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May 6 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm



Maharashtra plans to translocate tigers from Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve (TATR) to Sahyadri Tiger Reserve (STR) to revive the tiger population in the Northern Western Ghats forests. 

Reason for Translocation: 

  • Sahyadri Tiger Reserve (STR) currently has zero tigers within its boundaries, making it essential to introduce tigers from other reserves. 
  • The long-term plan is to strengthen the tiger population in the Northern Western Ghats forests. 
  • Translocation is not a quick fix for habitat loss or a solution to human-wildlife conflict. 
  • Ideally, translocation should involve releasing tigers into areas that were once part of their historical range, not necessarily “no tiger zones” that might lack proper prey base or connectivity to existing populations. 
  • Long-term monitoring is essential to ensure the success of translocation efforts and the overall health of the reintroduced tiger population and the ecosystem. 

Translocation Process: 

  • The Maharashtra Forest department is awaiting approval from the Union Environment Ministry to tranquilize tigers in TATR for the translocation. 
  • Once permission is granted, tigers will be tranquilized and transported to Sahyadri Tiger Reserve. 

Importance of Translocation: 

  • This initiative is crucial for the conservation of tigers in the Northern Western Ghats, which serve as a vital wildlife corridor between Maharashtra and Karnataka. 
  • The corridor facilitates connectivity between tiger populations in various reserves, ensuring genetic diversity and population sustainability. 

Challenges and Precautions: 

  • The translocation project involves careful monitoring and soft release of tigers into the new habitat to ensure their successful integration. 
  • Special vehicles have been prepared for the safe transportation of tigers during the translocation process. 


NTCA oversees a network of Tiger Reserves across India, designated for protecting tigers and their habitat.It works collaboratively with state forest departments, wildlife institutes, and NGOs for tiger conservation. 

  • Established: 2006 under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. 
  • Statutory Body: Functions under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC). 
  • Chairperson: Minister of MoEFCC acts as the Chairperson. (Not data point, but important to know) 


  • Provide statutory authority to Project Tiger, ensuring legal compliance for its directives. 
  • Foster accountability of both central and state governments in managing tiger reserves. 
  • Oversee tiger conservation efforts through policy frameworks and monitoring mechanisms. 
  • Address livelihood concerns of local communities residing near tiger reserves. 
  • Facilitate translocation of tigers, when necessary, to suitable habitats for population expansion.  

Tiger Census: NTCA plays a crucial role in organizing and monitoring the All-India Tiger Estimation exercise conducted every four years. 

Conservation Impact: 

  • Reviving the tiger population in Sahyadri Tiger Reserve will contribute to the overall conservation efforts in the region and help maintain the ecological balance. 
  • Reintroduction to Historical Habitat: If a tiger population has been driven out of an area due to poaching, habitat loss, or disease, reintroducing tigers through translocation can help restore the ecological balance.  
  • Tigers act as apex predators, controlling prey populations and influencing the entire food chain. Their presence can promote biodiversity and ecosystem stability. 
  • Expansion of Tiger Population: Translocation can be used to establish new tiger populations in suitable, unoccupied habitats. 
  • This helps expand their range and reduces pressure on existing tiger reserves. Increased tiger numbers contribute to a healthier ecosystem overall. 
  • Genetic Diversity: Introducing tigers from a genetically diverse source population can help prevent inbreeding and improve the overall health and resilience of a smaller, isolated population. 


Launched: 1973 by the Government of India. 

Aim: Conserve Bengal tigers and their habitat across India. 

Statutory Backing: Gained statutory authority with the establishment of the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in 2006. (Bonus Point) 

Key Features: 

  • Network of Tiger Reserves: Establishes designated protected areas with core and buffer zones for tiger conservation. 
  • Anti-Poaching Measures: Focuses on curbing poaching and illegal wildlife trade. 
  • Habitat Management: Promotes habitat improvement and protection of prey base for tigers. 
  • Community Involvement: Recognizes the importance of involving local communities in conservation efforts. 
  • Monitoring and Research: Emphasizes tiger population monitoring, research on threats, and conservation strategies. 

Success Story: 

  • Project Tiger has been credited with a significant increase in India’s wild tiger population in recent years. 
  • Initially comprising only 9 Reserves spanning 9,115 sq. km in 1973, today there are 54 Tiger Reserves spread across 18 States, covering a vast expanse of 78,135.9 sq. km, which constitutes approximately 2.38% of India’s total land area. 
  • Critical Tiger Habitats (CTHs) within these reserves extend over 42,913.37 sq. km, accounting for 26% of the area designated as National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. 

Present status  

  • The Tiger Census of 2022 revealed a population ranging from 3,167 to 3,925 tigers in the country, with a growth rate of 6.1% annually. This growth has led the government to assert that India now harbours three-fourths of the world’s tiger population. 
  • To monitor and protect tiger habitats effectively, the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) developed the M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for Tigers – Intensive Protection and Ecological Status) in 2010.  
  • This software-based monitoring system aids in patrol and conservation efforts within tiger habitats, contributing significantly to the success of Project Tiger. 

Tiger translocation from Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve to Sahyadri Tiger Reserve is a significant step towards tiger conservation in Maharashtra, aimed at restoring tiger populations in critical habitats and wildlife corridors. 

Multiple choice question: 

  1. Consider the following statements about Tiger Reserves in India:
  1. Manas National Park is a Tiger Reserve located in the Western Ghats. 
  1. Kanha National Park is famous for its population of tigers and barasingha deer. 
  1. Project Tiger was launched by the Government of India in the 1990s. 

Which of the statements given above are correct? 

  1. 1 only 
  1. 2 only 
  1. 1 and 3 only 
  1. 2 and 3 only 



Sudan’s ongoing civil war reflects a deep-rooted crisis stemming from governance failures and an enduring identity struggle since gaining independence in 1956. This turmoil, marked by ethnic tensions and militia dominance, underscores the urgent need for international collaboration to rebuild a transparent, inclusive governance system 

Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil War 

  • Identity Crisis and Governance Failures: Sudan has struggled with an identity crisis since gaining independence in 1956. Successive governments have failed to unify the diverse population and distribute resources fairly, leading to rebellions. 
  • Ethnic Diversity and Concentrated Power: Sudan is home to 19 major ethnic groups and numerous sub-groups, with political and economic power centralized in Khartoum. 
  • This concentration of power has marginalized certain regions and communities. 
  • Historical Context: The early governments emphasized an Arab and Islamic identity, alienating non-Arab populations and fostering resistance. The rise of Islamist regimes further exacerbated tensions, leading to discrimination and conflict. 

Key Events and Actors 

  • 1956 Independence: Sudan’s government enforced an Arab and Islamic identity, disregarding diverse communities’ needs and fostering resistance. 
  • 1989 Coup and Islamist Rule: Omar al-Bashir’s regime, supported by the Muslim Brotherhood, intensified Islamization efforts and suppressed dissent through harsh measures. 
  • 2003 Darfur Conflict: Al-Bashir’s use of Janjaweed militias to suppress Darfurian uprising deepened ethnic tensions and conflict. 
  • 2019 Transitional Period: Civilian protests led to a power-sharing agreement between military and civilian leaders, but internal strife persisted. 

Rapid Support Forces and Militia Dominance 

  • Emergence of Rapid Support Forces: Formed as a counterbalance to the armed forces, RSF strategically deployed fighters to key regions and gained support from the government. 
  • Rise of Hemedti: Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, alias Hemedti, rose to prominence within RSF and the government, exerting significant influence over Sudanese politics and economics. 
  • Role in Democratic Transition: RSF’s dominance complicated Sudan’s transition to democracy, leading to unrest and armed confrontations between military and militia forces. 

Path Forward and International Support 

  • Reconstruction and Governance: Sudan needs international support to establish transparent, civilian-led governance that represents all Sudanese voices and addresses underlying grievances. 
  • Inclusion and Rights Protection: Urgent action is required to reconstruct Sudan’s state, ensuring the inclusion and protection of all citizens’ rights in decision-making processes. 



Here’s a list of some countries that have experienced military coups in recent years, along with the reported causes: 

Niger (July 26, 2023) 

  • Cause: Dissatisfaction among military ranks regarding the government’s handling of Islamist insurgency in the western Sahel region. 

Burkina Faso (January 24, 2022 & September 30, 2022) 

  • Causes: Frustration over the government’s response to jihadist violence and corruption. 
  • In September 2022, there was a coup within the coup as junior military officers ousted the previous military leader. 

Sudan (October 25, 2021) 

  • Cause: The military disrupted a fragile power-sharing agreement with civilian leaders established after the 2019 overthrow of Omar al-Bashir. 

Mali (August 18, 2020 & May 24, 2021) 

  • Causes: Discontent with the government’s handling of a long-running jihadist insurgency and accusations of corruption. 
  • A second coup in 2021 ousted the civilian transitional president and prime minister. 

Guinea (September 5, 2021) 

  • Cause: The military overthrew President Alpha Condé, citing frustration over corruption and a third-term bid. 

These coups highlight the ongoing challenges to stability in some African nations. While the specific causes vary, common themes include: 

  • Dissatisfaction with government responses to security threats 
  • Economic instability and corruption 
  • A lack of faith in democratic processes 

 Why African nations more vulnerable to military takeovers. 

  • Fragile Democracies: New & weak institutions make military seem like a crisis solution. 
  • Public Frustration: Poverty & inequality breed discontent, making military seem like a capable leader. 
  • Security Concerns: Unsolved insurgencies & conflicts make people seek military’s “strength.” 
  • Empowered Militaries: Political influence allows military to challenge civilian authority. 
  • External Factors: Foreign powers can exploit situations or back coups for their own gain. 

Multiple choice question: 

  1. In recent years, Chad, Guinea, Mali, and Sudan have all drawn international attention for a shared reason. Which of the following options best represents this common factor?
  1. Discovery of significant deposits of rare earth elements 
  1. Establishment of Chinese military installations 
  1. Southward expansion of the Sahara Desert 
  1. Instances of successful government takeovers 



Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and Ladakh, Union Territories formed from the former state of J&K, are holding multi-phased elections. 

While Jammu witnessed decent voter turnout, low participation in Kashmir Valley reflects disillusionment over the dissolution of the State Assembly and central rule. 

Voter Turnout: 

  • Encouraging turnout in Jammu (68.27%) and Udhampur (72.22%), but dismal figures in Srinagar (14.43%), Anantnag (8.49%), and Baramulla (34.6%) due to disillusionment with central rule. 
  • Persistent central rule and the continuance of J&K as a Union Territory have deepened alienation among Kashmiri voters. 

Political Dynamics: 

  • Traditional parties in Kashmir, like the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) and the Jammu and Kashmir National Conference (NC), failed to unite despite forming the People’s Alliance for Gupkar Declaration. 
  • The NC and PDP have resumed hostilities, with NC aligning with Congress in the INDIA bloc. 
  • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) focused its campaign in Hindu-majority Jammu and Buddhist-majority Ladakh, while Ladakh saw activism led by Sonam Wangchuk on statehood and environmental issues. 

Challenges in Ladakh: 

  • Congress and NC couldn’t agree on a consensus candidate for Ladakh, resulting in separate candidates from Leh and Kargil regions. 
  • Kargil units of both parties support an independent candidate, highlighting internal disunity within the opposition. 

Ladakh and Jammu, formerly part of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, were separated and designated as two individual union territories in October 2019. 

key differences and reasons for the separation: 

Geographical and Cultural Disparity: 

  • Ladakh: Situated high in the Himalayas, Ladakh is a cold desert region with a distinct Tibetan Buddhist culture. The population is sparse, and the main economic activities are tourism and agriculture. 
  • Jammu: Jammu lies in the foothills of the Himalayas, with a subtropical climate and a predominantly Hindu population. Agriculture and pilgrimage tourism are significant aspects of Jammu’s economy. 

Historical and Political Differences: 

  • Ladakh: Historically, Ladakh was an independent kingdom until the mid-19th century when it became part of Jammu and Kashmir. Ladakhi’s have long desired greater autonomy to preserve their unique cultural identity and address regional concerns. 
  • Jammu: Jammu has been politically integrated with Kashmir for a longer period. However, the region also has its own distinct cultural and political identity. 

Recent Ladakh Struggle by Sonam Wangchuk 

  • Ladakh: A union territory without a legislature, directly governed by the central government through a Lieutenant Governor. 
  • Jammu and Kashmir: A union territory with a legislature, offering it a greater degree of autonomy compared to Ladakh. 

Sonam Wangchuk, a renowned education reformer, environmentalist, and inspiration behind the film “3 Idiots,” undertook a hunger strike in March 2024 to bring attention to two key demands for Ladakh: 

  • Statehood: Ladakh currently holds the status of a union territory within India. Wangchuk and many Ladakhis believe achieving full statehood would grant them greater autonomy and a stronger voice in decision-making processes that affect their region. 
  • Inclusion in the Sixth Schedule: The Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution provides special provisions for tribal communities. Inclusion in this schedule would offer Ladakhis safeguards for their cultural identity, land rights, and resources. 


Reasons for Separation: 

  • Addressing Ladakhi grievances: The separation aimed to address Ladakhi demands for greater control over their region’s development and to safeguard their cultural heritage. 
  • Political stability: The move was intended to bring about greater political stability in the region, considering the historical differences between Jammu and Kashmir, and Ladakh. 

Multiple choice question: 

  1. Consider the following statements about Jammu and Kashmir:
  1. The Chenab River is a major source of irrigation for the Valley of Kashmir. 
  1. The Bhaderwah Valley is known for its saffron cultivation. 
  1. The Pangong Tso Lake is located entirely within India. 

Which of the statements given above are correct? 

  1. 1 and 2 only 
  1. 2 and 3 only 
  1. 1 and 3 only 
  1. All of the above 



The Draft Guidelines for Prevention of Misleading Advertisement in Coaching, 2024, aim to create a fairer and more transparent coaching sector, benefiting both students and the industry.  


  • Advertisement: Any promotional message for coaching services (as defined under Consumer Protection Act, 2019). 
  • Coaching: Instruction, guidance, or academic support provided by an individual or institute. 
  • Misleading Advertisement: An advertisement that deceives or is likely to deceive consumers about the coaching services (as defined under Consumer Protection Act, 2019). 

Prohibited Practices, Coaching advertisements must not: 

  • Conceal important information: This includes details like course names, durations, costs, and qualifications for students featured in success stories. 
  • Make false claims: Success rates, student rankings, or job placements must be supported by verifiable evidence. 
  • Misrepresent student success: Acknowledge the role of student effort alongside coaching contributions. 
  • Create urgency or fear: Avoid tactics that pressure consumers into enrolling. 
  • Use misleading testimonials: Testimonials and endorsements require express consent and must be genuine. 
  • Guarantee success: Enrolment cannot be guaranteed to lead to specific ranks, marks, jobs, or admissions. 
  • Misrepresent qualifications: Faculty credentials and course approvals must be accurate. 
  • Make exaggerated claims: Coaching facilities and resources should be truthfully represented. 

Obligations of Coaching Institutes 

  • Disclose relevant information: Clearly display details like course names, durations, and fees for successful students featured in advertisements. 
  • Prominent disclaimers: Include disclaimers and important information in a clear and visible format, with a font size comparable to the main advertisement. 
  • Accurate representations: Facilities, resources, and faculty credentials must be portrayed honestly. 
  • Transparency and truthfulness: All advertisements must be truthful and avoid cherry-picking exceptional cases. 


  • These guidelines apply to all forms of coaching advertisements, including print, electronic media, and online platforms. 
  • Enforcement Violations of these guidelines will be addressed under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 2019. 
  • Dispute Resolution In case of ambiguity or disputes regarding these guidelines, the decision of the designated authority will be final. 
  • These guidelines aim to promote fair and ethical advertising practices in the coaching sector, ensuring consumer protection and informed decision-making. 

Impact of Draft Guidelines for Preventing Misleading Coaching Ads (2024) 

Positive Impacts: 

  • Empowered Students: Students will be able to make informed decisions based on accurate information about coaching institutes. 
  • Reduced False Promises: Misleading claims about success rates and guaranteed results will be minimized. 
  • Focus on Quality: Coaching institutes will have to focus on providing genuine value and quality education. 
  • Increased Trust: Ethical advertising practices will foster trust between institutes and potential students. 

Best Practices to Avoid Misleading Ads: 

  • Transparency: Clearly disclose details like course names, durations, costs, and faculty qualifications. 
  • Data-backed Claims: Support success rate claims with verifiable data (e.g., past student results). 
  • Ethical Testimonials: Use testimonials with genuine consent and avoid fabricating results. 
  • Focus on Value Proposition: Emphasize the institute’s unique teaching methods and student support systems. 

How Misleading Ads Impact Students: 

  • False Hope and Pressure: Unrealistic promises can lead to disappointment and wasted resources. 
  • Financial Burden: Students might enroll in courses based on exaggerated claims, leading to unnecessary expenditure. 
  • Misguided Decisions: Incomplete information can hinder students’ ability to choose the most suitable coaching program. 
  • Damaged Trust: Unfulfilled promises can erode student trust in the entire coaching sector. 

These guidelines aim to create a more ethical and responsible coaching environment. By following best practices, institutes can attract students genuinely seeking improvement while students can make informed decisions based on accurate information. 



The Indian government lifted the ban on onion exports on May 4, 2024, just before crucial voting in Maharashtra for the Lok Sabha elections. 

  • This decision is expected to impact onion prices in the upcoming weeks. 

Impact on Farmers: 

  • Farmers in Maharashtra, particularly in areas like Nashik, Lasalgaon, and Solapur, are dissatisfied with the government’s decision. 
  • The clause imposing a Minimum Export Price (MEP) of USD 550 per metric ton is a point of contention as it implies a 40% export duty, reducing farmers’ profits. 

Political Implications: 

  • Thirteen constituencies in Maharashtra, including key onion-growing areas, are scheduled to vote on May 7. 
  • Farmers have expressed their discontent and barred political leaders from campaigning in their regions. 
  • Some farmers believe the decision is politically motivated to appease voters ahead of the elections. 

Farmers’ Demands: 

  • Farmer leaders advocate for the exclusion of farmers from export duty to ensure they benefit fully from export opportunities. 
  • The Onion Growers’ Association has been demanding a rollback of export duty since August 2023, citing losses incurred by farmers. 

Challenges Faced by Farmers: 

  • Poor rainfall and drought-like conditions have already impacted summer onion sowing by 30%, potentially leading to a rise in onion prices post-elections. 
  • Farmers have faced significant losses amounting to approximately Rs 10,000 crore over the past nine months due to the onion export ban. 

Onion Growing Conditions 

Temp: Germinate: 15-25°C 

Grow: 15-30°C (cooler preferred) 

Soil: Well-drained, loose loam, pH 6-7.5 (avoid extremes) 

Water: Moderate, avoid waterlogging, more during bulb formation. 

Climate: Sunny, moderate rainfall (except during bulb formation). 

Export Duty in India 

In India, there are generally no export duties levied on most goods. The government aims to promote exports and make Indian products more competitive in the global market. 

  • The authority responsible for levying and regulating customs duties, including export duties, is the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) under the Ministry of Finance. However, there might be some exceptions: 
  • Restricted Items: Certain items considered essential for domestic consumption or national security might have controlled exports with specific duties. These are typically decided on a case-by-case basis. 
  • Agricultural Products: the government might impose temporary export duties on agricultural products to control domestic prices or ensure sufficient availability within the country. 

Measures to Promote Exports 

  • Remission of Duties and Taxes on Exported Products (RoDTEP): This scheme refunds or remits taxes and duties paid on inputs used in exported products, making them more price competitive globally. 
  • Trade Infrastructure for Export Scheme (TIES): This scheme provides financial assistance for developing export infrastructure projects like ports, warehouses, and testing facilities. 
  • Market Access Initiatives (MAI): The government helps Indian exporters participate in international trade fairs and exhibitions, facilitating market access and brand promotion. 
  • Free Trade Agreements (FTAs): Signing FTAs with other countries reduces or eliminates tariffs on Indian exports, making them cheaper in those markets. 

These measures aim to create a supportive environment for Indian exporters, allowing them to compete effectively in the international marketplace. 

Multiple choice question: 

  1. Consider the following statements with reference to the Indian economy:
  1. Goods and Services Tax (GST) is levied on both manufacturing and consumption of goods. 
  1. Customs duty is a indirect tax levied on import of goods. 
  1. Excise duty is an indirect tax levied on manufactured goods within the country. 

Which of the statements given above are correct? 

  1. 1 only 
  1. 2 and 3 only 
  1. 1 and 3 only 
  1. All the above 



The Lakshya aircraft is a pilot-less target aircraft developed by the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) in Bengaluru, part of DRDO, to assist the Indian Armed Forces in their training and evaluation of new weapon systems. 

  • Induction and Usage: It was introduced into the Indian Air Force, Indian Navy, and Indian Army in 2000, 2001, and 2003 respectively. 
  • Design Features: Lakshya is a reusable, high subsonic aerial target system powered by a gas turbine engine. 
  • Target System: It carries two tow targets, each 1.5 km long, with radar, infrared (IR), or visual signature augmentation, and a Miss Distance Indication Scoring System. 
  • Training Use: These tow targets are used for training land- or ship-based gun and missile crews, as well as combat aircraft pilots, in weapon engagement tactics. 
  • Launch and Recovery: Lakshya can be launched from both land and sea using a zero-length launcher and recovered via a dual-stage parachute system. 
  • Control System: It can be controlled from the ground control station (GCS) using pre-programmed hardware and software systems. 
  • Reusability and Mission Capability: Designed for 15 missions, Lakshya aids in neutralizing incoming airborne enemy targets. 



The Paliyar tribe, also known as Palaniyan, gets its name from “Palani,” a place in Tamil Nadu. They are also called Paliyans, Pazhaiyarares, and Panaiyars. 

  • Distribution: They reside in various districts of Tamil Nadu like Madurai, Thanjavur, Pudukkottai, Tirunelveli, and Coimbatore. 
  • Language and Communication: Paliyars speak Tamil and use Tamil script for communication within and outside their community. 
  • Traditional Occupation: Historically, they were hunters and gatherers, living in the forests of the Western Ghats. 
  • Religious Practices: They worship Vanadevadai in the forest and honor the god Karuppan by visiting a remote forest area with their families. 
  • Funeral Customs: Unlike cremation, the Paliyar tribes traditionally bury their dead near their residential areas, typically on the western side. 



The Koothandavar festival occurs in the Tamil month of Chithirai (mid-April to mid-May) in Koovagam, Tamil Nadu, lasting for 18 days. 

Historical Background:  

  • It originates from a Tamil version of the Mahabharata, where a character named Aravan offers himself as a sacrifice for the Pandavas’ victory.  
  • Despite having a boon of marriage, no woman wanted to marry him due to the fear of widowhood.  
  • Lord Krishna, in the form of Mohini, marries Aravan, and upon his sacrifice, mourns him as a widow. 


  • The main ritual of the festival revolves around Lord Aravan’s sacrificial ceremony.  
  • On the 17th day, transwomen gather to marry Lord Aravan, and the following day, he is sacrificed.  
  • The trans women who married him then undergo the rituals of widowhood, mourning his death. 


May 6
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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