Loading Events

« All Events

  • This event has passed.


May 8 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm



On April 24, 2024, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) barred Kotak Mahindra Bank (KMB) from onboarding new customers online and issuing fresh credit cards due to deficiencies in its IT systems.

Reasons for Restrictions:

  • RBI identified serious deficiencies in KMB’s IT inventory, user access management, data leak prevention, and disaster recovery strategies during a two-year examination (2022-2023).
  • KMB repeatedly failed to address these concerns comprehensively and in a timely manner, and was non-compliant with RBI’s corrective action plans.

Financial Impact:

  • S&P Global Ratings suggest the restrictions may hinder KMB’s credit growth and profitability, particularly affecting its credit card segment which accounted for 4% of total loans.
  • Despite an expected minimal financial impact, KMB CEO Ashok Vaswani expressed concern over the reputational impact.
  • Similar actions were taken against HDFC in December 2020 and Bank of Baroda in October 2023 for similar reasons, reflecting RBI’s cautious approach towards digital banking.

Response and Future Plans:

  • KMB plans to invest in its credit card franchise despite the restrictions, although its growth trajectory for retail products may be affected.
  • The bank aims to address RBI’s concerns through capacity building, risk management, and technological enhancements, but acknowledges the time-consuming nature of these changes.

What is PCA Framework?

The PCA Framework is a monitoring tool used by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to identify and address weaknesses in banks. It helps the RBI intervene early and prevent potential bank failures.


  • Identify banks with poor financial health based on capital levels, profitability, and asset quality.
  • Prompt banks to take corrective actions to improve their financial health.
  • Prevent future banking crises.


  • Capital to Risk-Weighted Assets Ratio (CRAR)
  • Net Non-Performing Assets (NPA)
  • Return on Assets (RoA)

Recent Developments:

  • In 2021, the RBI revised the framework to include a new indicator – leverage ratio – to assess a bank’s ability to handle debt.

New Rules for Government-Owned NBFCs

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has expanded the Prompt Corrective Action (PCA) framework to include government-owned NBFCs (Non-Banking Financial Companies) like PFC, REC, IRFC, and IFCI. This will bring these institutions under stricter financial supervision.


The PCA Framework uses three key financial ratios to assess a bank’s health:

Non-Performing Assets (NPA):

  • Definition: A loan or advance where the borrower hasn’t made principal or interest payments for at least 90 days.
  • Significance: High NPA indicates difficulty in recovering loans, impacting a bank’s profitability.

Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) (also known as CRAR – Capital to Risk-Weighted Assets Ratio):

  • Definition: A measure of a bank’s capital reserves compared to its risky assets (loans).
  • Significance: Higher CAR indicates better shock absorption capacity during financial difficulties, protecting depositors.

Return on Assets (ROA):

  • Definition: A profitability ratio that measures how much profit a bank generates from its assets.
  • Significance: A higher ROA indicates efficient management in utilizing assets to generate profits

Multiple choice question:

  1. Consider the following statements regarding the governance of public sector banking in India,:
  2. The Indian government has consistently increased capital infusion into public sector banks (PSBs) in the past decade.
  3. To streamline public sector banks, the merger of associate banks with the parent State Bank of India has been implemented.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2



Statement 1 is incorrect. Capital infusion by the government fluctuates based on various factors like fiscal deficit and the financial health of the banks themselves. There may be periods of increased infusion followed by periods of lower allocation.

Statement 2 is correct: In recent years, the government has pursued mergers of associate banks with their parent State Bank of India (SBI). This aims to consolidate the banking sector, improve efficiency, and potentially address NPA (Non-Performing Asset) issues.



The kerala government issued an alert on west nile fever after one death and eight cases were reported from kozhikode, malappuram and thrissur districts.

West Nile fever is a mosquito-borne viral infection that can cause mild illness or flu-like symptoms in some people, while others may experience severe neurological illness.


  • West Nile virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito.
  • Culex mosquitoes become infected by feeding on infected birds, which circulate the virus in their blood for a few days.
  • There is no human-to-human transmission of the virus.


  • 80% of infected people show no symptoms.
  • For those who do experience symptoms, they can range from mild to severe and can include:
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Body aches
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

Vaccine and Treatment

  • There is no vaccine available to prevent West Nile virus infection.
  • There is no specific treatment for West Nile fever. Treatment for most people is supportive and includes rest, fluids, and pain medication.
  • People with severe illness may require hospitalization and intensive supportive care.

Situation in India

  • The first case of West Nile fever in India was reported in Kerala in 2011.
  • Since then, there have been occasional outbreaks of the virus in different parts of the country.

Preventive Measures:

  • Mosquito Control: Nile fever is primarily spread through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly Culex species. Implement comprehensive mosquito control measures such as:
  • Removing stagnant water where mosquitoes breed.
  • Using insect repellents containing DEET.
  • Installing screens on windows and doors.
  • Using mosquito nets while sleeping.
  • Public Awareness: Educate the public about the risks of Nile fever and ways to prevent mosquito bites.
  • Protective Clothing: Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and hats to minimize skin exposure to mosquitoes, especially during peak mosquito activity times, typically dawn and dusk.
  • Avoid High-Risk Areas: If possible, avoid outdoor activities in areas where Nile fever is prevalent, particularly during outbreaks.

Multiple choice question:

  1. Which of the following can be cultivated in a synthetic or artificial medium?
  2. Bacteria
  3. Fungi
  4. Virus

Choose the correct code:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2, and 3



  • Bacteria and fungi can both be cultured in synthetic or artificial mediums. These mediums provide the necessary nutrients and conditions for their growth outside of their natural environment.
  • Bacteria can be cultured in agar plates or broths containing specific nutrients, while fungi can be cultured on agar plates containing nutrients like malt extract agar or potato dextrose agar.
  • Viruses, on the other hand, cannot be cultured in artificial mediums alone. They require living host cells to replicate and propagate.



The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is encouraging schools to use educational materials that promote learning in a student’s mother tongue.

This aligns with the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 and the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2022, which emphasize mother tongue or local language instruction.

New Learning Materials

  • The National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and the Indian Institute of Languages (IIL) have created special primers in various Indian languages.
  • These primers are designed for children attending pre-school programs and introduce them to basic reading and numbers in their native language.
  • The CBSE is recommending that schools use these primers to help students develop strong language skills in their mother tongue.

Constitutional Provisions for Mother Tongue Education

  • While there’s no direct provision mandating mother tongue education, Article 350A of the Indian Constitution encourages states to provide facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage for children of linguistic minority groups.

How Mother Tongue Aids Cognitive Development

  • Stronger Foundation: Learning in one’s mother tongue allows for better comprehension of concepts, building a solid foundation for further education.
  • Enhanced Confidence: Using their familiar language empowers students to participate actively, boosting their confidence and self-esteem in the learning environment.
  • Improved Critical Thinking: Mother tongue allows for deeper understanding and analysis of ideas, fostering critical thinking skills.
  • Bridge to Complex Concepts: Complex subjects become more accessible when explained in a familiar language, facilitating cognitive development.
  • Language Acquisition: Mastering one’s mother tongue strengthens overall language skills and lays the groundwork for learning additional languages.

Initiatives promoting regional languages in India:

  • National Education Policy (NEP) 2020: This landmark policy prioritizes mother tongue or local languages as the medium of instruction, ideally until grade 8. This fosters deeper understanding and strengthens the foundation for further education.
  • NIPUN Bharat Mission: Aligned with the NEP, NIPUN Bharat emphasizes mother tongue-based instruction as crucial for achieving foundational literacy and numeracy (FLN) goals. Mastering basic skills in one’s native language empowers students for future academic success.
  • Bhasha Sangam: It aims to teach students 100 sentences in each of the 22 scheduled Indian languages, written in Devanagari script and translated into English.

The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 and Mother Tongue Education

The NEP 2020 emphasizes the importance of mother tongue or local languages as the medium of instruction in Indian schools.

  • Focus on Foundational Learning: The policy recommends using mother tongue for instruction until at least Grade 5, preferably extending to Grade 8 and beyond.
  • Improved Comprehension: Students can grasp concepts more effectively when taught in their native language, leading to better academic performance.
  • Equity and Inclusion: NEP aims to bridge the gap between students from diverse linguistic backgrounds. Using mother tongue ensures all students have an equal opportunity to understand and participate in the learning process.
  • Respect for Diversity: The policy acknowledges India’s rich linguistic heritage and promotes the preservation and development of regional languages.

Multiple choice question:

  1. Identify the following provisions of the Constitution of India have a bearing on Education.
  2. Directive Principles of State Policy
  3. Rural and Urban Local Bodies
  4. Fifth Schedule
  5. Sixth Schedule
  6. Seventh Schedule

Select the correct answer:

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2, 4 and 5 only
  3. 1, 3and 5 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5



All the listed provisions are interconnected with various aspects of education policy, administration, and implementation in India. They cover guidelines for educational welfare, local administration’s role in education, provisions for tribal education and development, and the distribution of responsibilities between the central and state governments regarding education.



Recent research highlights the role of the FLVCR2 protein in transporting choline into the brain, further emphasizing its importance.

About Choline:

  • Choline is a vital nutrient crucial for various bodily functions like cellular growth and metabolism.
  • It comes in both water-soluble and fat-soluble forms, and the body absorbs them differently.
  • While the liver can produce some choline, it’s not sufficient for daily needs, so we must get it from our diet.
  • Rich sources of choline include meat, fish, dairy, eggs, as well as some fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Choline is essential for maintaining cell structure as it’s a part of phospholipids, crucial for cell membranes.
  • It provides methyl groups necessary for various metabolic processes.
  • Choline is crucial for liver health, helping clear cholesterol and preventing fat buildup.
  • It’s needed for making acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter vital for memory, muscle movement, and other functions.
  • Choline plays roles in gene expression, cell signaling, lipid metabolism, and early brain development.
  • It also supports beneficial gut bacteria.
  • Deficiency in choline can lead to health issues like cardiovascular disease and muscular damage.



Fusobacterium nucleatum is a type of bacteria commonly found in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract.


  • It’s considered an opportunistic pathogen due to its frequent presence in anaerobic samples from patients with various infections.
  • Recent research identified a specific subtype of F. nucleatum in higher quantities in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors.
  • This subtype, known as F. nucleatum animalis (Fna), was the predominant type found in tumor samples.
  • Further genetic analysis divided Fna into two groups, with only one, called Fna C2, found in substantial numbers in CRC tumors.
  • Fna C2 exhibits higher resistance to acid, potentially allowing it to survive passage from the mouth to the intestines.
  • It can hide inside certain tumor cells, evading the immune system.
  • Fna C2 is adept at utilizing nutrients found in the gastrointestinal tract, different from those in the mouth.
  • The findings suggest a potential link between Fna C2 and CRC development, highlighting the importance of understanding bacterial subtypes in cancer research.
  • Further studies may explore the role of Fna C2 in CRC progression and its potential as a therapeutic target.



Orangutans are large arboreal mammals known for their distinctive red fur.


  • They primarily inhabit the Indonesian island of Sumatra and both the Malaysian and Indonesian parts of Borneo.
  • Orangutans spend over 90% of their waking hours in trees, adapted with long arms and grasping hands and feet.
  • There are three species: Bornean, Sumatran, and Tapanuli, sharing 96.4% of human genes.
  • Adult males can reach heights of 1.3 meters and weigh up to 130 kg, with wide cheek pads distinguishing older males.
  • Their diet consists mainly of fruits and leaves, supplemented with nuts, bark, insects, and occasionally bird eggs.
  • Orangutans have a semi-solitary lifestyle but exhibit social tolerance during periods of high fruit abundance.
  • All three species are classified as “Critically Endangered” due to habitat loss, poaching, and human-wildlife conflict.
  • Recent observation of a wild male orangutan using chewed-up leaves of a medicinal plant to treat a facial wound is the first known instance of such behavior.
  • This behavior adds to evidence that non-human animals, like humans, use plants for medicinal purposes, highlighting the intelligence and adaptability of orangutans.



FWD-200B is India’s first indigenous military-grade bomber unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).


  • Developed by Flying Wedge Defence, it marks a significant advancement in India’s aerospace capabilities.
  • Classified as a MALE (medium-altitude, long-endurance) UAV, it is designed for precision air strikes.
  • The UAV has a payload capacity of 100 kg, integrating optical surveillance payloads and missile-like weapons.
  • With a maximum speed of 370 kmph and an endurance capacity of 12 to 20 hours, it offers versatility in various missions.
  • Its ground control station has a range of 200 km, providing operators with effective control over long distances.
  • The aircraft measures six meters in length, with an eight-meter wingspan, and can operate at altitudes of up to 9,000 feet.
  • Its maximum take-off weight is 498 kg, enabling it to carry out diverse missions efficiently.
  • The development of FWD-200B represents a significant step towards self-reliance in defense technology for India.
  • This indigenous UAV enhances India’s capabilities for surveillance, reconnaissance, and precision strikes in defense operations.



Chloropicrin, also known as nitro chloroform, is a chemical compound used as both a warfare agent and pesticide.

  • It appears as a colourless to yellow oily liquid and is extensively employed as a fungicide, herbicide, insecticide, nematicide, and antimicrobial.
  • Originating from its use as a poison gas in World War I, it possesses tear-inducing characteristics similar to tear gas.
  • The compound is manufactured through chemical reactions involving sodium hypochlorite (bleach) and nitromethane or by combining chloroform with nitric acid.
  • Chloropicrin is highly toxic, carcinogenic, and can induce vomiting upon exposure via inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact.
  • Recent accusations by the U.S. State Department accused Russia of using chloropicrin in Ukraine, violating the Chemical Weapons Convention.
  • The Chemical Weapons Convention is a multilateral treaty banning chemical weapons and mandating their destruction within a specified timeframe.
  • Entered into force on April 29, 1997, it requires states-parties to declare their chemical weapons stockpiles and production facilities.
  • India, a signatory to the Convention since 1993, enacted the Chemical Weapons Convention Act, 2000, to comply with its provisions.
  • The Convention aims to prevent the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons, promoting global disarmament and peacekeeping efforts.



India VIX is an index measuring market expectations of volatility in the near term, also known as the fear index.

  • Volatility indicates the rate and magnitude of change in stock prices or index values.
  • Movement in the VIX reflects market volatility expectations over the next 30 days.
  • A spike in the VIX value suggests expectations of higher volatility in the near future.
  • Originally created by the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) in 1993 based on S&P 500 prices, it’s now globally recognized.
  • India VIX, launched in 2010, follows a similar methodology but aligns with the Indian market.
  • Calculated by the National Stock Exchange, India VIX has a strong negative correlation with Nifty.
  • When India VIX drops, Nifty tends to rise, and vice versa, indicating an inverse relationship between volatility and market performance.
  • Recent surges in India VIX have prompted experts to advise caution against large leveraged positions, highlighting the importance of understanding market volatility for investors.
  • Monitoring India VIX can help investors make informed decisions regarding risk management and portfolio strategies.


May 8
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
Event Category:
error: Content is protected !!