Loading Events

« All Events

  • This event has passed.


February 24 @ 7:00 am - 11:00 pm


Recent developments along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) between India and China have raised concerns regarding the occupation of previously vacant “Xiaokang” border defence villages by Chinese nationals.

These villages, constructed by China in 2019, have strategic implications for the Indian Army.

Xiaokang Border Defence Villages:

Model Villages:

  • Xiaokang or “well-off villages” border defence villages are part of China’s strategic infrastructure development initiative along its borders, particularly the LAC with India.
  • Notable areas of occupation include villages across from Lohit Valley and the Tawang sector of Arunachal Pradesh.

Dual-use Infrastructure:

  • Designed for both civilian settlement and military presence, they are characterized as “dual-use infrastructure.”
  • Built in regions of contested territorial claims or where there is a perceived need to reinforce sovereignty.

Concerns for India:

Territorial Claims:

  • China’s construction of 628 such villages along India’s borders signifies efforts to assert territorial claims, raising concerns for Indian military strategists.

Military Implications:

  • Potential dual-use nature raises concerns about increased militarization along the already tense LAC.

Uncertain Intentions:

  • Lack of transparency regarding civilian population purpose and scale hinders trust-building efforts.

India’s Initiatives along the LAC:

Vibrant Villages Program:

  • Aims to modernize 663 border villages, including 17 along the China-India border in Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh.

Border Roads Organization (BRO):

  • Completed 90 infrastructure projects worth Rs 2,941 crore along the India–China border.
  • Major highways under construction to improve connectivity, particularly in Arunachal Pradesh and the Tawang region.

Border Area Development Programme (BADP):

  • Addresses special developmental needs of people living in remote areas near the international border.


  • Constructing strategic rail lines in the Northeast region to facilitate swift mobilization of the Indian army.



Serves as the boundary separating Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory. India asserts it to be 3,488 km, while China contends it to be approximately 2,000 km.


·      Primary disputes arise from alignment differences in sectors like the eastern and western sectors.

India’s Response:

·      Initially rejected the concept but shifted approach in the mid-1980s, culminating in the Agreement to Maintain Peace and Tranquility at the LAC in 1993.

Recent Episodes:

·      Serious conflicts in Galwan Valley in 2020 and in Tawang in 2022 have escalated tensions.

Comparison with Line of Control (LoC):

·      LoC with Pakistan has international legal validity and is delineated on a map, unlike the LAC, which lacks consensus and is not officially demarcated.

Mains Question:

  1. Discuss the strategic implications of China’s “Xiaokang” Border Defence Villages along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) with India, highlighting India’s concerns (150 WORDS)


February 24
7:00 am - 11:00 pm
Event Category: