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May 10 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm



Haryana faces political instability as three independent MLAs withdraw support from the ruling BJP. 

Former coalition partner, the JJP, extends support to Congress, challenging BJP’s majority. 

Assembly Composition: 

  • 90-member State Assembly, currently with 88 members. 
  • BJP-led government holds 43 seats, falling short of the 45-seat majority. 
  • BJP claims no threat to its government, citing potential support from other MLAs, possibly from the JJP. 

Opposition’s Demand: 

  • Congress and JJP pressurize Governor for intervention. 
  • Congress calls for immediate Assembly polls under President’s rule. 
  • JJP demands an immediate ‘floor test’ to determine government’s majority. 


Article 163:  

  • This article states that the Governor generally acts on the advice of the Council of Ministers (headed by the Chief Minister). However, there are exceptions where the Governor can use his/her discretion. 

Article 174: 

  • This article empowers the Governor to summon, dissolve, and prorogue the state legislative assembly. 

Article 174(2)(b)  

  • clarifies that dissolving the Assembly requires advice from the cabinet, but the Governor can use discretion if the Chief Minister’s majority is doubtful. 

Article 175(2):  

  • This article grants the Governor the authority to summon the House and conduct a floor test to determine if the government enjoys a majority. 

Governor’s Discretionary Power: 

Article 163(1) 

  • restricts the Governor’s discretionary power to situations explicitly mentioned in the Constitution where independent judgment is required. 
  • The Governor can exercise discretion under Article 174 when the Chief Minister’s majority is in question. 
  • When doubts about the majority arise, the opposition and the Governor might both advocate for a floor test. 
  • Courts have emphasized the need for a floor test at the earliest opportunity when the ruling party’s majority is uncertain. 

Supreme Court Observations: 

  • Nabam Rebia case (2016): The Supreme Court ruled that summoning the House is not solely the Governor’s power; it should be done with the Council of Ministers’ advice. 
  •  The Court highlighted the Governor’s appointed role and argued against overriding authority over elected representatives. 
  • Shivraj Singh Chouhan case (2020): The Court upheld the Speaker’s authority to call for a floor test if a prima facie case exists for the government losing its majority. 
  •   The Governor’s power to order a floor test remains if available evidence suggests the need for such a test. 

Constitutional Discretion of the Governor: 

  • Reservation of Bills: Governors can decide independently to reserve bills for the President’s consideration, without the advice of the Council of Ministers. 
  • Recommendation for President’s Rule: Governors have the discretion to recommend President’s rule in the state without relying on the Council of Ministers. 
  • Additional Charge as Union Territory Administrator: When assigned as the administrator of a Union Territory, Governors can take actions independently. 
  • Determining Royalty Payments: Governors can independently determine the amount payable by state governments to Tribal District Councils from royalties on mineral exploration licenses. 
  • Seeking Information from Chief Minister: Governors can call upon the Chief Minister to provide information regarding administrative and legislative affairs. 

Situational Discretion of the Governor: 

  • Appointment of Chief Minister: Governor’s exercise situational discretion in appointing a Chief Minister when no party holds a clear majority or in case of the incumbent’s death. 
  • Dismissal of Council of Ministers: Governors have the discretion to dismiss the council of ministers if they fail to prove confidence in the state legislative assembly. 
  • Dissolution of State Legislative Assembly: Governors can dissolve the state legislative assembly when it loses its majority within the prescribed time. 

Multiple choice question: 

  1. Which of the following powers are discretionary for a State Governor? (2014)
  1. Sending a report to the President of India recommending the imposition of President’s rule. 
  1. Appointing Ministers. 
  1. Reserving certain bills passed by the State Legislature for the consideration of the President of India. 
  1. Making rules to govern the conduct of the State Government’s business. 

Select the correct answer using the code given below: 

  1. 1 and 2 only 
  1. 1 and 3 only 
  1. 2, 3, and 4 only 
  1. 1, 2, 3, and 4 



Sending a report to the President of India recommending the imposition of President’s rule is discretionary power of governor. . However, it’s important to note that this power is subject to certain constitutional provisions and limitations. Statement 1 is correct. 

While the Governor typically appoints the Chief Minister and other ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister, there can be scenarios, such as a hung assembly or a situation where no party has a clear majority, where the Governor has some discretion in appointing ministers. Statement 2 is incorrect. 

Reserving certain bills passed by the State Legislature for the consideration of the President of India if he believes the bill is of national importance or may conflict with the Constitution. Statement 3 is correct. 

Making rules to govern the conduct of the State Government’s business is not discretionary for a State Governor. The Governor does not have the authority to make rules to govern the conduct of the State Government’s business. This is typically the responsibility of the State Government or the State Legislature. Statement 4 is incorrect. 



The question of extending reservation benefits to Dalit Christians and Muslims in India has sparked significant debate in recent times. This discussion intersects with broader conversations about affirmative action, constitutional provisions, and efforts to address historic discrimination. 

  • Political debate in India revolves around reservations for disadvantaged groups in education and jobs. 

The Constitution and Reservations: 

  • Articles 15 and 16 promote equality for all citizens but allow reservations for Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST), and Other Backward Classes (OBC) to achieve social justice. 
  • The Supreme Court has upheld reservations with a 50% cap (excluding the Economically Weaker Section – EWS quota). 

Arguments for Reservations: 

  • The caste system has historically discriminated against SCs, STs, and OBCs. 
  • Reservations are needed to level the playing field and provide these groups with equal opportunities. 

Global Examples: 

  • US: Affirmative action programs consider race in college admissions (recently challenged in court). 
  • UK: Positive action allows employers to address under-representation of disadvantaged groups. 
  • France: Focuses on educational measures for low-income students, not race-based affirmative action. 

Key Points: 

  • India grapples with balancing equality and social justice through reservations. 
  • Debate centres on how best to address historical caste-based discrimination. 
  • The issue is complex, with global examples offering contrasting approaches. 


Constitutional Stance: 

  • The Constituent Assembly opposed reservation solely based on religion. 
  • Constitution prohibits discrimination based on religion under Articles 15 and 16. 

Muslim Inclusion in OBC Quota: 

  • In Karnataka, all Muslim communities are included in the OBC quota. 
  • Sub-categorization for Muslims within OBC quota existed since 1995, but was removed and reinstated over time. 

Pan-Religious Approach: 

  • Constitution focuses on ‘socially and educationally backward classes,’ encompassing all religions for reservation. 
  • Muslim communities also benefit from OBC/MBC reservations in states like Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh. 

Congress Manifesto: 

  • Congress aims to remove the 50% cap on reservations, indicating potential changes in reservation policy. 

Challenges and Solutions: 

  • Concentration of reservation benefits among few OBC castes/sub-castes is a concern. 
  • Sub-categorization is essential to ensure equitable distribution of benefits among OBC, SC, and ST communities. 
  • Dalit Christians and Muslims face discrimination and lack of opportunities, warranting extension of SC reservations to these groups. 

The Way Forward: 

  • Deliberation needed on increasing reservation limit beyond 50%, introducing creamy layers for SC and ST, and extending SC reservations to Dalit Christians and Muslims. 
  • Efforts should aim to ensure benefits of reservation reach extremely marginalized sections while maintaining harmony with constitutional guarantees of equality and social justice. 

Mandal Commission and Reservation Policies: 

  • Formed in December 1978 under Article 340 of the Constitution. Chaired by B. P. Mandal to address the backward class issue. 
  • Commission’s Objectives: Define “socially and educationally backward classes. “Recommend measures for their advancement. 

Reservation Recommendations: 

  • Proposed 27% reservation for Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in government jobs. 
  • Estimated OBC population at approximately 52% of India’s total. 

Identification of Backward Classes: 

  • Developed eleven indicators of social, educational, and economic backwardness. 
  • Included non-Hindu communities like Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, and Buddhists. 

Compilation of Lists: 

  • Created an OBC list comprising 3,743 castes. 
  • Identified a more marginalized “depressed backward classes” list with 2,108 castes. 

Supreme Court’s Rulings: 

  • Indra Sawhney Case of 1992 upheld the 27% quota for backward classes. 
  • Struck down government notification reserving 10% of government jobs for economically backward classes among higher castes. 
  • Imposed a 50% cap on total reservation beneficiaries. 
  • Introduced the concept of the “creamy layer,” limiting reservation benefits to initial appointments and excluding promotions. 

Recent Amendments: 

  • Constitutional (103rd Amendment) Act of 2019 introduced 10% reservation for economically backward individuals in the unreserved category. 
  • Amended Articles 15 and 16, allowing reservation based on economic backwardness, surpassing the 50% reservation cap. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. Consider the following statements regarding the Indra Sawhney Judgement (1992) and the 50% reservation cap in India:
  1. The judgement established a mandatory 50% ceiling on reservations for all categories in government jobs and educational institutions. 
  1. The creamy layer concept was introduced to ensure that economically well-off individuals from backward classes don’t avail reservation benefits. 
  1. Reservations can be applied to promotions in government jobs as per the judgement. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only 
  1. 2 and 3 only 
  1. 1 and 2 only 
  1. None of the above 



Incorrect: The judgement did not prescribe a specific mandatory ceiling but laid down a principle that total reservations should not exceed 50%. 

Correct: The creamy layer concept was introduced to exclude economically well-off individuals from availing reservation benefits. 

Incorrect: Promotions were excluded from the purview of reservations by the judgement. 



National institute of nutrition NIN, under ICMR, published comprehensive guidelines on diet for vulnerable groups, addressing rising noncommunicable diseases (NCD) like cardiovascular disease, cancers, and diabetes. 

As per reports from the World Food Programme and World Bank, malnutrition has adverse effects on cognitive abilities, work productivity, and overall health, leading to an estimated impact of up to 16% on the global GDP. 

General principles: 

  • Emphasize reducing consumption of salt and highly processed foods to combat ncds. 
  • Unhealthy diets contribute to an estimated 56.4% of India’s total disease burden. 

Focus on vulnerable groups: 

  • Optimal nutrition crucial for pregnant/lactating women, children, and the elderly for proper growth and development. 
  • Proper nutrition from conception to age 2 prevents undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and obesity. 

Nutrition challenges: 

  • High prevalence of lifestyle conditions in children, including overweight/obesity and diabetes. 
  • Micronutrient deficiencies (zinc, iron, vitamins) affect 13-30% of children aged 1-19. 

Addressing anaemia: 

  • Anaemia prevalence: 40.6% (under 5), 23.5% (5-9), 28.4% (10-19). 
  • Despite progress, anaemia remains due to faulty dietary patterns. 

General dietary principles: 

  • Recommend nutrient intake from eight food groups, reducing cereal consumption to 45% of total energy. 
  • Encourage more proteins (pulses, meat, poultry, fish) to constitute 14% of daily energy. 

Group-specific guidelines: 

  • Pregnant women: small, frequent meals, high fruit and vegetable intake. 
  • Infants and children: exclusive breastfeeding for first six months, introduction of complementary foods after. 
  • Elderly: high-protein, calcium-rich diet, regular exercise for bone density and muscle mass maintenance. 


  • Condition resulting from inadequate intake, absorption, or utilization of nutrients essential for healthy bodily functions. 
  • Can manifest as undernutrition (insufficient food intake), overnutrition (excessive intake leading to obesity), or micronutrient deficiencies. 
  • Leads to impaired growth, development, and overall health. 
  • Can occur due to factors such as poverty, limited access to nutritious food, poor dietary choices, or underlying health conditions. 


  • Condition characterized by a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood. 
  • Hemoglobin is responsible for carrying oxygen to body tissues; its deficiency leads to reduced oxygen delivery. 
  • Causes symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and dizziness. 
  • Can be caused by various factors, including nutritional deficiencies (e.g., iron, vitamin B12, folate), chronic diseases, genetic disorders, or blood loss. 

Addressing nutrition issue 

National Food Security Act (NFSA) and Its Implementation: 

  • Enacted in 2013, NFSA provides food and nutrition security to a significant portion of India’s population. 
  • Two-thirds of the population benefit from subsidized food grains through the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS). 
  • Pregnant women, lactating mothers, and children up to 14 years receive nutritional support under NFSA. 
  • Addresses food insecurity and malnutrition by ensuring access to essential food grains. 

PM POshan SHAkti Nirman (PM-POSHAN) and Child Nutrition: 

  • PM-POSHAN aims to provide free, nutritious cooked meals to children in government schools and other centres. 
  • Focuses on improving enrolment, attendance, retention, and overall health of children. 

Impact of PM-POSHAN Scheme: 

  • Enhanced completion rates of primary education, particularly among girls. 
  • Improved attendance and nutritional status of children, leading to better micronutrient intake. 

Considering this, while Budget 2023-24 sets its sights on realizing an ‘Aspirational India’, addressing India’s nutrition challenges can contribute not only to improved health outcomes but also to the country’s economic prosperity, paving the way towards a wealthier nation. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. What is the primary objective of the FAO’s designation of ‘Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS)’?
  1. To provide modern technology, training in modern farming methods, and financial support to local communities of identified GIAHS to greatly enhance their agricultural productivity. 
  1. The goal is to recognize and protect environmentally sustainable traditional farming methods, along with the landscapes, agricultural diversity, and knowledge systems of local communities. 
  1. To provide Geographical Indication status to all the varieties of agricultural produce in such identified GIAHS. 
  1. To implement a combination of 1, 2, and 3. 



By designating certain Agricultural systems as Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), the FAO seeks to: 

Identify and acknowledge traditional farming practices that have been passed down through generations and have proven to be environmentally friendly and sustainable.  

Safeguard these practices along with the landscapes they are associated with, preserving agricultural biodiversity, and preventing the loss of traditional knowledge. 

Empower local communities by promoting their unique agricultural heritage and supporting their efforts to maintain and improve traditional farming methods. Option B is correct. 



New variants of SARS-CoV-2, namely KP.2 and KP1.1, are known as FLiRT variants, originating from the Omicron JN.1. 

These variants have caused surges in COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations in several countries, including the U.S., U.K., South Korea, New Zealand, and India. 

Characteristics of FLiRT Variants: 

  • KP.2 and KP1.1 are descendants of the JN.1 variant, with additional spike mutations, making them more invasive. 
  • KP.2 is the dominant strain, capable of evading immunity from vaccines and prior infections. 
  • Symptoms of FLiRT variants include sore throat, cough, nausea, fatigue, among others, similar to other Omicron subvariants. 

Immune Evasion and Research Findings: 

  • Research from Japan’s Kei Sato lab suggests that KP.2 exhibits increased immune resistance compared to previous variants. 
  • Preliminary evidence indicates KP.2 can bypass immunity from both the latest vaccines and previous infections with JN.1. 
  • Further research is required to understand the extent of immune evasion by these variants. 

Response and Recommendations: 

  • European Medicine Agency recommends updating COVID-19 vaccines to target the new variant JN.1. 
  • AstraZeneca announces withdrawal of its vaccine due to surplus availability of updated vaccines. 
  • Precautions such as maintaining hygiene, wearing masks, staying home when unwell, and vaccination remain essential to combat transmission. 

Challenges and Uncertainties in India: 

  • India has reported rising cases, particularly in states like Maharashtra, Odisha, Goa, and West Bengal, with KP.2 being commonly found. 
  • Limited testing hinders accurate prevalence assessment, and it’s unclear if all cases are attributed to FLiRT variants. 
  • Increased transmissibility doesn’t necessarily imply more severe illnesses. 



Google DeepMind, in collaboration with Isomorphic Labs, created AlphaFold3. 

AlphaFold3 aims to predict the structure and interactions of various molecules accurately, aiding in drug design and disease targeting. 


  • Predicts the structure and interactions of all life’s molecules, including proteins, DNA, RNA, and small molecules (ligands). 
  • Can model chemical modifications crucial for healthy cell functioning, whose disruption may lead to disease. 
  • Generates joint 3D structures of molecules, illustrating how they fit together. 

Modeling Technique: AlphaFold3 employs a diffusion network similar to those used in AI image generators to assemble predictions. 


  • Provides a comprehensive view of cellular systems, showcasing structures, interactions, and modifications. 
  • Helps understand the connections between molecules and their impact on biological functions, such as drug actions, hormone production, and DNA repair. 

Impact: Enables scientists to explore the intricate workings of biological systems, potentially leading to advancements in medicine and biotechnology. 



Dice snakes, also known as water snakes, are nonvenomous snakes belonging to the Colubridae family, subfamily Natricinae. 

  • Size and Sexual Dimorphism: Females of the species are larger than males. 
  • Distribution: Found across much of Eurasia, including Egypt. 
  • Habitat: Dice snakes inhabit areas near water bodies like rivers, lakes, streams, ponds, as well as adjacent grasslands. They can also be found in coastal regions, plantations, and urban areas. 

Unique Behavior: 

  • They employ a unique defense mechanism of feigning death to evade predators. 
  • This tactic involves theatrical displays, including oozing “mouthfuls” of blood, and emitting a foul-smelling secretion from their cloaca. 
  • The effectiveness of this behavior depends on various factors such as sex, injuries, body temperature, size, age, presence of food or eggs, and previous encounters with predators. 


  • Habitat loss in wetland areas, pollution, roadkill, persecution by humans, and collection for the pet trade pose significant threats to their survival. 

Conservation Status: 

  • Listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, but still faces threats requiring conservation attention. 



The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), also known as the Indian Nino, is a climate phenomenon occurring in the Indian Ocean region, spanning between the Indonesian and Malaysian coastlines in the east and the African coastline near Somalia in the west. 

Positive IOD: 

  • Linked to below-average sea-surface temperatures (SST) in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. 
  • Warmer than normal SSTs are observed in the western tropical Indian Ocean during a positive IOD event. 

Negative IOD: 

  • Marked by elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. 
  • Cooler than normal SSTs are present in the western tropical Indian Ocean during a negative IOD event. 

Relationship with El Niño and La Niña: 

  • Positive IOD events often coincide with El Niño events. 
  • Negative IOD events are sometimes linked with La Niña phenomena. 


  • A positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) amplifies precipitation along the coastlines of Africa and across the Indian subcontinent. 
  • In contrast, it inhibits rainfall across Indonesia, Southeast Asia, and Australia. 
  • The impacts reverse during a negative IOD event. 

Discovery: Identified as an independent climate system in 1999. 



West Nile Fever is caused by the West Nile Virus (WNV), a member of the flavivirus genus within the family Flaviviridae. 

  • Natural Hosts: Birds serve as the natural hosts for WNV. 
  • Distribution: Commonly found in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, North America, and West Asia. 


  • Primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. 
  • Mosquitoes become infected by biting infected birds. 


  • Most infected individuals show no symptoms. 
  • Common symptoms include fever, headache, tiredness, body aches, nausea, vomiting, skin rash, and swollen lymph glands. 
  • Severe cases may lead to neurological symptoms like high fever, neck stiffness, coma, tremors, muscle weakness, and paralysis. 


  • No specific medicine or vaccine is available for WNV. 
  • Treatment focuses on supportive care, including hospitalization, intravenous fluids, respiratory support, and prevention of secondary infections. 


  • Preventive measures include reducing exposure to mosquitoes through the use of insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating mosquito breeding sites. 


May 10
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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