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March 13 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm



The recent opposition voiced by the Tamil Nadu Chief Minister against implementing the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) has encountered minimal impact, primarily due to the Union government asserting its jurisdiction over citizenship matters. While the Chief Minister’s statement is noted, the central administration maintains authority in citizenship affairs.

Key Points:

Union Government’s Jurisdiction:

  • Citizenship, as emphasized by the Union government, falls under its exclusive jurisdiction.
  • The Tamil Nadu Chief Minister’s opposition holds limited influence due to this constitutional delineation.

Application Processing:

  • Citizenship applications under the CAA will undergo processing by Postal and Census officials at the Centre.
  • Background checks will be conducted by Central security agencies, including the Intelligence Bureau.
  • State government officials and local police involvement in the online application process is restricted.

Empowered Committees:

  • Empowered committees, led by the Director (Census Operations) in each state, will decide on applications.
  • Committee members will include officers from various departments and security agencies.

District-level Committees:

  • District-level committees, headed by the Superintendent of the Department of Post, will sift through applications.
  • State government representatives will participate in these committees as invitees.

Application Procedure:

  • Applicants must register online, pay a fee of ₹50, and submit various documents, including those issued by neighbouring countries.
  • Scrutiny will lead to notifications for applicants to appear before the district-level committee for document verification and an “Oath of Allegiance.”

Citizenship Amendment Rules, 2024:

  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has notified the Citizenship Amendment Rules, 2024.
  • These rules facilitate the implementation of CAA, providing citizenship to specific undocumented communities from neighboring countries with a reduced eligibility period.

About the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA):


  • The CAA seeks to amend the definition of illegal immigrants, providing fast-track Indian citizenship to specific religious groups from neighboring countries.

Eligibility Criteria:

  • Applies to Hindu, Sikh, Parsi, Buddhist, Jains, and Christian immigrants from Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh.
  • Grants citizenship in 5 years (reduced from 11 years).

Cancellation of OCI Registration:

  • Allows for the cancellation of Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) registration for violations of the Citizenship Act or other laws.

Who is Eligible?

  • Targets those compelled to seek shelter in India due to religious persecution, protecting them from illegal migration proceedings.
  • Cut-off date for citizenship is December 31, 2014.


  • Excludes areas under the Constitution’s sixth schedule and states with an inner-line permit regime from the act’s applicability.



India ranked as the world’s leading arms importer during 2019-23, witnessing a 4.7% increase from 2014-18, as reported by SIPRI.

Russian arms deliveries constituted 36%, a notable shift from historical trends, marking the first time since 1960-64 that it accounted for less than half of India’s imports.

European Arms Imports:

  • European countries experienced a substantial 94% surge in arms imports from 2014-18 to 2019-23, primarily attributed to the war in Ukraine.
  • Ukraine, in this period, became the fourth-largest arms importer globally.

Budget Allocation (2024-25):

  • India allocated ₹6.2 lakh crore for defense in the 2024-25 budget, with ₹1.72 lakh crore dedicated to new procurements.
  • This budget marked a 5.78% increase from the previous fiscal year, emphasizing the nation’s commitment to strengthening its defense capabilities.

Global Arms Exports:

  • S. arms exports experienced a notable 17% growth, while Russian exports declined by over half.
  • France emerged as the world’s second-largest arms supplier, with significant exports to Asia, Oceania, and West Asia.

European Role:

  • Europe, contributing to one-third of global arms exports, showcased a robust military-industrial capacity.
  • Over half of Europe’s arms imports originated from the U.S., underlining the region’s reliance on American military technology.

French Exports:

  • France secured its position as the second-largest arms supplier globally, with India accounting for nearly 30% of its exports.
  • Combat aircraft deliveries to India, Qatar, and Egypt played a pivotal role in France’s arms export success.

Future Projections:

  • European arms imports are anticipated to remain substantial, driven by numerous high-value orders, including almost 800 combat aircraft and helicopters.



India has recently achieved a significant milestone in its nuclear program by loading the core of the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), signaling progress toward the second stage of its three-stage nuclear program.

This development underscores India’s commitment to advancing its nuclear capabilities for energy independence.

The focus on thorium and the challenges in nuclear waste management play crucial roles in shaping the nation’s nuclear ambitions.

India’s Nuclear Program and PFBR Loading:

  • The loading of the PFBR core marks a key step in India’s three-stage nuclear program, powered by uranium and plutonium.
  • This signifies India’s pursuit of energy independence and the utilization of thorium reserves in the program’s third stage.

Understanding Nuclear Waste: Source and Characteristics:

  • In fission reactors, nuclear waste is generated when neutron bombardment causes certain elements’ nuclei to break apart, releasing energy and forming different elements.
  • Nuclear waste includes radioactive fission products produced during energy generation and elements resulting from uranium conversion.

Challenges in Nuclear Waste Management:

  • Managing hot and radioactive spent fuel poses a significant challenge, requiring underwater storage for cooling before transferring to long-term dry cask storage.
  • Countries with nuclear power programs, including the U.S., Canada, and Russia, face the challenge of accumulating substantial inventories of spent fuel, necessitating secure storage solutions.
  • Liquid waste treatment in nuclear power plants and proper disposal methods for different waste types are crucial aspects of effective waste management.

Nuclear Waste Disposal Methods:

  • Dry cask storage involves sealing spent fuel in large steel cylinders surrounded by inert gas, providing a secure long-term storage solution.
  • Geological disposal, burying nuclear waste underground in special containers within granite or clay, is advocated by some experts for long-term isolation from human activity.
  • Reprocessing, separating fissile from non-fissile material in spent fuel, offers higher fuel efficiency but raises challenges, including the generation of weapons-usable plutonium.

Issues Associated with Nuclear Waste Management:

  • Challenges in decontaminating and managing nuclear waste, as seen in cases like the Asse II salt mine in Germany and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in the U.S., highlight risks to the environment.
  • Uncertainties in the effectiveness of vitrification plants and the amount of untreated liquid waste, especially high-level waste, raise concerns.
  • Global repository failures in various countries emphasize the difficulty of finding safe and accepted solutions for nuclear waste disposal.

Costs and Impact on Nuclear Power Economics:

  • Waste management costs, constituting about 10% of total costs, impose economic burdens on nuclear power, estimated at $1.6-7.1 per MWh of nuclear energy.

India’s Nuclear Waste Handling Practices:

  • India has reprocessing plants in Trombay, Tarapur, and Kalpakkam, with Trombay producing plutonium for stage II reactors and nuclear weapons.
  • On-site storage and continuous monitoring for radioactivity address low and intermediate activity level waste generated during operation.
  • Delays in PFBR’s operation raise concerns about existing reprocessing facilities and the complexities associated with different fission product distributions.



Recently, the Lokpal of India, established by the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013, reached its full strength with the administration of oaths to three new members by the Chairperson, Shri Justice Ajay Manikrao Khanwilkar. This development is a significant step in enhancing the effectiveness of the anti-corruption ombudsman.

Lokpal of India:

  • Established by the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013, the Lokpal serves as an anti-corruption ombudsman.
  • Comprises a chairperson and a maximum of eight members, with at least 50% being judicial members, appointed through a transparent process.
  • Jurisdiction covers the Prime Minister, Ministers, Members of Parliament, government officials, and employees of government-controlled organizations.
  • Endowed with powers to inquire into corruption allegations, recommend actions, and initiate investigations based on complaints or suo motu.
  • The Lokpal has its Investigation Wing for preliminary inquiries, with cases referred to investigative agencies for further action.
  • Besides recommending criminal proceedings, the Lokpal suggests preventive measures and systemic reforms to curb corruption in public administration.
  • Appeals against Lokpal decisions can be made to the Supreme Court.

Challenges and Significance:

  • Challenges faced by the Lokpal include resource constraints and coordination issues with existing anti-corruption bodies.
  • Despite challenges, the Lokpal signifies a crucial step in combating corruption, fostering transparency, and ensuring accountability in governance.



Scientists voted against declaring a new geological epoch called the Anthropocene, reflecting human-induced planetary changes.

Anthropocene denotes the period when human activity significantly impacted Earth’s climate and ecosystems.

Anthropocene Definition:

  • Unofficial geological time unit coined by biologist Eugene Stormer and chemist Paul Crutzen in 2000.
  • Derives from Greek words anthropo (man) and cene (new).

Associated Phenomena:

  • Signifies human-induced global warming, sea-level rise, ocean acidification, soil erosion, deadly heat waves, and environmental degradation.

Geological Time Scale:

  • Earth’s history is divided into eons, eras, periods, epochs, and ages based on rock layers and fossils (stratigraphy).

Current Epoch – Holocene:

  • Officially, the current epoch is the Holocene, starting 11,700 years ago after the last major ice age.

Debate and Formal Adoption:

  • Ongoing debate among scientists regarding the distinction between Anthropocene and Holocene.
  • The term Anthropocene is not formally adopted by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS).
  • IUGS needs to determine if human-induced changes are evident in the Earth’s rock strata before declaring Anthropocene an epoch.



INS Tushil, India’s latest naval asset, commenced sea trials from Russia’s Baltiysk naval base recently.

About INS Tushil:

  • It is the first Krivak-III frigate acquired under Project 11356M, enhancing India’s naval capabilities.

Project 11356M Overview:

  • India signed an Inter-Governmental Agreement (IGA) with Russia in October 2016 to procure or construct four additional Admiral Grigorovich-class frigates (Project 11356M).
  • Russia is supplying two frigates (including INS Tushil), while India will build the remaining two domestically.

Features and Specifications:

  • The Talwar-class frigates, or Project 11356, are stealth-guided missile frigates designed to meet diverse naval warfare needs.
  • They incorporate stealth technology for low radar and underwater noise signatures.
  • Equipped with Indian and Russian systems, including surface-to-surface missiles, sonar systems, communication suites, and anti-submarine warfare systems.
  • Designed for operations in brown and blue waters, capable of combating submarines, warships, and air attacks independently or as part of formations.
  • Specifications: Displacement – 3620 tons, Length – 124.8 meters, Max Speed – 30 knots, Cruising Range – 4850 miles.



The Ministry of Jal Shakti has unveiled the 5th edition of the annual Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch the Rain (JSA: CTR 2024) campaign.

  • Originally initiated in 2019 as a “Jan Andolan” and transformed into an annual event in 2021, the campaign aims to foster water conservation at the grassroots level, encouraging active citizen participation.
  • Launched under the National Water Mission (NWM), which is part of the National Action Plan on Climate Change, this year’s theme, “Nari Shakti se Jal Shakti,” emphasizes the pivotal role of women in water and includes focused interventions like water conservation, rainwater harvesting, geo-tagging, and inventory creation.


March 13
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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