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February 3 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm


Recently, researchers from the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences revealed a remarkable 2500-year-old solution to combat climate change through their study of Vadnagar.

This historic site in Gujarat showcases a resilient agricultural economy that endured fluctuating monsoon rains over centuries.

Employing a comprehensive approach, the researchers analysed archaeological findings, plant remains, and isotopic data, shedding light on India’s historical climate adaptation.

Key Highlights:

Climate Adaptation Over Millennia:

  • Vadnagar in Gujarat exhibited a resilient agricultural economy for 2500 years despite varying monsoon precipitation.
  • The study spanned Historic, Medieval, and post-Medieval periods, revealing adaptive strategies to monsoon fluctuations.

Resilient Crop Economy:

  • The post-Medieval period (1300-1900 CE) showcased resilience with a focus on small-grained cereals, particularly millets (C4 plants).
  • C4 plants indicate adaptation to weakened summer monsoons during the Little Ice Age.

Diversification of Food Crops:

  • Ancient societies diversified food crops and adapted socio-economic practices, navigating challenges posed by erratic precipitation.

Significance of the Study:

  • Emphasizes the importance of understanding historical climate patterns and human responses.
  • Challenges the notion that past famines solely resulted from climate deterioration, highlighting institutional factors.
  • Provides insights for contemporary climate change adaptation strategies.

India’s Climate Change Mitigation Initiatives:

National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC):

  • Launched in 2008 to achieve low-carbon and climate-resilient development.
  • The NAPCC comprises 8 national missions, which serve as the cornerstone of its multi-faceted, long-term, and cohesive approach to attaining pivotal objectives in addressing climate change. These missions encompass:
  • National Solar Mission
  • National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
  • National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
  • National Water Mission
  • National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
  • National Mission for A Green India
  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
  • National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC):

  • Commits to reducing emissions intensity, increasing non-fossil fuel electricity generation, and achieving net-zero emissions by 2070.

National Adaptation Fund on Climate Change (NAFCC):

  • Established in 2015 to provide financial assistance for state-level adaptation projects.

State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC):

  • Encourages states to prepare plans aligned with NAPCC and NDC, addressing local climate change challenges.

Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences:

  • Founded in 1946 with a vision to establish palaeobotany as a distinct science.
  • Focus areas include biotic evolution, diversification of Precambrian life, and understanding Gondwana and Cenozoic flora.


India’s ancient adaptation strategies at Vadnagar provide valuable insights for modern climate change mitigation. Understanding historical patterns and human responses is crucial for crafting effective strategies, making this study a significant contribution to both scientific and policy domains.


February 3
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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