Loading Events

« All Events

  • This event has passed.


March 5 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm



A landmark ruling by a seven-judge Constitution Bench, led by Chief Justice DY Chandrachud, challenges the immunity traditionally granted to lawmakers facing bribery charges related to their parliamentary activities.

The case focuses on the interpretation of constitutional provisions, specifically Article 105(2) and Article 194(2), which shield Members of Parliament (MPs) and members of state assemblies from legal action for their speech and votes in the respective legislatures.

Interpretation of Parliamentary Privileges:

  • Historical Evolution: The Court traced the historical evolution of parliamentary privileges in India, emphasizing their transformation from statutory to constitutional privileges, distinct from the UK’s House of Commons.
  • Key Components: It highlighted two key components – collective privileges exercised by the House and individual rights, such as free speech, subject to a “necessity test” to determine their legitimacy.
  • Importance of Probity: The ruling underscored the importance of upholding probity in public life, condemning corruption within the legislature as detrimental to democratic ideals.

Corruption versus Conscience: Legal Analysis:

  • Accepting Bribes: The Court addressed whether accepting bribes, even if lawmakers vote according to conscience or party lines, constitutes graft.
  • Prevention of Corruption Act: Analyzing the Act, it clarified that merely accepting a bribe constitutes an offense, irrespective of subsequent actions.
  • Rejection of Privileged Class: The Court rejected the notion of creating a privileged class of public servants, emphasizing the arbitrariness of such distinctions under Article 14 of the Constitution.

Parallel Jurisdictions: Court and Parliament:

  • Authority of Parliament: Given Parliament’s authority to punish its members for contempt, the Court deliberated on whether courts could intervene.
  • Concurrent Jurisdiction: The ruling affirmed that both the judiciary and Parliament can exercise jurisdiction concurrently over lawmakers’ actions, as the purposes of punishment and criminal prosecution serve distinct objectives.
  • Upholding Parliamentary Sovereignty: Emphasized the necessity of holding elected representatives accountable through legal means while upholding parliamentary sovereignty.

       Constitutional Provisions Related to Parliamentary Privileges:

  • Article 105: Freedom of speech in Parliament; members not liable for proceedings in any court for their speech or votes.
  • Article 122: Validity of parliamentary proceedings not questioned in court due to alleged irregularity of procedure.
  • Article 194: Freedom of speech in State Legislature; members not liable for proceedings in any court for their speech or votes.
  • Article 212: Validity of state legislative proceedings not questioned in court due to alleged irregularity of procedure.



The 2022 Status of Leopards survey brings positive news about India’s leopard population, indicating a significant surge of 75% from the 2014 estimate.

However, a more accurate comparison with 2018 data reveals a 4.4% growth rate, highlighting the need for a comprehensive understanding of the status.

Current Survey Findings:

  • Population Estimate: The survey, conducted using cameras at 32,803 locations, reports a total of 13,874 leopards, marking an 8% increase over the 2018 estimate.
  • Modest Growth: Despite the increase, the growth rate in areas covered by both surveys is a modest 4.4%, suggesting stability in leopard numbers.
  • Challenges: Challenges persist, especially regarding habitat fragmentation and human-wildlife conflict.

Protected Areas vs. Non-Protected Areas:

  • Distribution: About one-third of leopards reside in protected areas, while the majority inhabit non-protected regions.
  • Significance of Conservation: Protected areas constitute only 11% of the leopard’s range, emphasizing the need for conservation efforts beyond these zones.

Tiger Reserves and Leopard Population:

  • Increase in Tiger Reserves: Leopard populations in and around tiger reserves show a significant 21% rise from 2018 to 2022.
  • Contrast Outside Reserves: Outside reserves, there’s a marginal decline, highlighting variations in leopard populations across different habitats.

Limitations of All-India Surveys:

  • Geographical Oversight: Surveys focus on tiger states, overlooking potential leopard habitats in states like Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, and arid areas of Rajasthan.
  • Consistent Trend: Despite limitations, the surveys consistently reveal the impact of conflict and poaching on leopards in unprotected areas.

Historical Range and Current Threats:

  • Past Range: Leopards once roamed vast territories but have faced a decline in India due to human-induced factors like poaching, habitat loss, and human-wildlife conflict.
  • Multifaceted Threats: Threats include poaching for traditional medicine, conflict with humans due to livestock predation, and habitat fragmentation from development activities.

Conservation Imperatives:

  • Addressing Complex Issues: Effective conservation must address the interplay between human-wildlife conflict, habitat preservation, and anti-poaching efforts.
  • Long-Term Survival: Ensuring the long-term survival of leopards requires proactive conservation policies safeguarding habitats and mitigating anthropogenic threats.


While leopards’ adaptability aids survival, concerted efforts are crucial to combat poaching, habitat loss, and human-wildlife conflict. Conservation depends on collaborative actions preserving habitats and fostering coexistence with human communities.

Leopard Overview:

Scientific Name: Panthera pardus

Size and Adaptability:

  • Smallest among the Big Cat family, including Tiger, Lion, Jaguar, and Snow Leopard.
  • Known for remarkable adaptability to various habitats.

Nocturnal Habits:

  • Active during the night.
  • Feeds on smaller herbivores like chital, hog deer, and wild boar.

Melanism and Black Panthers:

  • Melanism is common, resulting in black skin with spots.
  • A black leopard is often called a black panther, leading to misconceptions about a separate species.

Habitat Range:

  • Found in sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Western and Central Asia, Indian subcontinent to Southeast and East Asia.
  • The Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) widely distributed in the Indian subcontinent.


  • Poaching: Illegal trade of skins and body parts.
  • Habitat Loss: Due to human activities leading to fragmentation.
  • Human-Leopard Conflict: Conflicts arising from shared habitats.

Conservation Status:

  • IUCN Red List:
  • CITES: Appendix-I.

Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule-I.



The Narasapur crochet lace craft, originating from the Godavari region of Andhra Pradesh, recently received the prestigious Geographical Indications (GI) tag from the Department of Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT). This recognition highlights its unique identity and geographical significance.

Craft Overview:

  • Geographical Limitations: The GI tag certifies that the craft is confined to 19 mandals in West Godavari and Dr. B.R.Ambedkar Konaseema districts, with major trade points in Narsapur, Palacole, Razole, and Amalapuram.
  • Craftsmanship: Nearly 15,000 women artisans are directly involved in producing three categories of lace products: garments, home furnishings, and accessories.
  • Application for GI Tag: The West Godavari District Alankriti Lace Manufacturing Mahila Mutual Aided Co-operative Societies’ Federation Limited, All India Crochet Lace Exporters Association, and Andhra Pradesh Handicrafts Development Corporation Limited jointly applied for the GI tag.

Historical and Cultural Significance:

  • Origin: The craft, believed to have originated around 150 years ago, holds deep roots in the farming community’s women.
  • History: It gained prominence during the British colonial period as a vital cottage industry, contributing significantly to the region’s cultural heritage.
  • Technique and Materials: Skilled artisans utilize fine hooks and high-quality cotton or silk threads to create intricate lace patterns, often inspired by nature and traditional motifs.

Economic Impact and Challenges:

  • Economic Significance: The craft is integral to the local economy, providing livelihoods for numerous women artisans and sustaining the town’s cultural heritage.
  • COVID-19 Challenges: The craft faced challenges during the pandemic, including a paralyzed market with a lack of new orders.
  • Competition and Modernization: Despite its rich heritage, the craft faces challenges such as market competition and the need for modernization to attract younger artisans.


The Narasapur crochet lace craft’s GI tag not only acknowledges its historical significance but also offers hope for its revival and expansion in the face of modern challenges. This recognition is expected to boost foreign trade and provide a sustainable future for the artisans, safeguarding the region’s cultural legacy.



The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) core-loading event marks a historic achievement in India’s nuclear power program, signifying the initiation of stage II.

Despite its significance, the PFBR has faced delays and challenges, necessitating a closer examination of its operational mechanisms, role in India’s energy landscape, and the hurdles ahead.


Background on PFBR:

  • Fuel Production Objective: The PFBR aims to produce more nuclear fuel, specifically plutonium-239, than it consumes, aligning with India’s three-stage nuclear power program.
  • Three-Stage Program: Involves Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) in stage I, PFBR in stage II, and reactors combining Pu-239 with thorium-232 in stage III for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.

Reasons for PFBR Delays:

  • Historical Context: PFBR faced setbacks due to sanctions post-India’s nuclear test, funding issues, and technical challenges affecting the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at Kalpakkam.
  • Funding Challenges: Cost overruns, initially estimated at ₹3,492 crore, rose to ₹6,800 crore by 2019, leading to fund requests and deadline extensions.

Operational Mechanism of PFBR:

  • Fuel Combination: Pu-239 from PHWRs combined with U-238 in PFBR produces energy, U-233, and more Pu-239.
  • Breeder Reactor Concept: PFBR, a breeder reactor, generates more fissile material than it consumes, utilizing liquid sodium for cooling.

Role of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs):

  • Potential Complication: Delays in PFBR prompted consideration of SMRs, with capacity up to 300 MW, offering advantages in land use and safety features.
  • Advantages of SMRs: Potential use of low-enriched uranium, quicker installation, and reduced costs, but regulatory frameworks may require adjustments.

Value and Challenges of Stage II:

  • PFBR Capacity: With 500 MWe capacity, plans include building four additional Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) of 600 MWe each.
  • Evolving Energy Landscape: PFBR delays coincide with rising renewable energy, posing economic viability challenges for nuclear power.

Challenges Ahead:

  • Handling FBRs: FBRs pose unique handling challenges compared to other reactor designs.
  • Regulatory Concerns: Criticism of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Body’s subordination to the Department of Atomic Energy calls for an independent statutory atomic regulator.
  • Waste Management: The thorium fuel cycle integral to stage II produces radioactive isotopes, requiring robust waste management strategies.


While the PFBR’s core-loading event is a milestone, addressing challenges, integrating SMRs, and ensuring effective regulatory frameworks are crucial for India’s sustainable nuclear energy future. The PFBR plays a pivotal role, but its success depends on adaptability to evolving energy landscapes and effective management of associated complexities.




Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh unveiled the Acing Development of Innovative Technologies with iDEX (ADITI) scheme during DefConnect 2024 in New Delhi, reinforcing India’s commitment to innovation, entrepreneurship, and self-reliance in defence production.

ADITI Scheme Overview:

  • Financial Allocation: The scheme allocates Rs 750 crore for 2023-24 to 2025-26 under the iDEX framework, focusing on start-ups in critical and strategic defence technologies.
  • Support for Start-ups: Start-ups under ADITI can receive a grant-in-aid of up to Rs 25 crore for research, development, and innovation in defence technology.
  • Key Objectives: Aiming to develop 30 deep-tech critical and strategic technologies, ADITI includes the creation of a ‘Technology Watch Tool’ aligning Armed Forces’ needs with defence innovation capabilities.

11th Defence India Start-up Challenge (DISC):

  • Problem Statements: Launched alongside ADITI, DISC addresses critical defence challenges with 22 problem statements.
  • Youth Innovation Encouragement: The government encourages youth innovation by expanding iDEX to iDEX Prime and launching ADITI, nurturing youth innovation in defence.

DefConnect 2024 Highlights:

  • Technology Showcase: Featured a display of cutting-edge technologies.
  • Panel on Women as Drivers of Change: Recognized the role of women in the defence sector.
  • iDEX Internship Program: Facilitates skill development in defence technology.
  • MoUs for Investment: Fostered investment in defence start-ups.

Need for Innovations in Critical & Strategic Defence Technologies:

  • Security Challenges: India faces diverse security challenges, requiring innovations to address traditional threats, asymmetric warfare, and cyber threats.
  • Modernization Imperative: Rapid global technological advancements demand continuous modernization of defence capabilities for effective deterrence.
  • Self-Reliance: Achieving self-reliance in defence technology reduces dependence on external sources, enhancing national security and the defence industrial base.
  • Asymmetric Warfare: Innovations crucial for combating non-traditional threats like terrorism, insurgency, and advanced surveillance systems.
  • Strategic Autonomy: Developing and deploying critical defence technologies independently contributes to India’s strategic autonomy.
  • Cybersecurity: Innovations in cyber defence technologies are essential for safeguarding military networks, critical infrastructure, and sensitive information.
  • Dual-Use Technologies: Investments in dual-use technologies promote economic growth and technological advancements in both defence and civilian sectors.
  • Deterrence Capability: Technological superiority, especially in missile defence, hypersonic technology, and electronic warfare, enhances India’s deterrence capability.



The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) detected significant hydrogen loss annually from a protoplanetary disk around a young star in the Orion Nebula.

About Protoplanetary Disks:

  • Composition: Protoplanetary disks consist of gas (99% by mass) and dust (1%) surrounding newly formed stars, providing the material for potential planet formation.
  • Mass and Size: These disks range in mass from 0.001 to 0.3 Solar masses and in size from tens to almost 1,000 Astronomical Units.

Formation Process:

  • Origin: Formed during star formation from cold interstellar molecular clouds, primarily composed of hydrogen molecules (H2).
  • Collapse and Spinning Disk: As stars form and collapse under gravity, the remaining material forms a rotating disk around the star.
  • Ingredients for Planets: The leftover gas and dust within the protoplanetary disk become the building blocks for planets, including organic molecules from the original molecular cloud.

Chemical Composition Impact:

  • Planet Formation: The chemical composition of the protoplanetary disk influences the eventual composition of planets forming within it.

Lifecycle and Dispersal:

  • Duration: Protoplanetary disks typically last 2–3 million years.
  • Dispersal Mechanisms: Dispersal occurs through matter coalescence into planets and photoevaporation caused by stellar radiation.



Russia’s defence ministry confirms a successful test fire of the Yars intercontinental ballistic nuclear missile.

About Yars Missile:

  • Aliases: Also known as RS-24 or SS-29, the Yars is a Russian-made intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) designed for strategic purposes.
  • Warhead Capability: Equipped with multiple independently targetable warheads (MIRVs), enabling simultaneous targeting of various objectives.

Key Features:

  • Design: Three-stage, solid propellant, MIRV-capable ICBM, derived from the Topol-M missile system.
  • Dimensions: 23 meters long, launchable from a silo or mobile launcher.
  • Range: Impressive range of 10,500 km.
  • Launch Weight: Weighs 49,600 kg.
  • MIRV Capacity: Can carry up to 10 MIRVs, each containing a powerful 300-kiloton thermonuclear warhead.
  • Manoeuvrability: Exhibits in-flight manoeuvrability and deploys active and passive decoys, providing an advantage against modern missile defence systems.

Understanding Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs):

  • Definition: ICBMs are guided missiles designed primarily for delivering nuclear warheads, although they can carry other payloads.
  • Range: ICBMs have a minimum range of 5,500 km (3,400 miles), with maximum ranges varying from 7,000 to 16,000 km.
  • Speed and Range: ICBMs are faster and have a significantly greater range compared to other ballistic missiles.

Comparative Example – Agni-V:

  • Indian ICBM: Agni-V, an Indian ICBM, possesses a range exceeding 5,000 km, showcasing capabilities in the global context.


March 5
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
Event Category: