Loading Events

« All Events

  • This event has passed.


May 17 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm



In 2023, South Asia witnessed significant internal displacements due to conflict and violence, with a notable concentration in India. A major contributing factor was the ethnic violence in Manipur, which alone accounted for 67,000 displacements.  

The Geneva-based Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) reported a total of 69,000 displacements in the region, the highest in India since 2018. 

Internal Displacement in South Asia (2023) 

  • Total Displacements: 69,000 due to conflict and violence. 
  • Major Incident: Manipur violence caused 67,000 displacements. 

Manipur Conflict 

  • Event: On May 3, 2023, a ‘Tribal Solidarity March’ in Manipur’s hill districts protested the Meitei community’s demand for Scheduled Tribe (ST) status. 
  • Clashes: The march led to ethnic clashes between the Meitei and Kuki communities, resulting in over 200 deaths. 
  • Court Involvement: Manipur High Court had called for the Meitei community to be recognized as a ST, causing tension with other local STs like the Kukis. 
  • Underlying Issues: Land disputes and resistance from existing STs were significant factors. 

Displacement Statistics 

  • Primary Locations: Most displacements were within Manipur, with some people moving to Mizoram, Nagaland, and Assam. 
  • Government Response: Curfews, internet shutdowns, security deployment, relief camps, and a peace committee were established. 

Broader Context 

  • 68.3 million people were displaced worldwide due to conflict and violence by the end of 2023. 
  • Other Major Conflicts: Significant displacements occurred in Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Palestinian territories. 
  • Comparison: Sudan saw six million displacements in 2023, the second-highest after Ukraine’s 16.9 million in 2022. 


  • Roots of displacement: The Rohingya have faced persecution in Myanmar for decades, denied citizenship and basic rights. Military crackdowns in 2017 escalated dramatically, with allegations of mass killings, rape, and burning of villages. 
  • Scale of displacement: Over 700,000 Rohingya fled to Bangladesh, creating massive refugee camps with strained resources. 
  • Current situation: The Rohingya remain stateless and largely confined to the camps in Bangladesh. Repatriation efforts haven’t been successful due to security concerns in Myanmar. 

Natural Disasters 

  • Combined Impact: Including natural disasters, total internally displaced persons reached 75.9 million by the end of 2023.This was an increase from 71.1 million at the end of 2022. 

The Global Report on Internal Displacement 2023 (GRID-2023) indicated that in 2022, more than 32 million people were displaced due to disasters, with 98% of these displacements caused by weather-related events such as floods and storms. 


Internal displacement occurs when individuals are compelled to vacate their residences but remain within the confines of their nation’s borders. 

Factors of Displacement 

  • Conflict and Violence 
  • Development Projects 
  • Disasters 
  • Climate Change 

Internal displacement is characterized by two main components: 

  • Involuntary Movement: The movement is not by choice. 
  • Internal Boundaries: The displaced individuals remain within their country’s borders. 

Difference from Refugee 

  • Unlike refugees, internally displaced people (IDPs) have not crossed international borders and are not protected by international conventions. 

Challenges Faced by IDPs 

  • Threat of physical attacks 
  • Sexual- or gender-based violence 
  • Family separation 
  • Lack of adequate shelter 
  • Insufficient food and health services 
  • Limited access to livelihoods 

Internal Displacement in India – Policy Framework 

  • India lacks a national policy or legal framework to address the issues of refugees or IDPs. 
  • The country has not ratified the 1951 Refugee Convention or the 1967 Protocol. 
  • India does not permit the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) access to most refugee groups. 

Factors of Internal Displacement in India 

  • Secessionist movements 
  • Identity-based autonomy movements 
  • Localized violence 
  • Environmental factors 
  • Development-induced displacement 

Multiple choice question: 

  1. Consider the following statements:
  1. India is a signatory to the UN Convention on Refugees. 
  1. The Rohingyas are classified as refugees by the Indian Government. 
  1. The Government of India launched “Operation Insaniyat” to help Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. 

Which of the above statements is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only 
  1. 2 and 3 only 
  1. 1 and 2 only 
  1. 3 only 



India has not signed the UN Convention on Refugees, thus Rohingya individuals are labeled as “Illegal Migrants” by the Indian Government. The Ministry of External Affairs has initiated Operation Insaniyat to extend support to Bangladesh amidst the humanitarian crisis triggered by the significant influx of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar. Option C is correct. 



India has held the unfortunate record of having the most internet shutdowns globally for six consecutive years. 

  • In 2023 alone, internet access was blocked a staggering 116 times. 

Reasons for Shutdowns: 

  • Communal tension and violence 
  • Public exams 
  • Other unspecified reasons 

Criticism and Impact: 

  • These shutdowns have been heavily criticized by both domestic and international civil society groups. 
  • A particular concern is the stifling of information flow, especially in conflict zones like Manipur. 
  • The report highlights the silencing of potential evidence of human rights abuses, hindering accountability. 

Shifting Strategy: 

  • The report notes a shift in how shutdowns are implemented. 
  • Instead of localized blockages, regional shutdowns are becoming more frequent. 
  • This is exemplified by internet shutdowns across Punjab and Manipur. 

Global Comparison: 

  • While India leads the pack, other countries also resort to shutdowns. 
  • Myanmar (37), Iran (34), Palestine (16), and Ukraine (8) followed India in 2023. 

Anuradha Bhasin Verdict: Internet Access as a Basic Right 

In a landmark judgment in January 2020, India’s Supreme Court declared that internet access is a fundamental right protected by the Constitution. 

This decision stemmed from a case (Anuradha Bhasin vs Union of India) challenging internet restrictions imposed in Jammu and Kashmir. 

Curbing Internet Shutdowns 

  • The Court set clear guidelines for the government when considering internet restrictions. 
  • Any limitations must be temporary and legally justified. 
  • They must be truly necessary and not excessive (proportionate). 
  • The Court emphasized that such restrictions can be challenged in court. 

Impact of the Judgment 

This verdict aimed to significantly reduce internet shutdowns by the government, allowing them only in exceptional circumstances like emergencies or serious threats to public safety. 

Issues with internet shutdowns in India 

Defying the Supreme Court 

  • Fundamental Right: Supreme Court ruled in 2020 that internet access is a fundamental right. 
  • Government Actions: Despite this, the government continues to impose shutdowns, raising concerns about legal adherence. 

Secrecy Shrouds Shutdowns 

  • Transparency Issues: Lack of transparency in suspension orders. 
  • Accountability: Difficult to assess justifications and hold authorities accountable. 

Limited Legal Options 

  • Challenges in Court: Secrecy makes it hard for citizens to legally challenge shutdowns. 
  • Information Barrier: Without clear justifications, legal challenges are difficult. 

Nationwide Non-Compliance 

  • Widespread Issue: Internet shutdowns are not confined to Jammu and Kashmir. 
  • Supreme Court Ruling: Lack of nationwide compliance with the ruling. 

Impact of internet shutdown 

  • Silenced Voices, Stifled Democracy: Shutdowns curb free speech and access to information, hindering democratic processes and public discourse. 
  • Economic Strain: Businesses relying on the internet suffer losses, impacting e-commerce and online services, and potentially slowing economic growth. 
  • Education Disrupted: Students lose access to online learning resources and communication tools, hindering educational progress. 
  • Emergency Response Hindered:  Coordinating disaster relief and rescue efforts gets hampered, potentially delaying critical aid. 
  • Misinformation Spreads: Rumors and false information can flourish in the absence of reliable online sources. 

Multiple choice question: 

  1. The Right to Privacy is safeguarded as an essential part of the Right to Life and Personal Liberty. Which of the following provisions in the Constitution of India correctly reflect this statement?
  1. The stipulations outlined in Article 14 alongside the amendments introduced by the 42nd Amendment to the Constitution. 
  1. The principles enshrined in Article 17 and the guidelines articulated in Part IV concerning the Directive Principles of State Policy. 
  1. The rights safeguarded by Article 21 in conjunction with the liberties ensured in Part III. 
  1. The regulations prescribed in Article 24 and the amendments established by the 44th Amendment to the Constitution. 



Article 21: Protects the Right to Life and Personal Liberty. The Supreme Court of India has interpreted this to include the Right to Privacy as an intrinsic part of these rights. 

Part III: Contains the Fundamental Rights, which include various freedoms that support the protection of privacy. 

Therefore, Article 21 and the freedoms guaranteed in Part III of the Constitution appropriately imply the protection of the Right to Privacy. Option C is correct. 



India’s Supreme Court issued a landmark decision protecting the rights of those arrested under anti-terror laws. The Court expanded a key legal safeguard, requiring authorities to clearly inform arrested individuals of the reasons for their detention. 

 This ruling applies not only to financial crimes but also to terrorism cases, ensuring fairer treatment for those accused. 

Supreme Court Protects Rights in Anti-Terror Case 

  • The Supreme Court of India recently expanded a key legal protection for those arrested. 
  • This right requires authorities to inform the arrested individual of the reasons for arrest in writing. 
  • Previously applied to the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), it now extends to the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA), a stringent anti-terror law. 

Importance of Safeguards: 

  • The Court emphasized the importance of upholding fundamental rights like freedom and due process (Articles 20, 21, and 22 of the Indian Constitution). 
  • UAPA grants broad powers to the state, including relaxed deadlines for charges and stricter bail conditions compared to regular criminal law. 
  • Extending procedural safeguards helps ensure fairness in UAPA cases. 

NewsClick Editor’s Case: 

  • The Court’s ruling is based on the case of Prabir Purkayastha, editor of NewsClick. 
  • He was arrested under UAPA provisions, but the Court found flaws in the arrest procedures. 
  • These included hurried actions, lack of proper information about charges, and potential alteration of arrest documents. 

Court’s Stance: 

  • The Court avoided commenting on the specific charges against Purkayastha, but highlighted the procedural lapses. 
  • The order emphasizes the right of the accused to be informed about the reasons for arrest and criticizes the lack of transparency in the initial investigation. 


  • This decision sets a precedent for ensuring proper procedures are followed in UAPA arrests. 
  • It strengthens legal protections for individuals accused of terror-related crimes. 

Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA): A Balancing Act? 

What is UAPA? 

  • Passed in 1967, UAPA is a law designed to combat terrorism and other threats to national security in India. 
  • It empowers agencies like the NIA to investigate and prosecute these cases. 
  • The Act defines terrorism broadly and allows for harsh punishments, including the death penalty. 
  • It also permits preventive detention of suspects without charges for up to 180 days. 

Arguments For UAPA 

  • National Security: Proponents argue UAPA is crucial for safeguarding the nation by allowing preventive measures against potential threats. 
  • Effective Counterterrorism: Supporters see UAPA as a comprehensive tool for law enforcement to fight terrorism through investigation, prosecution, and asset seizure. 
  • Global Alignment: Some believe UAPA helps India meet its international obligations to combat terrorism. 
  • Stronger Prosecutions: UAPA allows for using modern investigative techniques to build stronger cases against terror suspects. 
  • Deterrence: The Act’s harsh penalties are seen as a deterrent to discourage participation in unlawful activities. 

Examples Supporting UAPA 

  • Designating terrorist organizations like Lashkar-e-Taiba. 
  • Prosecuting those involved in the 26/11 Mumbai attacks. 

Arguments Against UAPA 

  • Potential for Misuse: Critics argue UAPA’s broad definitions and investigative powers can be misused to target activists, minorities, or those dissenting against the government. 
  • Due Process Issues: The allowance for lengthy detentions without charges raises concerns about violating an individual’s right to a fair trial. 
  • Silencing Dissent: The fear of being labelled a terrorist under UAPA may discourage legitimate dissent and criticism of the government. 
  • Unsubstantiated Charges: There have been cases where individuals were arrested under UAPA with weak evidence or unclear justifications. 

Examples of Concerns 

  • Arrest of activists like Stan Swamy under UAPA. 
  • Detention of student leaders like Safoora Zargar during protests. 

The UAPA remains a controversial law in India. While some view it as essential for national security, others fear it can be a tool for stifling dissent and violating fundamental rights. The ongoing debate highlights the need to find a balance between security concerns and upholding individual liberties. 

Multiple choice question: 

  1. Consider the following statements regarding the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) of 1967:
  1. The act is applicable even if the offense is committed outside India. 
  1. Both the Union and state governments have the power to designate an individual or an organization as a terrorist. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only 
  1. 2 only 
  1. Both 1 and 2 
  1. Neither 1 nor 2 



Statement 1: The UAPA applies to offenses committed outside of India. 

Statement 2: Both the Union and state governments can designate individuals or organizations as terrorists. Both statements are correct. 



The Supreme Court of India has issued a significant directive to authorities in Rajasthan regarding mining activities near critical tiger habitats. This directive aims to safeguard the natural habitats of tigers, emphasizing the importance of wildlife conservation. 

Court’s Reminder: 

  • Prohibited mining within a 1-km radius of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. 
  • Extension of prohibition to critical tiger reserves as protected areas. 

Definition of Protected Areas: 

  • Includes national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and critical tiger habitats. 
  • Emphasizes the importance of preserving these areas for wildlife conservation. 

Contempt of Court Orders: 

  • Mining within 1-km radius of critical tiger reserves deemed as contempt. 
  • Highlights strict enforcement of conservation measures. 

Concerns Raised: 

  • Demarcation issues around Sariska wildlife sanctuary. 
  • Critical tiger habitat boundaries extend to buffer zone outer boundary. 

What are Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs)? 

Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs) are designated areas falling within a 10-km radius of the boundaries of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. They are established under the Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986, as eco-fragile zones to ensure the protection of delicate ecosystems and wildlife habitats. 

Prohibited Activities: 

  • Commercial mining 
  • Establishment of major Hydroelectric Projects (HEP) 
  • Commercial use of wood 

Regulated Activities: 

  • Establishment of hotels and resorts 
  • Commercial use of natural water 
  • Drastic changes in agricultural systems, such as adopting heavy technology and pesticides 
  • Widening of roads 

Permitted Activities: 

  • Rainwater harvesting 
  • Organic farming 
  • Use of renewable energy sources 

Significance of ESZs: 

Protect Core Ecological Areas: 

  • Acts as a buffer zone, reducing the impact from activities like construction and pollution 
  • Minimizes threats to wildlife and ecosystems 
  • Promotes in-situ conservation within natural habitats 

Ensure Sustainable Development 

  • Reduces human-wildlife conflict by minimizing disturbances 
  • Encourages sustainable practices in surrounding communities 
  • Creates a transition zone between high-protection and lower-restriction areas, facilitating balanced development while conserving biodiversity. 


Kasturirangan Committee (2012): 

  • Established by the Indian government to examine recommendations of the Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP), also known as the Gadgil Committee. 
  • Focused on balancing environmental conservation with development needs in the ecologically sensitive Western Ghats region. 
  • Proposed designating 37% of the Western Ghats (around 60,000 sq km) as Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs) with stricter regulations on activities like mining and industry. 

Gadgil Committee (WGEEP, 2010): 

  • Formed to assess the ecological condition of the Western Ghats and recommend conservation strategies. 
  • Emphasized stricter environmental protection measures, including designating a larger area (over 50%) of the Western Ghats as ESZs. 
  • Faced criticism from some sectors for potentially hindering development activities in the region. 

Key Differences: 

  • Approach: Kasturirangan Committee took a more balanced approach, considering both conservation and development. The Gadgil Committee prioritized stricter environmental protection. 
  • Area Coverage: Kasturirangan proposed a smaller area for ESZs compared to the Gadgil Committee. 
  • Both committees played a crucial role in highlighting the importance of environmental protection in the Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot facing various threats. 



Despite being declared a Tiger Reserve 46 years ago, Sariska, one of the initial 12 reserves in India, still lacks proper land ownership documentation in the state’s revenue records. 

  • Situated in Alwar district, Rajasthan, Sariska Tiger Reserve spans over 800 square kilometers within the Aravali Hills. 
  • History: Initially a hunting ground for the Maharaja of Alwar, it was declared a natural reserve in 1955 and upgraded to a national park in 1979. 
  • Significance: It holds historical importance and is renowned for being the first reserve globally to successfully relocate tigers. 
  • Tourist Attractions: Besides wildlife, Sariska boasts ancient temples, palaces, and scenic lakes such as Pandu Pol, Bhangarh Fort, and Siliserh Lake. 
  • Topography: Characterized by rocky landscapes, scrub forests, grasslands, and semi-deciduous woodlands, it offers diverse habitats. 
  • Vegetation: The sanctuary primarily features dhok trees, alongside species like salar, kadaya, and bamboo, typical of Northern Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests. 
  • Wildlife: Apart from tigers, Sariska is home to leopards, sambhars, nilgais, wild boars, langurs, and various bird species, enriching its biodiversity. 



The Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C), under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), aims to combat cybercrime in India through coordinated efforts. It focuses on enhancing coordination among Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) and stakeholders. 


  • Situated in New Delhi, I4C serves as a central hub for addressing cybercrime-related issues nationwide. 


  • Acts as a focal point in the fight against cybercrime. 
  • Conducts research and development activities to develop new technologies and forensic tools in collaboration with academia and research institutes. 
  • Prevents the misuse of cyberspace by extremist and terrorist groups. 
  • Recommends amendments to cyber laws to keep pace with evolving technologies. 
  • Coordinates activities related to Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLAT) with other countries in combating cybercrimes. 


  • National Cybercrime Threat Analytics Unit (TAU): Reports cybercrime threats regularly. 
  • National Cybercrime Reporting Portal (NCRP): Allows citizens to report cybercrime complaints nationwide. 
  • National Cybercrime Training Centre (NCTC): Provides training to government officials, especially state law enforcement agencies. 
  • National Cybercrime Research and Innovation Centre: Conducts research for developing indigenous cybercrime prevention tools. 
  • Platform for Joint Cyber Crime Coordination Team: Facilitates coordination and information sharing among LEAs. 
  • Cybercrime Ecosystem Management Unit: Raises awareness about cyber hygiene. 
  • National Cybercrime Forensic Laboratory (Investigation) Ecosystem: Assists LEAs in cyber forensics investigation. 


  • Cyber Crime Volunteers Program: Engages citizens to contribute to the fight against cybercrime. 
  • Citizen Financial Cyber Fraud Reporting and Management System: Facilitates immediate reporting of financial cyber frauds. 
  • National Toll-free Helpline number ‘1930’: Provides citizen assistance in lodging online cyber complaints. 
  • CyberDost handle on social media: Raises cyber awareness among citizens. 



Recently, Earth experienced the most potent geomagnetic storm in more than twenty years, resulting in radio signal disruptions and extending the occurrence of auroras, typically seen in northern regions, to as far south as the United States. 

Geomagnetic Storms: 

  • Definition: Geomagnetic storms are disturbances in Earth’s magnetosphere caused by a rapid exchange of energy from the solar wind into the space environment around Earth. 
  • Causes: These storms occur due to variations in the solar wind, particularly sustained periods of high-speed solar wind and a southward-directed solar wind magnetic field. 
  • Association with CMEs: The most significant geomagnetic storms are linked to solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs), where large amounts of plasma from the sun, along with its embedded magnetic field, impact Earth. 


  • Intense currents in the magnetosphere. 
  • Changes in the radiation belts and ionosphere, leading to heating and auroras. 
  • Disruption of long-range radio communication, satellite orbits, and electronics. 
  • Disturbance of global navigation systems and induction of harmful currents in power grids and pipelines. 

Solar Wind: 

  • Definition: Solar wind is a continuous stream of protons and electrons emanating from the sun’s corona. 
  • Characteristics: It travels through the solar system at varying speeds and densities, typically ranging from 250 to 500 miles per second, in a plasma state. 
  • Composition: Charged particles in the solar wind carry the solar magnetic field outward from the sun. 
  • Impact on Earth: Upon reaching Earth, the solar wind interacts with Earth’s magnetosphere, sending charged particles along magnetic field lines towards the poles, leading to geomagnetic storms and phenomena like auroras. 



Scientists at CSIR-CCMB developed a unique ‘eDNA-based quantitative PCR assay’ to track the spread of invasive species like the armoured sailfin catfish. 

About Sailfin catfish 

  • Sailfin catfish also known as Rakashior devil fish, the armoured sailfin catfish belongs to the genus Pterygoplichthys and is recognized as an invasive species. 
  • Characteristics: This species is adaptable, capable of surviving on a varied diet and enduring low oxygen levels. Remarkably, it can even move on land using its robust fins. 
  • Introduction: Initially introduced for its unique appearance and algae-cleaning abilities in tanks and aquariums, it has now spread extensively in water bodies, particularly in the Eastern Ghats. 
  • Invasiveness: Among the 14 invasive species listed by the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) of India, six were introduced for the ornamental fish trade, with four belonging to the Pterygoplichthys genus, making it one of the most invasive fish genera. 
  • Impact: Armoured sailfin catfish poses a threat to native fish populations and the delicate aquatic ecosystem. Its sharp spines and robust body damage fishing nets and have caused injuries to fishermen. 

eDNA (Environmental DNA): 

  • Definition: Environmental DNA is genetic material shed by organisms into their surroundings through natural processes, which can be sampled and monitored using molecular methods. 
  • Source: It originates from cellular material shed by organisms into aquatic or terrestrial environments, such as skin cells or excrement. 


May 17
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
Event Category:
error: Content is protected !!