, and how grids operate is fundamental to comprehending the functioning of the power transmission system.

  1. Importance of Power Transmission: Why Transmit Power?
  • Electric power transmission is a crucial part of the power supply system, consisting of three main components: generation, transmission, and distribution.
  • It plays a pivotal role in delivering electricity from power plants or renewable energy installations to consumers.
  1. Basics of Electricity Transmission: Efficiency and Challenges
  • Lower current and higher voltage enhance transmission efficiency. Transformers are utilized to step up and step down voltages to minimize energy loss during transmission.
  • Resistance in transmission cables results in energy loss, controlled by adjusting cable thickness and cost considerations.
  • Longer transmission distances can reduce transmission costs.

III. Understanding AC Power Transmission: Three-Phase AC

  • Three-phase AC, the most common form of electric power transmission, involves three wires transmitting AC power in different phases.
  • AC power is more accessible for control in consumer appliances and is transmitted in circuits with varying wire phases.
  1. Power Transmission Mechanics: Transmission, Safety, and Grid Operations
  • Power transmission involves routing wires from power stations to transformers that enhance voltage before suspending them on towers for long-distance travel.
  • Safety measures like insulators, circuit-breakers, grounding, and stabilizing elements are crucial in maintaining a stable transmission infrastructure.
  • Transmission substations modify voltage levels and diagnose line problems, requiring support infrastructure and safety measures.
  1. Functioning of Electric Grids: Operations and Significance
  • Electric grids encompass power production, transmission, and distribution, necessitating adaptation to various power generation sources and consumption patterns.
  • Grids accommodate various energy sources, including both continuous and intermittent sources, and manage fluctuations in supply and demand.
  • Wide-area synchronous grids ensure uniform AC frequency among connected generators, contributing to cost efficiency but demanding preventive measures against potential failures.


Electric power transmission involves a sophisticated network of elements and operations, essential for the functioning of modern societies. Understanding the basics of electricity transmission, the mechanisms of AC power, and the functioning of electric grids provides insights into the complexities of the system and the critical role it plays in ensuring a steady and reliable power supply for economic development and societal progress.



  • The Kerala State Literacy Mission (KSLM) has initiated Pauradhwani program in eight coastal and tribal districts, with a primary objective of nurturing scientific aptitude, fostering independent thinking, promoting secularism, nurturing a democratic spirit, and enhancing awareness about individual rights to facilitate the development of responsible and independent citizens.
  • The program is underpinned by a six-point motto that encompasses safeguarding the rights of marginalized segments of society, fortifying democratic principles and unity, and working towards the establishment of a more equitable society in Kerala, devoid of any form of discrimination.
  • The curriculum for this initiative covers a wide range of topics, including the Indian Independence struggle, the rights of tribal communities, forest rights, and more.



  • The Euclid mission, overseen and executed by the European Space Agency, successfully unveiled its inaugural set of full-color images of the cosmos.
  • Launched in the year 2023, the Euclid mission serves as a dedicated cosmology survey venture, meticulously designed to ascertain the characteristics of dark energy and dark matter across the vast expanse of the universe.

  • This ambitious mission is set to create a comprehensive 3D map of the Universe by meticulously observing billions of galaxies, spanning distances of up to 10 billion light-years, and spanning over one-third of the celestial sphere.
  • To accomplish this, the Euclid mission is positioned in orbit around Lagrange point 2 (L2), a point in space where the gravitational forces of the Earth and the Sun are balanced.
  • The mission is slated to have a lifespan of six years during which it will capture images in both optical and near-infrared wavelengths.
  • By doing so, it will offer valuable insights into the enigmatic realms of dark energy and dark matter, ultimately enriching our understanding of the cosmos.



An ancient Iron Age Geoglyph circle, dating back 3,000 years, was unearthed in Telangana.

  • Geoglyphs, a form of prehistoric rock art, are crafted on the surfaces of laterite plateaus by removing sections of the rock through incisions, carving, or abrasions.
  • These enigmatic designs commonly depict a range of subjects, including plants, animals, geometric shapes, abstract patterns, and intersecting lines.
  • Renowned geoglyphs worldwide, such as the Nazca lines in Peru, the Atacama Giant in Chile, and the Blythe Intaglios in the USA, serve as prominent examples of these intriguing forms of ancient artwork.
  • In India, geoglyphs are predominantly discovered in the Konkan region of Maharashtra and Goa. These discoveries offer invaluable insights into ancient civilizations and their artistic expressions, contributing to our understanding of prehistoric cultures.


November 9, 2023
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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