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October 26, 2023 @ 7:30 am - 11:30 pm



The Lok Sabha Ethics Committee plays a pivotal role in overseeing the moral and ethical conduct of Members of Parliament (MPs). Established as an ad hoc entity over two decades ago, this committee has dealt with various complaints concerning the conduct of MPs. In this article, we explore the history, constitution, and members of the Lok Sabha Ethics Committee.

History of Ethics Committees:

  • 1996 Proposal: The idea of ethics committees for both Houses of Parliament was first proposed during a Presiding Officers’ Conference held in Delhi in 1996.
  • Rajya Sabha Ethics Committee: Then Vice President K. R. Narayanan, who was also the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, established the Ethics Committee for the Upper House on March 4, 1997. This committee aimed to oversee the moral and ethical conduct of Rajya Sabha members and examine cases of misconduct referred to it.
  • Lok Sabha’s Delay: In the case of the Lok Sabha, the House Committee of Privileges recommended the constitution of an Ethics Committee after studying practices related to the conduct and ethics of legislators in Australia, the UK, and the US in 1997. However, it took several years for this recommendation to be acted upon.
  • Ad Hoc Committee: An ad hoc Ethics Committee was finally constituted in the Lok Sabha in 2000, but it only became a permanent part of the House in 2015.

Notable Case: The 2005 Cash-for-Query Case:

  • Expulsion of MPs: In 2005, both the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha adopted motions to expel several MPs who were accused of accepting money in exchange for asking questions in Parliament.
  • Sting Operation: The Lok Sabha motion was based on the report of a special committee established by the Speaker under MP P. K. Bansal to investigate the issue. This motion stemmed from a sting operation.
  • Appeal for Privileges Committee: Following their expulsion, the BJP demanded that the Bansal Committee’s report be referred to the Privileges Committee so that the accused MPs could defend themselves.

Lok Sabha Ethics Committee Members:

  • The members of the Ethics Committee are appointed by the Lok Sabha Speaker and serve a one-year term.
  • The Committee is currently headed by Kaushambi MP Vinod Kumar Sonkar from the BJP. Other members represent various political parties, including the Congress, YSR Congress, Shiv Sena, JD-U, CPI-M, and BSP.

Procedure for Complaints:

  • Complaint Submission: Any person can file a complaint against an MP through another Lok Sabha MP. The complaint should include evidence of the alleged misconduct and an affidavit confirming that the complaint is not false, frivolous, or vexatious. If the MP in question submits the complaint, an affidavit is not necessary.
  • Speaker’s Referral: The Speaker can refer any complaint against an MP to the Ethics Committee. However, the Committee does not entertain complaints solely based on media reports or on matters that are sub judice (under judicial consideration).
  • Prima Facie Inquiry: The Committee conducts a prima facie inquiry before deciding whether to examine a complaint, followed by an evaluation of the complaint.
  • Recommendations and House Consideration: The Committee submits its recommendations to the Speaker, who then seeks the House’s opinion on whether the report should be considered. There is also provision for a half-hour discussion on the report.


The Lok Sabha Ethics Committee serves a vital role in ensuring the ethical conduct of MPs. It has a rich history, including the significant 2005 Cash-for-Query case, and its current composition includes members from various political parties. The procedure for handling complaints ensures a fair evaluation of alleged misconduct, and the Committee’s findings can be discussed in the House. As the Committee convenes to address various complaints, it continues to play a crucial role in upholding ethical standards in Indian parliamentary proceedings.



The participation of married women in India’s labor force holds significant implications for the nation’s economic growth and women’s empowerment. To address the declining labor force participation rate (LFPR) among married women, it is essential to understand the challenges they face and propose solutions.

Challenges in Married Women’s Labor Market Participation:

  • Influence of Marriage: Marriage often leads to a reduction in women’s LFPR due to factors such as limited educational opportunities, increased family responsibilities, and societal norms that discourage women from working outside their homes.
  • Societal and Cultural Barriers: Religious, caste, geographical, and wealth-based factors, along with prevailing societal norms, significantly hinder the labor participation of married women, amplifying the disparities compared to their unmarried counterparts.
  • Professional Costs: The return to work for married women is influenced by the need for flexible, location-friendly job opportunities. Societal constraints result in gender disparities in career choices, income, age at marriage, and family planning decisions.
  • Educational Attainment: Education plays a crucial role in married women’s labor participation. Less-educated women often enter the workforce after marriage due to economic constraints.

Recent Trends in Married Women’s Labor Participation:

  • Declining LFPR: Recent data indicates a 5% decline in LFPR among married women aged 25 to 49 in 2022-23, dropping from 50% in 2004-05 to 45% in 2022-23, with the most significant decline in the 25-29 age group.
  • Educational Influence: Lower levels of education correlate with a higher likelihood of labor force participation after marriage.
  • Sectoral Employment: The agriculture sector remains the primary source of female employment in India.

Solutions to Promote Married Women’s Labor Force Participation:

  • Enhanced Day-Care Services: The improvement of day-care services and crèches is crucial for encouraging women’s participation in the labor force. This should be accessible across different socio-economic strata in both formal and informal sectors.
  • National Creche Scheme: Expanding government initiatives like the National Creche Scheme for the Children of Working Mothers in both public and private sectors can promote married women’s labor force participation.
  • Women-Centric Workplaces: Creating work environments that prioritize women’s needs, offering secure transportation options, and expanding part-time job opportunities can significantly increase married women’s participation in the labor market.


Married women’s limited participation in the Indian workforce has substantial economic implications. Addressing this challenge is essential for women’s empowerment, particularly during periods of high economic growth. Efforts to enhance day-care services, expand initiatives like the National Creche Scheme, and create women-friendly workplaces are crucial steps in improving married women’s labor market participation. This, in turn, contributes to economic progress and fosters gender equality.



The evolution of the pink bollworm into a formidable threat for Bt cotton in India has posed a significant challenge to cotton farmers. This pest has become even more troublesome than the American bollworm, leading to substantial losses in cotton crops.

The Cotton Curse Unveiled:

  • Bt Cotton Introduction: Bt cotton, genetically modified for insect resistance, was introduced in India in 2002, inspired by its success in the United States and Australia.
  • American Bollworm: Prior to Bt cotton, the American bollworm was the primary threat to cotton crops in India, developing resistance to various insecticides between 1985 and 2002, leading to severe economic losses.
  • The Emergence of Pink Bollworm Resistance: In 2005, scientists began monitoring the resistance of pests to Bt cotton. In 2008, the first signs of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton were detected in Gujarat. By 2009-10, this resistance to Cry1Ac gene was confirmed.
  • Expanding Resistance: Subsequently, pink bollworm resistance was found in Maharashtra and southern states by 2017-18 and became resistant to Cry2Ab gene by 2014. In 2021-22, a pink bollworm outbreak was reported in Punjab and Haryana.
  • Evolving Threat: Pink bollworm’s unique behavior, feeding from inside the cotton bolls, makes it a formidable adversary as it remains elusive during initial stages, causing extensive damage that is often irreversible.

Impact on Farmers:

  • Worse than American Bollworm: Farmers report that pink bollworm infestation is even more devastating than the American bollworm, causing losses exceeding 100% of the investment cost.
  • Economic Fallout: The damage inflicted by pink bollworm requires extensive labor and additional costs for crop removal and land preparation for re-sowing, setting cotton farming back considerably.


The pink bollworm’s resistance to Bt cotton has grown into a significant challenge for cotton farmers in India. Understanding this issue and implementing effective solutions is crucial to mitigate the economic impact and sustain the cotton industry.



The ongoing Brazzaville Summit of the Three Basins, which brings together delegates from the Amazon, Congo, Borneo-Mekong, and Southeast Asia, underscores the urgency of protecting the world’s tropical forests. These regions face increasing threats from the expansion of fossil fuel, mining, and extractive industries, posing a grave danger to the environment, biodiversity, and the well-being of indigenous peoples and local communities.

Challenges and Consequences:

  • Widespread Threats: The report, authored by Earth Insight and other non-profit organizations, highlights the substantial challenges confronting the tropical forest basins. These regions are experiencing extensive forest loss and are on the verge of ecosystem breakdown, endangering global climate stability and local communities.
  • Resource Concessions: A significant portion of the intact tropical forests in these regions, around 20%, is currently under active or potential oil and gas concessions, while approximately 25% of the Amazon and Congo basins have active or potential mining concessions.
  • Impact on Communities: These expansions affect over 200 million people, including a substantial indigenous and local population, jeopardizing their traditional ways of life and the environment.

Solutions and Urgent Action:

  • Appeal for Protection: The report calls on world leaders participating in the Summit to commit to safeguarding the forests in these regions and to prioritize indigenous peoples and local communities’ interests in the discussions.
  • Immediate Moratorium: The report emphasizes the need for an immediate moratorium on industrial activities within primary and intact forests, creating space for balanced regional and international solutions that consider economic development and environmental sustainability.


The Brazzaville Summit of the Three Basins provides a crucial opportunity for global leaders to address the pressing challenges facing tropical forests in the Amazon, Congo, Borneo-Mekong, and Southeast Asia. By taking swift and decisive action, leaders can protect these vital ecosystems, ensure the well-being of indigenous communities, and contribute to the preservation of our planet.



Bhutan’s Foreign Minister Tandi Dorji’s recent visit to China marks a significant development in the region’s geopolitical landscape. This unprecedented visit, combined with discussions on boundary matters, raises concerns for India, which shares a unique relationship with Bhutan.

Challenges and Opportunities:

  • Historical First: Tandi Dorji’s visit is the first of its kind, highlighting Bhutan’s intent to engage with China, despite not having formal diplomatic ties.
  • Progress in Talks: The discussions yielded progress, with a cooperation agreement on boundary delineation and demarcation, potentially leading to diplomatic relations.
  • India’s Concerns: India, with its special relationship with Bhutan, is concerned about the possibility of diplomatic relations between Bhutan and China.
  • Bhutan-India Coordination: Given Bhutan’s reliance on India, close coordination on its normalization of relations with China is expected, while safeguarding India’s security interests, particularly the Siliguri corridor.
  • Mutual Consideration: India must work with Bhutan, respecting its sovereignty and concerns, for a successful boundary agreement that aligns with both countries’ interests.


India should recognize the evolving Bhutan-China relations and the need to align strategies with its trusted neighbor, fostering mutual understanding. Cooperation in boundary negotiations can help protect India’s interests while respecting Bhutan’s aspirations. The lessons learned from the 2017 Doklam crisis emphasize the significance of collaboration over unilateral expectations in managing regional dynamics.



Country’s first Nano DAP plant by IFFCO was opened near Kalol in Gandhinagar (Gujarat). The introduction of Nano DAP (Liquid) by IFFCO has been hailed as a landmark move that can advance India’s foodgrain production and foster self-reliance in fertilizer manufacturing.

Key Points:

  • Revolutionary Step: IFFCO, a cooperative major, introduced the world’s first Nano DAP (Liquid), a revolutionary development in the field of fertilizers.
  • Self-Reliance: Nano DAP could contribute to India’s self-reliance in fertilizer production, marking a significant stride in agricultural sustainability.
  • Regulation: The Centre had formally notified Nano DAP in the Fertilizer Control Order, which regulates the sale, pricing, and distribution of fertilizers across the country.
  • Cooperative Sector’s Role: cooperative sector’s role in fertilizer production, with IFFCO making a substantial contribution to the total fertilizer production in India.
  • Goals: The government aims to reduce granular DAP usage by approximately 90 lakh metric tons through liquid DAP. India is set to produce 18 crore liquid DAP bottles.
  • Ministry of Cooperation: The creation of a dedicated Ministry of Cooperation aims to revitalize and enhance the dynamism of the cooperative sector.

Cooperative Sector Strengthening:

  • Model Bye-Laws: Model bye-laws for PACS have been shared with states, with 17 states already adopting them. The Multidimensional PACS concept involves merging four PACS to provide various services, including fisheries, financial loans to farmers, and dairy support.



  • The Central Government has formed the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Tribunal to handle matters concerning the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.
  • This tribunal plays a crucial role in confirming the prohibition status of an organization.
  • It comprises a High Court judge, with the appointment being made by the Central Government.
  • According to Section 4 of the UAPA, any organization labeled as unlawful must be referred to this tribunal within 30 days.
  • The primary responsibility of the tribunal is to assess whether there are valid grounds for designating the organization as unlawful.
  • It possesses the legal authority and functions akin to a civil court, and it is vested with the autonomy to regulate its own legal proceedings.




October 26, 2023
7:30 am - 11:30 pm
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