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January 5 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm


The year 2023 witnessed significant milestones in space exploration, from NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission to India’s Chandrayaan-3. As we transition into 2024, the anticipation for space missions continues to grow. This year promises an array of missions, including NASA’s Europa Clipper and Artemis II, as well as ventures from JAXA, ESA, and ISRO. Each mission holds unique objectives, from exploring Jupiter’s moon to studying Mars’ moons, testing planetary defense techniques, and advancing human spaceflight capabilities.

NASA’s Space Missions

Europa Clipper

  • Objective: Explore Jupiter’s moon, Europa, known for its icy surface and potentially vast saltwater ocean.
  • Method: Europa Clipper will conduct close flybys to study the moon’s geology, icy shell, and subsurface ocean.
  • Significance: Aims to investigate Europa’s potential as a habitat for extraterrestrial life.

Artemis II

  • Part of NASA’s Artemis program, Artemis II marks a crewed lunar mission to orbit the Moon.
  • Validates systems for sustained lunar presence and includes the first woman and person of color.
  • Highlights NASA’s commitment to lunar exploration, a stepping stone for future Mars missions.


  • Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover (VIPER) is a lunar exploration robot.
  • Mission: Explore the Moon’s south pole, searching for volatiles like water and carbon dioxide.
  • Significance: Identifies potential resources for future human lunar exploration.

Lunar Trailblazer and PRIME-1

  • Lunar Trailblazer, a SIMPLEx mission, will orbit the Moon, mapping water molecule locations.
  • PRIME-1, a rideshare mission, tests drilling on the Moon, a precursor to VIPER’s activities.

JAXA’s MMX Mission

  • Martian Moon eXploration (MMX) mission aims to study Mars’ moons, Phobos and Deimos.
  • Investigates the origin of these moons and collects a sample from Phobos’ surface.
  • Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency’s (JAXA) contribution to understanding Martian moons.

ESA’s Hera Mission

  • European Space Agency’s (ESA) Hera Mission revisits Didymos-Dimorphos asteroid system.
  • Studies physical properties of the asteroids impacted by NASA’s DART mission in 2022.
  • Demonstrates the kinetic impact technique for planetary defense.

ISRO’s Space Missions for 2024

PSLV-C58 with XPoSat

  • XPoSat, India’s first X-Ray Polarimeter Satellite, launched in January 2023.
  • Aims to investigate X-ray source polarization, focusing on celestial objects like pulsars and black hole X-ray binaries.


  • NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) is a joint mission for Earth remote sensing.
  • Provides insights into ecosystems, ice mass, vegetation biomass, and natural hazards.

Gaganyaan 1

  • Critical step in India’s Human Spaceflight Programme, Gaganyaan 1 is a crewed test flight.
  • Collaborative effort between ISRO and Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) for manned space exploration.

Mangalyaan-2 (MOM 2)

  • Mars Orbiter Mission 2 (MOM 2) is ISRO’s sequel to the successful Mangalyaan mission.
  • Equips the orbiter with advanced instruments to study Mars’ surface, atmosphere, and climatic conditions.


  • Under the Venus Orbiter Mission, ISRO plans to launch Shukrayaan-1 to orbit Venus.
  • Aims to study Venus’ atmosphere, marking India’s first venture into exploring the second planet from the Sun.


The year 2024 holds immense promise for space exploration, with diverse missions set to unravel mysteries across our solar system.

From probing the icy depths of Europa to studying the Martian moons, testing planetary defense techniques, and advancing human spaceflight capabilities, each mission contributes to expanding our understanding of the cosmos.

Collaborative efforts between space agencies worldwide underscore the shared pursuit of scientific knowledge and technological advancements, marking a new era in the exploration of outer space.

Mains Question:

  1. “Discuss the significance and objectives of key space missions scheduled for 2024, ranging from NASA’s Europa Clipper to ISRO’s Gaganyaan 1. How do these missions contribute to advancing our understanding of the solar system and technological capabilities, and what role do collaborative efforts among international space agencies play in this era of space exploration? (150 WORDS)


January 5
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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