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January 10 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm


The European Union’s (EU) proposal to introduce a Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) tax from January 1, 2026, has sparked concerns about increased costs for India’s exports. This move aims to curb greenhouse gas emissions associated with imported goods, impacting sectors like steel and aluminium. As India navigates these challenges, it faces potential consequences on trade relations and economic sectors.


  • Purpose: Part of the EU’s “Fit for 55 in 2030” package to reduce emissions. Imposes a fair price on carbon emissions linked to specific imports.
  • Environmental Objectives: Aims to prevent carbon leakage by encouraging cleaner production globally. Extends carbon pricing to imports, promoting adherence to strict climate policies.
  • Coverage and Target Sectors: Targets sectors like cement, iron, steel, aluminium, etc. Importers need to purchase carbon certificates corresponding to emissions.

Challenges in CBAM Implementation:

  • Global Opposition: BASIC countries, including India, oppose CBAM as discriminatory. Discrepancy with global consensus on imposing standards on developing nations.
  • Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Adjusting greenhouse gas content in import inventories challenges traditional accounting. Potential disguised protectionism concerns.

Implications for India:

  • Trade Relations and Economic Impact: India exports significant amounts of steel and aluminium to the EU. The tax may raise prices, reducing demand and impacting sectors.
  • Manufacturing Concerns: Indian Ministry criticizes CBAM’s potential negative effects on manufacturing. Raises concerns about being a significant challenge for the sector.
  • India’s Response – CCTS: India introduces Carbon Credit Trading System (CCTS) to incentivize emission reductions. Aims to boost clean energy investments and align with global environmental goals.

Steps to Counter CBAM:

  • Opposition and Diplomacy: India should oppose CBAM in international forums. Asserts the violation of the principle of common but differentiated responsibility.
  • Consideration of Export Tax: India considers imposing a similar tax on its exports to the EU. Funds generated can be reinvested in environmentally friendly processes.
  • Market Diversification: Proactively reduce dependence on the EU market. Explore opportunities in other regions to enhance economic resilience.
  • Seizing the Green Opportunity: Turn challenges into opportunities by making production processes greener. bIncentivize cleaner production aligning with global environmental goals.


The EU’s CBAM poses challenges for India’s exports, necessitating strategic responses. India’s introduction of the CCTS reflects its commitment to addressing environmental concerns.

As the CBAM’s implementation approaches, India must swiftly formulate carbon taxation measures aligned with global principles.

Ongoing negotiations and diplomatic efforts will shape India’s response to this dynamic global environmental policy landscape, ensuring a balance between economic interests and environmental sustainability.

Mains Question:

  1. Discuss the implications of the European Union’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) on India’s trade relations and economic sectors, and propose strategic measures to counter the potential adverse effects while promoting environmental sustainability. (150 WORDS)


January 10
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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