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March 27 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm



The India Employment Report 2024, jointly published by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the Institute for Human Development (IHD), sheds light on concerning trends in unemployment among educated youth, challenges in labour market indicators, and persistent social inequalities.

Key Findings of the Report:

Rise in Unemployment among Educated Youth:

  • Unemployment among educated youth surged to 65.7% in 2022, indicating a critical challenge in employment generation.
  • Nearly 83% of the unemployed workforce comprises youth, emphasizing the urgency of addressing youth unemployment.

Trends in Labour Market Indicators:

  • Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR), Worker Population Ratio (WPR), and Unemployment Rate (UR) deteriorated between 2000 and 2018.
  • However, there was a slight improvement post-2019, coinciding with periods of economic distress.

Challenges in Non-Farm Employment:

  • Despite growth in non-farm employment, sectors struggle to absorb workers from agriculture, leading to widespread livelihood insecurities.

Issues in Informal Employment and Social Protection:

  • Challenges persist in informal employment, contractualisation, and inadequate social protection measures, particularly in the non-agriculture, organized sector.

Persisting Social Inequalities:

  • Despite affirmative action and targeted policies, social inequalities persist, especially among Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

Reasons for High Unemployment in India:

  • Skill Mismatch: Lack of alignment between available skills and job market demands contributes to unemployment.
  • Informal Sector Dominance: The dominance of the informal sector with low job security and wages perpetuates unemployment.
  • Slow Industrial Growth: Slow growth in industrial sectors fails to generate sufficient job opportunities.
  • Educational System Flaws: Inadequacies in the education system result in a mismatch between acquired skills and industry requirements.
  • Population Growth: Rapid population growth exacerbates the job demand-supply imbalance.
  • Technological Displacement: Automation and technological advancements replace human labour, leading to job loss.
  • Underemployment: Many employed individuals are underutilised, contributing to disguised unemployment.

Way Forward:

  • Skill Development Initiatives: Enhance skill development programs to bridge the gap between education and industry needs.
  • Promotion of Formal Employment: Encourage formalisation of the informal sector to provide job security and benefits.
  • Industrial Diversification: Promote diversification and growth of industries to create more job opportunities.
  • Education Reform: Revamp the education system to focus on practical skills and vocational training.
  • Population Management: Implement policies for effective population control to align with job market dynamics.
  • Adaptation to Technology: Invest in retraining programs to adapt to technological changes and mitigate job displacement.
  • Job Creation Policies: Formulate and implement policies to promote entrepreneurship and create more employment opportunities.



The Supreme Court expresses concern over affluent individuals obtaining pre-trial injunctions against media and civil society, which stifles free speech and inhibits the public’s right to information. This issue raises significant questions about the balance between individual rights and press freedom.

Key Concerns Highlighted by the Supreme Court:

Restriction on Free Speech:

  • Affluent individuals obtaining pre-trial injunctions restrict journalistic expression and impede the dissemination of important news.
  • Such injunctions, granted without hearing the defendant’s side, severely limit free speech and the public’s access to information.

Rise of ‘SLAPP Suits’:

  • The court acknowledges the rise of ‘SLAPP suits,’ where powerful entities use litigation to silence media and civil society.
  • Ex-parte injunctions often lead to prolonged trials, essentially acting as a ‘death sentence’ to the material sought to be published.

Judicial Caution Urged:

  • The court urges judges to grant pre-trial injunctions only in exceptional cases, following a three-fold test and considering the balance of convenience and irreparable harm.
  • It emphasises the importance of unfettered free speech and urges caution in granting interim injunctions to protect journalistic expression.

Issues with Affluent Individuals Obtaining Pre-trial Injunctions Against Media:

Threat to Freedom of Press:

  • Affluent individuals can abuse their financial power to suppress unfavourable media coverage, limiting the freedom of the press.

Inequality in Access to Justice:

  • Pre-trial injunctions favour the wealthy, creating a disparity in access to justice where affluent individuals can silence media outlets with legal threats.

Chilling Effect on Investigative Journalism:

  • Fear of expensive legal battles and injunctions can deter journalists from pursuing investigative reporting on powerful figures, undermining the public’s right to information.

Undermining Public Interest:

  • Pre-trial injunctions may prevent the exposure of wrongdoing or issues of public interest, shielding affluent individuals from accountability.

Way Forward:

Legal Reforms:

  • Implement regulations to prevent misuse of pre-trial injunctions, ensuring they are used judiciously and in the public interest.

Legal Aid:

  • Provide support for media organisations facing legal challenges, ensuring they can defend themselves against injunctions.


  • Require greater transparency in legal proceedings involving injunctions, allowing the public to scrutinise decisions and hold both the judiciary and wealthy individuals accountable.

Public Awareness:

  • Educate the public about the importance of press freedom and the potential consequences of allowing affluent individuals to silence media outlets.



Access to healthcare, particularly for diseases like sickle cell disease (SCD), remains a significant challenge for marginalised tribal communities in India.

Key Challenges in Healthcare Access for Marginalised Communities:

Limited Access to Basic Healthcare:

  • Marginalised tribal communities often face barriers in accessing basic healthcare services and diagnostics, exacerbating health disparities.

Inadequate Treatment for Sickle Cell Disease (SCD):

  • Despite efforts like the National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission, treatment and care for SCD remain inadequate and inaccessible, particularly in states with high prevalence among marginalised populations.
  • Availability of essential medications like hydroxyurea and access to therapies like bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are limited, burdening affected individuals and families.

Potential of Gene-Editing Technologies like CRISPR:

Breakthroughs in SCD Treatment:

  • Gene-editing technologies like CRISPR offer potential breakthroughs in SCD treatment by targeting the genetic mutations responsible for the disease.
  • However, high costs and ethical considerations pose challenges for equitable access to CRISPR-based therapies.

Efforts and Challenges in India:

Initiatives for CRISPR-Based Therapies:

  • India has initiated projects to develop CRISPR-based therapies for SCD, aiming to address the unmet medical needs of affected populations.
  • However, regulatory frameworks need strengthening to ensure equitable access to advanced therapies for underserved populations.

Need for Regulatory Policies:

  • Regulatory policies should involve inputs from civil society and advocacy groups to address health inequities and ensure access to advanced therapies while prioritising basic treatments like hydroxyurea.

Comprehensive Approaches for Health Equity:

Integration of Healthcare Services:

  • Comprehensive approaches integrating access to diagnostics, drugs, health information, and community support are crucial for addressing health disparities and ensuring equitable healthcare access for all.

Understanding Sickle Cell Anaemia:

  • Sickle Cell Anaemia is a genetic disorder characterised by abnormal haemoglobin, leading to rigid, sickle-shaped red blood cells.
  • It primarily affects tribal people in India and individuals of African, Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, and South Asian descent.
  • Symptoms include chronic anaemia, fatigue, and episodes of pain known as “crises,” which can lead to organ damage and complications like stroke.
  • Early diagnosis through newborn screening programs enables prompt management, including pain management, blood transfusions, and potential curative therapies like bone marrow transplantation.
  • Education, genetic counselling, and community support are essential for managing SCD and improving quality of life.



India pledged to achieve net-zero emissions by 2070 at COP26, underscoring the importance of carbon neutrality. Efforts to mitigate carbon emissions must address both long-term sustainability and immediate relief, with a focus on black carbon emissions playing a critical role.

Relevance of Black Carbon:

  • Black carbon, emitted from incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels, contributes to global warming and poses significant health risks, particularly through traditional cookstoves in India.

Sources of Black Carbon Emissions:

  • Residential sector contributes 47%, industries 22%, diesel vehicles 17%, open burning 12%, and others 2%.
  • While industries and transport sectors have seen reductions, residential emissions remain a challenge.

Impact of Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY):

  • PMUY aims to provide free LPG connections to below-poverty-line households, reducing reliance on traditional fuels.
  • Despite benefiting over 10 crore households, data shows that 25% still rely on biomass due to low LPG refill rates.

Challenges and Issues:

  • Many PMUY beneficiaries consume only 3.5-4 LPG cylinders annually, highlighting affordability and availability issues.
  • High LPG prices and availability constraints disproportionately impact women and children’s health.

Government’s Role and Initiatives:

  • While the government increased LPG subsidies, addressing availability and last-mile connectivity issues remains crucial.
  • Temporary price reductions aim to alleviate immediate financial burdens.

Local Solutions and Innovations:

  • Local production of coal-bed methane (CBM) gas from biomass composting offers a cleaner alternative.
  • Empowering Panchayats to lead CBM gas production initiatives ensures universal access to clean cooking fuel at the village level.

Global Significance and Responsibility:

  • Prioritizing black carbon reduction aligns with India’s global climate goals and contributes to regional health improvements.
  • Addressing residential emissions can prevent over 6.1 lakh deaths annually from indoor air pollution.


  • India’s efforts to tackle black carbon emissions, particularly through initiatives like PMUY, are crucial for achieving sustainability goals and global climate mitigation.
  • Balancing short-term relief with long-term sustainability measures is imperative for India’s transition to a carbon-neutral economy.



The Union environment ministry has notified Captive Elephant (Transfer or Transport) Rules, 2024


Captive Elephants under Wildlife Protection Act (WPA), 1972

  • Elephants, categorized as Schedule I species under the WPA, 1972, are protected from capture or trade, whether they are in the wild or captive.
  • Section 12 of the Act permits the translocation of Schedule I animals for specific purposes such as education and scientific research, without causing harm to any wild animals.
  • Captive elephants, owing to their historical significance in forest management, timber transport, and religious practices, are owned but are subject to stringent transfer regulations.
  • Section 40(2) of the WPA mandates written permission from the Chief Wildlife Warden (CWW) for acquiring, possessing, or transferring captive elephants.
  • An amendment in 2021 broadened transfer reasons to include ‘religious or any other purposes’.

Captive Elephant (Transfer or Transport) Rules, 2024

  • These rules outline the procedure for transferring captive elephants within a state or between two states.
  • The notification authorizes the CWW of states and Union Territories (UTs) to permit or reject captive elephant transfers.
  • The CWW can approve inter and intra-state transfers if the owner is unable to maintain the elephant or if the animal will have better care elsewhere.
  • Transfer is only allowed if the genetic profile of the elephant is registered in the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change’s electronic monitoring application.
  • Applications for transfer must be made to the deputy conservator of forests (DCF) with jurisdiction over the elephant’s registration area.
  • The DCF conducts an inquiry, verifies housing facilities, obtains a veterinary certificate, and forwards details to the CWW for approval within seven days.



Cannabis, derived from the Cannabis sativa plant or true hemp, is prevalent across the Indo-Gangetic plains and the Deccan region.

Known as Ganzai in Telugu, Ganja in Tamil, and Bangi in Kannada, it yields three main products: fibre, oil, and narcotics.

Bhang and its Preparation:

  • Bhang, a popular drink during Holi, is made from the seeds and leaves of the cannabis plant.
  • The seeds and leaves are ground into a powder, filtered, and mixed with cold, flavored milk or thandai for consumption.

Other Uses of Cannabis:

  • Hemp-seed oil substitutes linseed oil in varnish industries and is used in soft soap manufacturing, besides having medicinal properties.
  • Cannabis ash is applied to animals’ skin for treating haematoma.
  • Controlled cultivation for fiber and seed extraction is allowed in certain states for industrial or horticultural purposes.

Regional Cultivation and Practices:

  • Cultivation occurs in areas like Chhota/Bada Bhangal of Kangra and the Karsog area of Mandi district in Himachal Pradesh.
  • In Jammu and Kashmir, bhang-treated paddy seeds aid in germination, and cannabis plants are utilized for controlling threadworms in paddy nurseries.
  • Cannabis leaves are crushed to make a paste for treating honey bee or wasp stings.



Telangana is currently combating forest fires in the Tadvai region of Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary.

Efforts are underway to control the fires and protect the diverse flora and fauna of the sanctuary.

Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary Overview:

  • Established in 1953, Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary is situated near the borders of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, and Telangana.
  • The sanctuary is traversed by the Dayyam Vagu river, dividing it into two parts, and the River Godavari also flows through it.
  • Known for hosting the Sammakkka Sarakka Jathra, one of Asia’s largest tribal festivals, occurring every two years.

Vegetation and Flora:

  • The sanctuary features tropical dry deciduous vegetation, characterized by teak, bamboo, madhuca, and terminalia trees.
  • Climbers are abundant throughout the sanctuary, enhancing its biodiversity.


  • Key species include the Indian gaur and giant squirrel, playing essential roles in the sanctuary’s ecosystem.
  • Home to various wildlife such as tigers, leopards, jackals, sloth bears, panthers, wolves, wild dogs, chousingha, and sambar.


March 27
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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