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May 31 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm



RBI income went up by 17%, reaching ₹2,75,572.32 crore, which shows we’re making more money. At the same time, spending dropped by a big 56.3% to ₹64,694.33 crore, meaning we’re being careful with how we spend. These changes could influence decisions at the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).  

  • Transferable surplus rose to ₹2,10,873.99 crore from ₹87,416.22 crore. 
  • Gains from foreign exchange transactions amounted to ₹83,615.86 crore. 
  • Interest income from foreign securities rose to ₹65,327.93 crore. 

Balance Sheet 

  • Total size increased by 11% to ₹70,47,703.21 crore. 
  • Asset growth: foreign investments (13.9%), gold (18.26%), loans/advances (30.05%). 
  • Liabilities growth: notes issued (3.88%), deposits (27%), other liabilities (92.57%). 
  • Asset composition: domestic assets (23.31%), foreign currency assets, gold, and external loans (76.69%). 
  • Provisions: ₹42,819.91 crore transferred to the Contingency Fund. 

Economic Outlook 

  • GDP growth projected at 7% for FY25. 
  • Strong macroeconomic fundamentals, robust financial and corporate sectors, resilient external sector. 
  • Government focus on capital expenditure and fiscal consolidation to boost investment and consumption. 
  • Inflation expected to ease, supporting rural consumption demand. 
  • Foreign exchange reserves to protect domestic economy from global impacts. 
  • Risks: geopolitical tensions, financial market volatility, commodity prices, erratic weather. 

RBI’s Income and Expenditure:  


  • Financial Markets: Most of the RBI’s income comes from its activities in financial markets, including: 
  • Foreign exchange transactions (buying and selling) 
  • Open market operations (managing rupee value) 
  • Investments in government securities 
  • Returns on foreign currency assets (bonds, top-rated securities) 
  • Deposits with other central banks and the Bank for International Settlement (BIS) 
  • Short-term lending to banks 


  • Operational Costs: RBI’s expenses primarily cover: 
  • Printing of currency notes 
  • Staff salaries 
  • Commissions to banks for government transactions 
  • Commissions to primary dealers for government borrowing support 

What RBI does with surplus profits: 

  • Significant Difference: RBI’s income significantly exceeds its expenditure, resulting in a surplus. 
  • Buffer and Dividend: A portion of the surplus is retained as equity capital, while the remainder is transferred to the government as a dividend. 

Government’s Stance: 

  • Higher Dividends: The government advocates for increased dividend payments from RBI, arguing that current buffers are excessive. 

RBI’s Stance: 

  • Macroeconomic Stability: RBI emphasizes the importance of maintaining sufficient buffers for financial stability and potential rupee fluctuations. 
  • Inflationary Risk: Increased government spending from higher dividends could lead to inflation. 

Potential Benefits of Surplus Transfer: 

  • Economic Revival: Government spending could boost demand and economic activity, potentially mitigating slowdowns. 
  • Reduced Borrowing: Lower government borrowing needs could provide more space for private companies to raise capital. 
  • Bank Recapitalization: Surplus funds could be used to strengthen public sector banks. 

Potential Drawbacks of Surplus Transfer: 

  • Reduced Buffer: Lower buffers could weaken RBI’s ability to handle financial shocks and maintain market confidence. 
  • Reduced Autonomy: Excessive reliance on government spending could compromise RBI’s independence. 
  • Inflationary Risks: Improper government spending could trigger inflation. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) generates income through various means. Which of the following is a significant source of income for the RBI?
  1. Profits from managing the government’s debt. 
  1. Income from foreign exchange transactions. 
  1. Revenue from printing and distributing new currency notes. 
  1. Commissions charged to banks for handling government transactions. 

How many of the statements given above are correct? 

  1. Only one 
  1. Only two 
  1. only three 
  1. None 



Profits from managing the government’s debt: The RBI manages government bonds and securities, earning profits from interest and other charges. 

Income from foreign exchange transactions: The RBI buys and sells foreign currency to manage the rupee’s exchange rate, generating income in the process. 

Commissions charged to banks for handling government transactions: The RBI acts as the government’s banker, handling various transactions and earning commissions for these services. 

Revenue from printing and distributing new currency notes: While the RBI incurs the cost of printing new notes, it doesn’t directly generate significant income from this activity. 



Indian space startup Agnikul Cosmos successfully launched its first sub-orbital test vehicle, Agnibaan SOrTeD, on Thursday at 7:15 am from its private launchpad in Sriharikota, marking a significant achievement as it was powered by the world’s first single-piece 3D-printed semi-cryogenic engine, Agnilet. 

key Achievements 

  • Innovation: World’s first single-piece 3D-printed semi-cryogenic engine, named Agnilet. 
  • First private launch from a private launchpad in Sriharikota. 
  • Second launch by a private startup in India. 

Technical Details 

  • Engine: Semi-cryogenic engine using sub-cooled oxygen. 
  • Manufacturing Process: Additive manufacturing (3D printing) reduces costs and assembly time. 
  • Launch Vehicle: Designed for launching payloads from 30 kg to 300 kg. 
  • Launchpad: Mobile launchpad named Dhanush. 

Mission Objectives 

  • Height: Designed to reach approximately 8 kilometers. 
  • Future Plans: First orbital launch targeted by the end of the financial year, aiming for regular launches next year. 
  • Support: Full support from IN-SPACe and ISRO. 

Private players in the space industry is crucial for 

  • Increased Investment and Innovation: Private companies bring in substantial capital, accelerating the development of new technologies and space-based applications. 
  • Enhanced Efficiency and Competition: Private players introduce market dynamics and competition, pushing for cost-effectiveness and faster turnaround times. 
  • Broader Range of Services and Applications: Private companies focus on developing and delivering a wider range of space-based services, including: 
  • Accelerating technological advancements 
  • Expanding the range of space-based services and applications 
  • Enhancing efficiency and cost-effectiveness 
  • Enabling a more collaborative and dynamic space ecosystem 

Measures to encourage private sector participation in the space industry: 

Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Centre (IN-SPACe): 

  • Established in 2019, IN-SPACe acts as a single-window agency for private players, providing: 
  • Licensing and authorization for space activities. 
  • Facilitation and handholding support. 
  • Access to ISRO facilities and expertise. 

New Space India Limited (NSIL): 

  • Created in 2019, NSIL acts as a commercial arm of ISRO, responsible for: 
  • Commercializing ISRO technologies and services. 
  • Partnering with private companies for space projects. 
  • Aggregating user requirements and facilitating launch contracts. 

Policy Reforms: 

  • Opening up a wide range of space activities for private participation, from launch services to satellite development and space-based applications. 
  • Encouraging foreign investment and technology collaborations. 
  • Streamlining regulatory processes and providing a more transparent environment. 

Capacity Building: 

  • ISRO is actively involved in capacity building initiatives to: 
  • Train and support private companies in space technologies. 
  • Share ISRO facilities and expertise with the private sector. 

Future Prospects 

  • Orbital Launch: Planned for the end of the financial year. 
  • Competitor: Skyroot, another private launch provider, is also expected to undertake its first orbital launch this year. 


  • Cost-Effective Launches: Aims to provide affordable launch services for small satellites. 
  • Technological Advancement: Demonstrates the potential for rapid and integrated rocket assembly using 3D printing technology. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. Consider the following statements about the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO):
  1. ISRO was established in 1962. 
  1. The PSLV is ISRO’s heaviest launch vehicle. 
  1. Chandrayaan-2 successfully landed a rover on the lunar surface. 
  1. Gaganyaan is India’s first human spaceflight mission. 

Which of the above statements are correct? 

  1. 1 and 2 only 
  1. 2 and 3 only 
  1. 3 and 4 only 
  1. 1, 3, and 4 only 



ISRO was indeed established in 1962. 

The PSLV is a workhorse launch vehicle, but not the heaviest. The heaviest is the GSLV Mark III. 

Chandrayaan-2 successfully landed the Vikram lander and deployed the Pragyan rover on the Moon in 2019. 

Gaganyaan is India’s ambitious human spaceflight program aiming for a crewed mission in the near future. 



India’s reliance on coal-fired power plants continues to grow, with a significant 6% increase in capacity over the past four years. This trend raises questions about the country’s progress towards cleaner energy sources and its commitment to tackling climate change. 

Demand-Supply Mismatch 

  • Issue: Slow addition of coal-fired power plants and lack of storage for renewable energy. 
  • Impact: Increased pressure on grid managers, especially during high demand due to soaring temperatures. 

Thermal Capacity and Utilization 

  • Growth: Coal-fired thermal capacity grew 6% to 218 GW in FY24 from 205 GW in FY20. 
  • Generation: Increased by 34% from 960 billion units (BU) to 1,290 BU. 
  • Plant Load Factor (PLF): Increased from 53% to 68%, with a peak of 76% in April. 

Renewable Energy 

  • Solar Capacity: Doubled to 81 GW, but utilization decreased from 17% to 16%. 
  • Wind Capacity: Grew by 22% to 46 GW, with a slight increase in utilization from 20% to 21%. 

Government Measures 

  • Reliance on Thermal Plants: To meet peak demand, especially in evenings. 
  • Shortfall: Average annual shortfall of 54% in thermal capacity addition over five years. 
  • Private Sector Contribution: Only 7% of new capacity, with minimal involvement in ongoing projects. 

Future Plans and Challenges 

  • Thermal Capacity Target: Government plans to add 80 GW by FY32. 
  • Private Sector: Involvement hindered by insolvency issues and high capital costs. 
  • Comparison with China: India’s coal capacity growth lags behind China’s recent addition of 218 GW. 


India holds a significant position globally as the third-largest producer and consumer of electricity. 

  • With an installed power capacity of 411.64 GW, the country is making strides in renewable energy while also maintaining a substantial thermal power capacity. 
  • Ambitious targets for non-fossil-based electricity signify India’s commitment to energy transition and sustainability. 

Key Points: 

  • Installed renewable energy capacity, including hydro, stands at 168.4 GW, representing 40.9% of total capacity. 
  • Solar energy leads with 63.3 GW, followed by wind power at 41.9 GW. 
  • Thermal capacity totals 237.2 GW, with coal contributing 57.7%. 
  • The private sector generates 50.5% of India’s power, while states and the central government contribute 24% and 25.4%, respectively. 
  • Government initiatives include sovereign green bonds, Green Energy Corridor projects, and schemes like Saubhagya and MAHIR to promote sustainable growth and universal electrification. 

Reasons for Slow Decommissioning 

  • High Energy Demand: India’s rapidly growing economy requires a continuous and reliable power supply, which thermal power plants currently provide. 
  • Energy Security: Dependence on coal ensures a stable and controlled energy source, reducing reliance on unpredictable renewable energy sources. 
  • Economic Considerations: Thermal power plants involve significant capital investments, and early decommissioning could lead to financial losses. 
  • Employment Concerns: Many communities rely on coal plants for jobs and economic stability. Decommissioning could result in significant job losses and social challenges. 

Measures to Phase Out Thermal Power Plants 

  • Infrastructure for Renewable Energy:Develop and invest in large-scale energy storage systems like batteries to handle the intermittent nature of renewable energy. 
  • Grid Modernization: Upgrade grid infrastructure to handle variable renewable energy inputs and improve efficiency. 
  • policy and Regulatory Support:Provide subsidies and incentives for renewable energy projects to make them more financially viable. 
  • Carbon Pricing: Implement carbon pricing to make coal less economically attractive compared to cleaner alternatives. 
  • Environmental Measures:Implement strict emission norms and invest in pollution control technologies for remaining thermal plants. 

Challenges in Phasing Out Thermal Power Plants 

  • Intermittent Nature of Renewables: Solar and wind energy are not always available, making it difficult to rely solely on them without effective storage solutions. 
  • High Initial Costs: Renewable energy projects and storage systems require significant upfront investments, which can be a barrier. 
  • Technological Limitations: Current technology for energy storage and grid management needs further advancements to be fully effective. 
  • Political and Social Resistance: Resistance from coal-dependent communities and political lobbying can slow down the transition process. 

Way Forward 

  • Integrated Energy Planning: Develop a comprehensive national energy plan that balances immediate energy needs with long-term sustainability goals. 
  • Public-Private Partnerships: Encourage collaborations between government and private sectors to invest in renewable energy projects and infrastructure. 
  • Research and Development: Invest in R&D to improve renewable energy technologies and develop cost-effective storage solutions. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. In the context of coal-based thermal power plants in India, consider the following statements:
  1. None of them utilizes seawater for cooling purposes. 
  1. None of them is established in a district facing water scarcity. 
  1. None of them is exclusively owned by private entities. 

How many of the above statements are accurate? 

  1. Only one 
  1. Only two 
  1. All three 
  1. None 



Several coal-fired thermal power plants in India utilize seawater for various operational functions, particularly for cooling purposes. While not all power plants rely on seawater, it’s a common practice for those situated near coastal areas.  

approximately 40% of India’s thermal power plants are located in regions characterized by high water stress. These plants heavily depend on water for cooling processes, contributing to challenges in electricity generation due to water scarcity. 

In India, both publicly and privately owned coal-fired thermal power stations exist. The energy sector in India features participation from both corporate and public entities, with numerous private corporations investing in and operating coal-fired thermal power plants. 



Health insurance is becoming central to India’s Universal Health Coverage (UHC) strategy, driven by the digital revolution and ongoing reforms. A notable South Indian health-care chain has integrated insurance and health-care provision, resembling the U.S. Managed Care Organizations (MCOs). 

Background of MCOs 

  • MCOs originated in the U.S. in the 1970s to control rising health-care costs. 
  • They combined insurance and health-care services, focused on prevention, and controlled costs for a fixed premium. 
  • MCOs helped reduce costly hospitalizations but lacked strong evidence of improving health outcomes. 

Health Insurance in India 

  • Since the 1980s, Indian health insurance has mainly covered hospitalization costs. 
  • The health insurance sector has seen little innovation and high operational costs. 
  • Increased coverage: As of 2021, around 514 million people were covered under various health insurance schemes, representing approximately 37% of the population. This is a significant improvement from the past. 

Universal Health Coverage: A Vision for Health Equity  

  • Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is a transformative goal aiming to ensure that all individuals and communities have access to the essential health services they need, without facing financial hardship. 
  • It encompasses a comprehensive range of services, including preventive care, treatment, rehabilitation, and access to essential medicines. 
  • More than healthcare: A fundamental human right and cornerstone of sustainable development. 

Growth and Penetration: 

  • Globally: The health insurance market is growing steadily, driven by increasing awareness of healthcare needs and rising medical costs. 
  • Developed countries: Health insurance penetration is generally high, with many individuals and families covered by public or private plans. 
  • Developing countries: Penetration is lower, but there’s a growing focus on expanding health insurance coverage, often through government initiatives. 


  • Affordability: High premiums and out-of-pocket expenses can be a barrier for many, especially low-income families. 
  • Exclusion: Pre-existing conditions and other factors can lead to individuals being denied coverage or facing higher premiums. 
  • Regulation: Balancing the interests of insurers, providers, and patients while ensuring fair and accessible healthcare is a complex challenge. 
  • Low penetration: Despite progress, India still has a low health insurance penetration rate compared to developed countries. Around 63% of the population remains uninsured, particularly in rural areas. 
  • Limited awareness: Lack of awareness about available schemes and benefits in rural areas hinders enrollment. 
  • Complexities: The healthcare system can be complex, and navigating insurance policies can be challenging for some individuals. 

Potential Benefits of MCOs 

  • Managed care could reduce health-care costs through early outpatient interventions. 
  • A 2021 NITI Aayog report endorsed a subscription-based outpatient care insurance model for better care integration. 
  • MCOs can consolidate practices, streamline management, and focus on preventive care, offering long-term benefits. 

Government Initiatives 

  • The Ayushman Bharat Mission incentivizes hospitals in underserved areas to cater to government scheme beneficiaries. 
  • The government has launched several ambitious schemes like Ayushman Bharat Yojana (PMJAY) 
  • Public patronage and pilot projects could expand MCO awareness and reach. 
  • Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY) to provide affordable health insurance to the underprivileged and vulnerable population. 

While India has made significant strides in expanding health insurance coverage, there is still a long way to go to achieve universal health coverage. Addressing affordability, increasing awareness, and simplifying the system will be crucial for further progress. 



For the first time, a Eurasian or common whimbrel, a long-distance migratory bird equipped with a GPS transmitter, was photographed in the state of Chhattisgarh. 

About Eurasian Whimbrel  

  • Scientific Name: Numenius phaeopus 
  • Family: Scolopacidae (wading birds) 


  • Found across North America, South America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. 
  • Breeds in subarctic regions of Siberia and Alaska. 
  • Winters in southern USA, Central America, South America, Africa, and South Asia (including Nepal). 


  • Prefers coastal areas, coastal wetlands, mangroves, marshes, and larger rivers during winter. 

Physical Features: 

  • Large greyish-brown bird with a distinctive long, curved bill. 
  • Notable head pattern with dark eye-stripes and crown-sides. 
  • Mottled dark brown on top, pale below with brown streaks on the throat and breast. 


  • Solitary when nesting but becomes social outside the breeding season. 
  • Known for a high-pitched call with a repetitive series of seven notes. 

Conservation Status: 

  • Listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. 



Successfully flight-tested by DRDO from Su-30 MKI platform of the Indian Air Force (IAF) off the coast of Odisha. 


RudraM-II Missile: 

  • Type: Indigenously developed solid-propelled air-launched missile. 
  • Role: Air-to-Surface, designed to neutralize various enemy assets. 
  • Range: Approximately 350 km. 
  • Platform: Launched from Sukhoi-30MKI fighter jets. 
  • Technology: Incorporates state-of-the-art indigenous technologies from various DRDO laboratories. 

RudraM Series Missiles: 

  • Developed by DRDO as new-generation anti-radiation missiles (NGARMs). 
  • Target enemy surveillance, communication, radars, and command and control centers. 


  • Range: 150 km. 
  • Features: INS-GPS navigation with a passive homing head for final attack. 
  • First tested in October 2020. 
  • Purpose: Suppression of Enemy Air Defences (SEAD) from long stand-off ranges, allowing IAF strike aircraft to conduct bombing missions without hindrance. 

Anti-Radiation Missile: 

Function: Detect, track, and neutralize enemy radar and communication assets. 


  • Inertial Navigation System (INS): Uses changes in the missile’s position, aided by GPS. 
  • Passive Homing Head: Detects, classifies, and engages targets (radio frequency sources) across a wide frequency band. 



Microcephaly, a neurological condition marked by an unusually small head and impaired brain development, has garnered extensive research attention, particularly focusing on the role of the SASS6 gene. 



Children with microcephaly often exhibit: 

  • Small brain size. 
  • Poor motor skills. 
  • Speech difficulties. 
  • Abnormal facial features. 
  • Intellectual disabilities. 

Root Causes: 

  • Occur during the crucial phase of brain development in the embryo. 
  • Stem from abnormal cell division, especially of neurons. 

SASS6 Gene: 

  • Identified since 2014 as a significant factor in microcephaly. 
  • Function: Critical for centriole formation, vital for cell division and neural development. 


  • Notably, the Ile62Thr mutation linked to microcephaly. 
  • Despite functional survival, the mutated SASS6 protein contributes to brain and head deficits. 

Consanguineous Marriages: 

  • Increase the likelihood of inheriting mutated genes, including SASS6. 
  • Consequently, such unions elevate the incidence of microcephaly due to genetic mutations. 



Research unveils caterpillars’ ability to detect electric fields through setae on their bodies, termed electroreception. 


  • Unique Adaptation: Typically seen in aquatic and amphibious species, now observed in terrestrial insects like caterpillars. 
  • Functionality: Facilitates sensing of approaching predators, particularly through detecting oscillating electric fields from flying insects like wasps. 
  • Evolutionary Significance: Likely evolved as a defense mechanism against intense predation, complementing other sensory defenses employed by caterpillars. 

Potential Challenges: 

  • Threatened by “sensory pollution,” including electromagnetic frequencies from power cables. 
  • Such interference could disrupt this delicate sensing mechanism, posing survival challenges for caterpillars. 


May 31
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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