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April 27 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm


Naxalism, a term rooted in the village of Naxalbari in West Bengal, has grown into a significant challenge for India, particularly in its central, eastern, and southern regions.  

Stemming from socio-economic grievances and fueled by political disillusionment, Naxalism advocates for armed revolution and the establishment of a communist state.  

Despite recent declines in violence, Naxalism remains a persistent threat, necessitating multifaceted strategies for both security and socio-economic development. 

What is Naxalism? 

  • Origin: Emerged from a peasant rebellion in Naxalbari, West Bengal, against landlord oppression. 
  • Objective: Advocates for overthrowing the government through armed revolution and establishing a communist state based on Maoist principles. 
  • Modus Operandi: Engages in guerrilla warfare, attacks on security forces, extortion, and operates parallel governance structures in certain areas. 

Status of LWE in India: 

  • Trends: Incidents of violence decreased significantly in 2022 compared to previous years. 
  • Affected States: Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Kerala. 
  • Red Corridor: Central, eastern, and southern parts of India affected by severe Naxalism-Maoist insurgency. 

Causes for Naxalism: 

Socio-Economic Factors: 

  • Poverty and Lack of Development: Flourishes in underdeveloped regions with high poverty rates, exploiting resentment among marginalized communities. 
  • Land Rights Disputes: Exploits displacement of indigenous communities due to mining and development projects. 
  • Exploitation by Powerful Entities: Tribal communities vulnerable to exploitation by landlords, moneylenders, and corporations. 

Political Factors: 

  • Weak Governance and Lack of Infrastructure: Flourishes where government presence and infrastructure are weak. 
  • Disillusionment with Democracy: Offers an alternative to the perceived failures of the democratic system. 

Additional Factors: 

  • Globalization: Discontent with globalization’s impact, particularly displacement due to land acquisition for corporations. 
  • Confusion over Tackling Naxalism: Debate whether to approach Naxalism as a social issue or a security threat. 

Initiatives of Government Against Naxalism: 

  • National Policy and Action Plan 2015: Framework for addressing left-wing extremism (LWE) through coordinated efforts. 
  • SAMADHAN: Comprehensive strategy focusing on security operations, development initiatives, and effective governance. 
  • Aspirational Districts Programme: Targeted development in backward districts to address socio-economic disparities. 
  • Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme: Funds for security forces’ operational needs, rehabilitation of surrendered cadres, and community policing. 
  • Special Central Assistance (SCA): Aimed at filling critical gaps in infrastructure and services in LWE-affected districts. 
  • Scheme of Fortified Police Stations: Construction of fortified police stations in vulnerable areas. 
  • Road Connectivity Project for Areas Affected by Left Wing Extremism (RCALWE): Enhancing road infrastructure in states impacted by LWE. 

Way Forward: 

  • Targeted Security Operations: Intelligence-based approaches to minimize collateral damage in operations against Naxal groups. 
  • Rehabilitation and Reintegration: Support for former extremists to reintegrate into society through education, training, and employment. 
  • Empowering Local Peace Ambassadors: Identify influential individuals committed to peace within communities and empower them to counter extremist narratives. 
  • Open Communication Channels: Foster dialogue between government, security forces, and affected communities. 
  • Socio-Economic Development: Invest in infrastructure, create employment opportunities, and improve access to education and healthcare in affected areas. 
  • Ecological and Sustainable Development Initiatives: Introduce projects focusing on sustainable development and conservation of natural resources, involving local communities in environmental protection efforts. 


Addressing Naxalism requires a comprehensive approach that combines security measures with socio-economic development initiatives.  

By tackling root causes such as poverty, land disputes, and political disillusionment, while simultaneously strengthening security operations and governance, India can effectively combat the Naxalite insurgency and foster peace and prosperity in affected regions. 

Mains Question: 

  1. “Discuss the multifaceted approach needed to address the challenges posed by Naxalism in India, focusing on both security measures and socio-economic development.” (150 WORDS)


April 27
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
Event Category:
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