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April 25 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm


The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) is a significant initiative launched by the Indian government to achieve the goal of a Clean India by addressing sanitation issues in both rural and urban areas.  

The mission, inaugurated on October 2, 2014, aligns with Mahatma Gandhi’s vision of cleanliness as essential for a healthy and prosperous life.  

SBM encompasses various components aimed at improving sanitation infrastructure, promoting behavioral change, and ensuring the cleanliness of schools and public places. 

Swachh Bharat Mission for Urban Areas: 

Phase 1: 

  • Objective: The first phase of SBM for urban areas aimed to eliminate open defecation, convert unsanitary toilets to pour flush toilets, eradicate manual scavenging, and manage municipal solid waste effectively. 
  • Components: The program included the construction of community toilets, public toilets in designated locations such as markets and bus stations, and solid waste management facilities in towns. 
  • Funding: The central government provided financial assistance for the construction of community toilets, with states and urban local bodies contributing additional funds. 
  • Focus Areas: Behavioral change regarding healthy sanitation practices and the provision of essential sanitation infrastructure were the primary focus areas during this phase. 

Phase 2: 

  • Objective: SBM-U 2.0 aimed to make all cities garbage-free, ensure grey and black water management, and achieve safe sanitation in urban areas. 
  • Components: The second phase emphasized source segregation of solid waste, scientific processing of municipal solid waste, wastewater treatment, and capacity building for sustainable sanitation. 
  • Funding: An outlay of approximately Rs. 1.41 lakh crore was allocated for SBM-U 2.0 for the period 2021-22 to 2025-26. 
  • Sustainable Sanitation: Construction of toilets, wastewater treatment, solid waste management, and information, education, and communication initiatives were the key components of this phase. 

Swachh Bharat Mission for Rural Areas: 

Phase 1: 

  • Objective: The rural component of SBM, initially known as Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, aimed to make rural areas open defecation free (ODF) and improve cleanliness through solid and liquid waste management. 
  • Components: The mission focused on constructing individual household latrines (IHHLs), providing incentives for toilet construction, and ensuring water availability for sanitation purposes. 
  • Funding: Central and state governments provided financial assistance for toilet construction, with higher incentives for households below the poverty line (BPL) and special category states. 
  • Incentive Scheme: The mission incentivized toilet construction, with the central government providing up to Rs. 9,000 per IHHL for eligible households. 

Phase 2: 

  • Objective: SBM-G Phase-II aimed to sustain the ODF status achieved in Phase-I and focus on solid and liquid waste management (SLWM) in rural areas. 
  • Components: This phase emphasized sustainability of ODF status, SLWM activities, and convergence between different government schemes. 
  • Funding: A total outlay of Rs. 1,40,881 crores was approved for Phase-II, with a focus on sustaining sanitation achievements and promoting SLWM initiatives. 

Additional Components of SBM: 

Swachh Vidyalaya Abhiyan: 

  • Objective: To ensure separate toilets for boys and girls in all government schools within one year. 
  • Implementation: The Ministry of Education supports states/union territories financially to provide school toilets under schemes such as Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA). 

Rashtriya Swachhata Kosh: 

  • Objective: To facilitate individual philanthropic contributions and corporate social responsibility (CSR) funds for cleanliness initiatives. 
  • Usage: The funds from the Kosh are utilized to improve cleanliness levels in rural and urban areas, including schools, through various activities. 


  • Objective: To convert biodegradable waste into compressed biogas (CBG) and augment farmers’ income. 
  • Implementation: Launched by the Ministry of Jal Shakti, the scheme aims to address waste management while promoting sustainable energy solutions. 


The Swachh Bharat Mission is a comprehensive initiative that addresses sanitation challenges across rural and urban areas of India.  

Through its various phases and components, SBM aims to achieve the goal of a Clean India by promoting behavioral change, improving sanitation infrastructure, and ensuring sustainable waste management practices. 

Mains Question: 

  1. “Discuss the significance of the Swachh Bharat Mission in addressing sanitation challenges in both rural and urban areas of India, highlighting its key components and objectives.” (150 WORDS)


April 25
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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