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March 14 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm


Banaskantha District Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union in Gujarat has embarked on a groundbreaking initiative, converting dung into Bio CNG (compressed natural gas) and fertilizer. This innovative approach not only addresses waste management but also creates new revenue streams for dairy farmers.

How Farmers Are Harnessing the Value of Dung:


  • An adult bovine animal produces 15-20 kg of fresh dung daily, while calves yield 5-10 kg.
  • Fresh dung, containing methane and water, is crucial for biogas production through anaerobic digestion.
  • Methane, a significant component of biogas, is generated in the rumen of bovines during fermentation.

Biogas Production Process:

  • Fresh dung is mixed with water to form a slurry and undergoes anaerobic digestion in a sealed vessel reactor for 35 days.
  • The digestion process includes hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis, resulting in biogas generation.
  • Biogas digesters reduce methane emissions from animal waste, contributing to greenhouse gas mitigation efforts.

Biogas Purification and Compression:

  • Raw biogas is purified to remove CO2, H2S, and moisture.
  • Purified biogas, compressed to 96-97% methane, is sold as BioCNG at Rs 72/kg.

Utilization of Slurry for Fertilizer Production:

  • After biogas production, the slurry undergoes dewatering and the separated solid residue is decomposed aerobically.
  • The decomposed solid residue is sold as PROM (phosphate-rich organic manure) or used for compost production.
  • The liquid part can be reused in the digester or sold as liquid-fermented organic manure.

Scalability and Replicability:

  • The BioCNG model is scalable, utilizing dung from district member unions.
  • Gujarat’s Kaira Union has a decentralized model involving Flexi Biogas plants, aiming for 10,000 installations.
  • Individual farmers can benefit from smaller Flexi plants for personal use and additional income generation.


Feedstock Management:

  • Ensuring a steady supply and quality of organic feedstock for animals is crucial.
  • Effective waste segregation and collection systems are needed to gather suitable feedstock.

Operational Efficiency:

  • Lack of knowledge and resources among individual farmers and smaller cooperatives may hinder proper maintenance of BioCNG plants.
  • Training programs, technical support, and standardized operating procedures are essential for efficient operations.

Technical and Financial Barriers:

  • Access to financing options like subsidies and low-interest loans can help overcome initial capital barriers.
  • Addressing technical challenges requires skilled labor, infrastructure development, and public-private partnerships.

Storage Systems for Biogas:

  • Efficient storage and distribution systems are needed for BioCNG to reach end-users.
  • Proper storage systems like gas holders or cylinders ensure a consistent supply of BioCNG.

Social Acceptance:

  • Overcoming misconceptions about dung gas being unhygienic is crucial for wider adoption.
  • Educational outreach and demonstrating the hygienic process are essential for promoting biogas models among rural farmers.

India’s Initiatives Related to Biogas:

Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation” (SATAT) Scheme:

  • A government scheme promoting the production of Compressed Biogas (CBG) from various biofuels, including dung, for use in transportation.


  • An initiative aimed at promoting the sustainable management of cattle dung and solid waste in rural areas through biogas production.

National Biogas Programme:

  • The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) supports the installation of biogas plants for cooking purposes in rural areas.
  • MNRE provides Central Financial Assistance (CFA) for setting up biogas plants, with varying amounts based on plant size.

Mains Question:

  1. “Discuss the challenges associated with managing the increasing volumes of solid waste and propose strategies for the safe disposal of toxic wastes to mitigate environmental hazards.” (150 WORDS)


March 14
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
Event Category: