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March 29 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm


India’s commitment to achieving net-zero emissions by 2070, announced during the UNFCCC COP26 climate talks, underscores its dedication to combating climate change.

With a focus on renewable energy and initiatives like the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY), India aims to mitigate emissions, particularly black carbon, a significant contributor to air pollution and climate change.

About Black Carbon (BC)

  • Definition: Black carbon (BC) is a dark, sooty material emitted during incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels.
  • Impacts: BC contributes to global warming by absorbing solar energy, hastening snow and ice melt, and poses health risks, linked to respiratory illnesses and cardiovascular diseases.
  • Sources: Predominantly emitted from traditional cookstoves burning biomass, diesel engines, coal-fired power plants, and industrial activities.

Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY)

  • Objective: PMUY aims to provide clean cooking fuel, LPG, to rural households, reducing dependence on traditional fuels and mitigating black carbon emissions.
  • Features: Offers financial support for LPG connections, complimentary gas stoves, first refill, and hotplates to beneficiaries.


  • Energy Needs: Despite PMUY, many households still rely on traditional fuels, emitting high levels of black carbon.
  • Health Impacts: Continued use of traditional fuels affects women and children, leading to indoor air pollution-related health issues.
  • Affordability: Affordability challenges persist despite LPG subsidies, leading to continued use of cheaper traditional fuels.
  • Last-Mile Connectivity: Inadequate infrastructure hampers LPG distribution in remote areas, perpetuating reliance on biomass burning.

Other Measures to Mitigate Black Carbon Emissions

  • Cleaner Fuels: Promotion of cleaner fuels like CNG, LPG, and ethanol blending to reduce black carbon emissions.
  • SATAT Scheme: Initiative to establish compressed bio-gas production plants for cleaner fuel options.
  • Crop Residue Management: Promotion of agricultural machinery for in-situ crop residue management to reduce open burning.
  • National Clean Air Programme: Targeted reduction in particulate matter concentration in cities to improve air quality.
  • FAME Scheme: Promotion of electric vehicles to reduce emissions from fossil fuel-powered vehicles.

Way Forward

  • Coal-Bed Methane (CBM): Local production of CBM gas can provide cleaner fuel alternatives, reducing reliance on traditional biomass.
  • Promoting LPG Adoption: Increased awareness campaigns highlighting the benefits of LPG over traditional fuels.
  • Improving Supply Chain Efficiency: Investment in infrastructure to enhance last-mile connectivity for LPG distribution.
  • Diversifying Clean Energy Sources: Exploration of alternative clean energy sources like biogas and solar energy.
  • Community Engagement: Involvement of local communities, especially women and youth, in decision-making processes regarding clean energy adoption.

Mains Question:

  1. What are the key strategies proposed by India to mitigate black carbon emissions and achieve net-zero emissions, particularly focusing on initiatives like the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) and other measures? (150 WORDS)


March 29
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
Event Category: