“Our best capacity is realized only with a strong opponent”

Mohd Ali


  • We can write the story of how the Vietnamese safeguarded their country from American Assaults in the war.
  • Story of our freedom struggle can be a background (history)
  • Any current affairs dimension – solar as a solution to energy security
  • An opinion – to not to align with any block and stay independent
  • An idea – Need or a desire to free ourselves from the colonial rule
  • A realization that I am not born to be a slave, but to be master of my own destiny.


  1. We don’t value our adversaries in life. We look at them as obstacles, not realizing that they are the reason for our growth and rise from shadow.
  2. Everything that a man has discovered is a result of thinking in the presence of an opponent.








“An effort to bring a major change in the absence of intuition and logic is like going on a road trip without a map”


  • Give the dimension of success of swachh bharat abhiyaan ‘
  • Give the idea of visionary decision to land on moon
  • We can Talk about out vision to rise as a voice of the south


  • “Our ability to understand something instinctively, without the need for conscious reasoning, if supported by logic, can bring miracles”
  • “Many a times in our life, if logic fails, intuition helps, but if both intersect at a common point then there is no looking back”
  • Every big success, if seen closely, is an intersection of intuition and logic




            “Half of the discoveries in the world are a work of wanderers-From America to India”


  • Story of discovery of America and India. Some other scientific inventions can also be taken.


  • All that is gold does not glitter.
  • Not all those who wander are lost;
  • The old that is strong does not wither,
  • Deep roots are not reached by the frost.


  • Wandering need not be physical only, it can be mentally and spiritually as well
  • Wandering can also mean the courage to take a path least preferred
  • Readiness to face opposition
  • The ability to accept new things, some known some unknown
  • Holding an opposing viewpoint need not always mean being wrong
  • We can communicate to ourselves the best while wandering
  • The ability to connect with the nature is the best while wandering
  • Wandering may seem direction less, but it may lead to beautiful destinations
  • Wandering can also help us to disconnect with the thoughts influencing our actions
  • Wandering can also give peace of mind.


            “We kill a girl with restrictions and boys with expectations”

“The day a girl can walk without fear at midnight – India will celebrate its real independence” Gandhi



  • Different fields of restrictions and expectations
  • The iron curtains of gender biases (Field of Science/Defence)
  • A must required ?


  • The fixation of the roles of a girl and a boy based on historical construct is itself flawed and reduces a society to a time clock.


  • We are chained by our own inabilities than strengths
  • The boundaries of restrictions and expectations
  • The scope of these restrictions and expectations
  • The burden of history and culture
  • Even in the absence, the burden of judgement
  • The courage to face the restrictions and rise above the expectations
  • The cost of restrictions and expectations (individual/societal)
  • The audacity to not pass the same to the next generation
  • The limitations created by these expectations
  • Are these restrictions rightful?
  • The moral compass of the restrictions and the societal role in its determination
  • Is the society taken as an excuse-or it is the society to be blamed


            “The progress of a society can be measured more from justice than Charity”


  • Justice to the voiceless. Women Reservation Bill
  • Rights of the Minorities
  • Traditional Forest Dwellers
  • The rightful place for animals in the society
  • The right of environment


  • The idea of justice is a pre-cursor to the idea of charity
  • The requirement of charity is a reflection of injustice
  • Charity is a duty and not a favour, as the society has failed to earn justice to the needy.


  • The responsibility to ensure justice
  • Having the strength to say its not charity but an effort to undo injustice
  • Justice as a matter of right
  • The societal idea of justice.
  • Interlinking of justice and charity – the presence of one, negates the need of other.
  • The role of historical events in coming to a common ground on what is justice
  • The willingness at least to give charity
  • Individual/familial/societal/national/international/humanitarian
  • Education/Job perspective
  • The right to choose a path of life – be it education/relationship/job etc
  • Ethical quotient of justice










“There is no study in the world which brings into more harmonious action all the faculties of the mind than [mathematics],”

James Joseph Sylvester


  • Importance of Mathematics in society
  • Any action not supported by mathematics – creates ripples that remain for ever


  • The object of pure mathematics is that of unfolding the laws of human intelligence.


  • Be it economic, social or political – if the reasons is not based on mathematics, it is bound to fail. Give examples
  • Mathematics – supersedes all opinion
  • The chances of failure are minimal, if decision are taken based on reasoning supported by mathematics than just based on intuition
  • Reasoning and intuition – the magical pairing
  • Mathematics can help us prepare for any eventuality
  • One must be mindful not to be driven purely by math – but with a combination of math and logic
  • The societal norms at times precede reasoning based on math
  • The importance of timing with math – math is a failure if not timed well
  • The burden of mathematics is also fatal


1. Explain the role of geographical factors towards the development of Ancient India? (150 Words) 10 Marks

The physical characteristics of a nation heavily influence both its history and the way of life of its citizens. History is considered to have two eyes, one of which is chronology and the other of which is geography.

Geographical Features that shaped our Ancient Indian History

  1. Climate and Agriculture: India’s diverse climate zones supported the cultivation of different crops, such as rice in the east and wheat in the northwest, leading to agricultural diversity and surplus production.
  2. River Systems: The Indus and Ganges river systems were vital for the development of early Indian civilizations. They provided a source of water for irrigation, facilitated trade and transportation, and contributed to the fertility of the surrounding lands.
  3. Natural Barriers: The Himalayas to the north and the Indian Ocean to the south acted as natural barriers, protecting India from invasions and fostering a degree of isolation that allowed for unique cultural and political developments.
  4. Mineral Resources: India’s rich deposits of minerals like copper, iron, and precious stones facilitated the growth of metallurgy, trade, and craftsmanship, contributing to economic prosperity and cultural advancement.
  5. Monsoon Winds: The seasonal monsoon winds, with their predictable patterns, were crucial for agriculture. Properly timed monsoons ensured bountiful harvests, while erratic monsoons could lead to famines and economic hardships.
  6. Trade Routes: Such as uttarapatha and dakshinapatha including the Silk Road, facilitated the exchange of goods, ideas, and cultural influences with other ancient civilizations.

India’s geography had a profound impact on its historical development, shaping its agriculture, culture, economy, and interactions with neighboring regions. These geographical factors, combined with human ingenuity, contributed to the rich tapestry of ancient Indian civilization.

2. Bring out the Socio-Economic effects of the introduction of railways in different countries of the World? (150 Words) 10 Marks

Ans. The railways changed the modern world society in numerous and complex ways.

Economic Effects

The building of railways and locomotives, for example, called for large quantities of heavy materials and thus provided significant stimulus to the coal-mining, iron-production, engineering, and construction industries.

The railways also helped reduce transaction costs, which in turn lowered the costs of goods.

The distribution and sale of perishable goods such as meat, milk, fish, and vegetables was transformed, giving rise not only to cheaper produce in the stores but also to far greater variety in people’s diets.

The railways were also a significant force for the changing patterns of human mobility.

Rail transport had originally been conceived as a way of moving coal and industrial goods but the railway operators quickly realized the potential for market for railway travel, leading to an extremely rapid expansion in passenger services.

Social Effects

The introduction and development of the railways led to cross cultural linkages. This brought a cultural revolution in the food we eat, the dress we wear. If we observe closely, any product of our social customs, it will surely have a backward linkage to the railways.

In this way, the railways played a significant role in the cross continental and cross national movement of goods, people, ideas and thought even.

In the words of historian Derek Aldcroft, “In terms of mobility and choice [the railways] added a new dimension to everyday life”.

Type 2 Answer:

The introduction of railways had significant socio-economic effects in different countries around the world during the 19th and 20th centuries:

  1. Economic Growth:

   – Industrialization: They facilitated the movement of raw materials to factories and finished products to markets, fostering economic growth and urbanization.

    – Trade Expansion: Railways connected regions and nations, promoting domestic and international trade. This led to increased economic interdependence and the growth of a global economy.

  1. Urbanization:

   – Rise of Cities: Railways contributed to the growth of cities and towns along their routes. They became hubs of economic activity, attracting industries, businesses, and a growing workforce.

   – Migration: The ease of travel via railways encouraged rural-to-urban migration as people sought employment opportunities in urban centers, leading to demographic shifts and changes in lifestyle.

  1. Technological Advancements:

   – Technological Innovation: The construction and operation of railways spurred technological advancements in areas like engineering, metallurgy, and communications. This, in turn, had a ripple effect on other industries.

  1. Employment:

   – Job Creation:The railway industry itself created jobs, from track construction to station staffing. Additionally, the industries and businesses that thrived due to railways also generated employment.

  1. Political Impact:

   – National Integration: Railways contributed to the integration of large and diverse countries, helping central governments exert control and authority over distant regions.

   – Colonialism: In colonial contexts, railways were sometimes built to facilitate the extraction of resources and control over territories, impacting the socio-economic dynamics of colonized regions.

These effects varied from one country to another, depending on their specific historical, geographical, and social contexts.

3. Do you think marriage as a sacrament is losing its value in Modern society? (150 Words) 10 Marks

Ans. Marriage as an institution, if seen, anthropologically, has its roots in reducing the frictions between a Man and a Woman in the human evolution history.

This was also the time, when the survival of the fittest was most apt in the existence process. Had this friction continued, the existence of Homo sapiens would have been in peril. To avoid this catastrophic fallout, marriage as an institution was evolved.

Marriage as a Sacrament thread

Marriage is a covenant based on equality and mutual desire between a couple, which means being a partner in life with love and affection.

At the same time, marriage embodies a form of relationship between the offspring and the sexes that is socially approved, i.e., the ordering of sex and procreation.

What is causing stress to this institution?

However, the increasing pace of the modern society and the desire to excel in one’s career has brought this established institution on cross roads of questioning.

Even the growing liberal mindset in co-habitation without the need to marriage, in the form of live-in relationships has addressed at least the one segment of the marriage.

Is Marriage all about Desires and Procreation?

However, marriage is not all about desires and procreation. It is much more beyond that. It is about developing a bonding, care for each other, and the ability to connect with the thoughts of the other without reciprocation being compulsory.

Just because a minute section of the population is avoiding this institution, it doesn’t put the entire institution under stress.

What needs to be questioned?

Instead, what needs to be questioned is, what brought stress to this institution. Loss of choice in selecting a prospective partner, societal say in one’s choice are forcing the youth to get away from this institution. Also, the failure of the society collectively in finding inclusive solution to the stressed relations is also a contributing factor leading to increased divorce rates.

This institution has faced many such stresses in the past and has been successful in overcoming them and it shall pass this test as well.

4. Does Urbanization lead to more segregation and/or marginalization of the poor in Indian Metropolises? (250 Words) 15 Marks

Ans. India has seen tremendous urban progress. It is estimated that by 2030, more than 400 million people will be living in cities in India as per the UN Report on Urbanization in India.

 Who are these urban poor?

These are the people who are serving the requirement of the urban dwellers in the form of electricians, plumbers, contractors, drivers, gig workers etc.

How Urbanization is leading to segregation/marginalization of these poor

Excessive Population Pressure: On one hand, the rural-urban migration accelerates the growth prospects of a nation, on the other, it creates excessive population pressure on the existing public utilities. This further marginalizes the poor.

Non-Inclusive Welfare Schemes: The benefits of welfare schemes for urban poor often reach only a small part of the intended beneficiaries as a result of disconnect with their roots in the rural areas.

Overflowing Slums: There are about 13.7 million slum households in the country sheltering a population of 65.49 million people. As much as 65% of Indian cities have adjoining slums.

Inadequate Housing: Among the numerous social problems of urbanization, the problem of housing is the most distressing. In India, more than half of the urban households occupy a single room, with an average occupancy per room of 4.4 persons.

Unplanned Development: The model of building a developed city comprises unplanned development, which only bolsters the dichotomy prevailing in urban cities between the rich and the poor.

Who is responsible for their wellbeing?

Government interventions are needed to address the issues of segregation and marginalization of these poor people. The absence of this, leads to friction that may flare up as a law and order or social issue.

Way forward

Creating strong data bank for identification of rightful beneficiaries

Policies targeting their inclusion

Urban local bodies mandated to look after their needs

Growth of Civic sense to include them in their growth stories

A more benevolent society for caretaking

Targeted Citizen Charters for timely disposal of their grievances

8. What were the major technological changes introduced during the Sultanate Period? How did those technological changes influence the Indian Society? (250 Words) 15 Marks

Sultanate period in India (1206-1526) saw major technological changes that had a significant impact on Indian society.

  1. Architecture:

-Introduction of arch and dome and minarates

Influence on Society: Persian architectural styles like those seen in the Qutb Minar influenced the design of mosques, tombs, and forts.

  1. Paper and Printing:

   – The use of paper for manuscripts and book production became widespread during this period. An example is the Tarjuma-i Mahabharata, a Persian translation of the Indian epic, produced on paper.

   – Influence on Society: The availability of paper facilitated the preservation and dissemination of knowledge. This contributed to the growth of literature, scholarship, and educational institutions in India.

  1. Caravan sarais:

   The Sultanate rulers constructed caravanserais along trade routes, like the Hauz Khas Complex in Delhi. These were equipped with lodging facilities, wells, and spaces for merchants to conduct business.

   – Influence on Society: Caravanserais provided a supportive environment for traders and travelers, enhancing trade networks and cultural exchanges. They played a role in shaping the economic and social fabric of the time.

  1. Military Technology:

   -Advancements in military technology included the use of mounted archers and improved siege warfare equipment like cannons. The fortifications of the Tughlaqabad Fort in Delhi reflect innovations in military architecture.

   – Influence on Society: These technological developments influenced military strategies and tactics. They were instrumental in defending against external threats and maintaining territorial integrity.

  1. Coinage and Metalworking:

   – The coinage of various Sultanate dynasties, such as the Tughlaq dynasty’s silver tanka, featured intricate designs and inscriptions, showcasing advancements in metalworking and minting techniques.

   – Influence on Society: Coinage not only served as a medium of exchange but also conveyed the authority and wealth of rulers. It influenced economic transactions and trade.

 These examples illustrate how the technological changes of the Sultanate period, whether in architecture, infrastructure, or industry, had a profound influence on various aspects of Indian society. They shaped art, culture, economy, and governance, leaving a lasting legacy that continued to evolve in the subsequent Mughal and colonial eras.

9. How did the Colonial rule affect the tribals in India and what was the tribal response to the colonial oppression? (250 Words) 15 Marks

The colonial rule in India had a profound and detrimental impact on the tribal communities

  1. The British introduced the Permanent Settlement Act in 1793, which established individual property rights and landlords, leading to land alienation among tribal communities. For example, in the Santhal Rebellion of 1855-56, the Santhal tribals revolted against the usurpation of their lands by British-appointed landlords.
  2. Forest Policies: The colonial government imposed restrictive forest policies, like the Indian Forest Act of 1865, which limited tribal access to forests, like tribal movement and practicing shifting cultivation.

Rampa rebellion by Alluri Sitaramaraju is a reaction to this policy.

  1. Economic Exploitation: Tribal labor was exploited in industries like tea and coal mining. The Santhal rebellion also had economic grievances as the Santhals were subjected to forced labor and economic exploitation.
  2. Cultural and Social Disruption: The introduction of Christian missionary activities disrupted tribal customs. The Gond tribe in central India faced conversions to Christianity by missionaries and Munda rebellion is a reaction against the forced conversions

These responses illustrate how tribal communities resisted colonial oppression through various forms of protest, cultural preservation, and political mobilization. Post-independence India has since made efforts to address historical injustices and promote tribal development through protective legislation and affirmative action.

10.Child cuddling is now being replaced by mobile phones. Discuss its impact on the socialization of children. (150 Words) 10 Marks

Answer: Studies suggest cuddling helps the child to feel secure and encourages better brain functionality. With growing digitalization, increasing women participation in work and rise in consumerism attitude etc. is impacting the socialization of the children in both negative and positive ways.

Impact of Mobile Phone on Socialization of Children:

Negative Impact:

  • Mental Health Issues: Increase screen time can cause sleep deprivation, which can lead to serious mental health problems.
  • Increasing Non-Communicable diseases: Spending more time on digital gadgets for playing limits their physical activity that leading to occurrence of many Non communicable diseases like obesity, diabetes, hypertension, posture related diseases like neck pain, Spine issues etc.
  • Delayed Emotional development: Lacking parental engagement may result in a child struggling to develop emotional intelligence. This may lead to difficulty in establishing real-world relationships.
  • Low cognitive development of the children: The lack of parental attention makes children over rely on their mobile phones for activities that they could do well on their own. Ex.: Using Mobile Calculator for basic calculations
  • Lowers Academic Performance : Chatting with friends or playing games during school breaks, or even in class, is increasing day-by-day. This results in children failing to pay attention in the class, missing out on important lessons, and consequently, being clueless about studies and examinations.
  • Academic malpractices and personality issues: Children learn to get their way in wrong means is also fine which sets bad example for him and his peers. Example: A child may celebrate as victory to top the exam by means of cheating without getting caught.
  • Negative Influence of Social Media and Popularity Cult : Example: risking their life for taking a selfie before a running train to post online to attract more followers etc
  • Increase in Crime rate : Kids can find their way to pornography at an early age, changing their perceptions and thought process. Even exchanging images of their own, irresponsibly, can create a fiasco that impacts their safety and lives for a long time.

Example: Children may share photos related to places they visited and may give easy information to Child traffickers to nab them.

Positive Impact:

  • Source of Entertainment: Mobile phones help children to cope with boredom especially when both the parents are occupied in work. Children use their phones for watching movies, playing games etc.
  • Increase accessibility of Education: e-education reducing the rural -urban divide in terms of access to educational resources like teachers and material etc. It can be particularly useful for children with learning disabilities, such as dyslexia or ADHD. 
  • Instant mode of Connection during Emergency: Between a child and her parents, enhancing a child’s sense of security.
  • Creativity and Self-Expression: Mobile phones often come with creative tools such as cameras and drawing apps. Children can use these tools to express themselves, explore their artistic abilities, and document their experiences.
  • Digital Literacy: Familiarity with technology can help children become digitally literate, which is a valuable skill in the modern age. Example: Developing essential tech-driven skills like using Note-taking apps like Goodnotes.
  • Increase Social Connections: Mobile phones can facilitate connections with family members, friends, and loved ones who are geographically distant. Video calls and messaging apps allow children to maintain relationships with relatives and friends, which can be especially beneficial in cases of long-distance family members. Example: A soldier posted at the border can virtually be part of his child upbringing.

Thus, the impact of mobile phones on the socialization of children is complex and depends on various factors, including the age of the child, the nature of mobile phone use, and the guidance and boundaries set by parents and caregivers.

1. Constitutionally guaranteed judicial independence is a prerequisite of democracy. Comment

Ans: Courts can’t run the government. Judiciary can only act as an alarm bell and it should ensure that the executive has become alive to perform its duties…………………………………….Justice Katju

The supreme court of India is considered the sentinel qui vie (watchful guardian) and protects the fundamental and constitutional rights of the people. Constitutional assembly debates reveal beyond any doubts that judiciary was contemplated as extension arm of rights and an arm of social revolution. Judicial independence is essential to uphold the socio, political and economic rights of citizens and to empower the citizens to uphold the values of enshrined in the constitution.

Judicial independence is very much essential to keep the democratic values alive

To Uphold the Constitutional Principles: In the Landmark Keshawanada Bharathi case, the supreme court had declared that the executive has no right to intercede and tamper the basic structure of the constitution.

To Uphold the Democratic rights of citizens: In Hussainara Khatoon vs. State of Bihar Case : The inhumane and barbaric conditions of prisoners reflected through series of article in news papers. Many prisoners who were under trail had already served the maximum period of persecution without being charged for offence. A writ petition of filed by the Mother of PIL, Kapila Hingorani under article 21 of the constitution. The court had accepted it and held that “ Right to speedy trail is fundamental right”. Further it also ordered the state authorities to provide free legal facilities to the under trail inmates so that they could get justice and bail or final release.

Upholding the independence of Constitutional bodies: In a public interest litigation was filed by Anoop Baranwal challenging the constitutional validity of the practice of the Centre appointing members of the Election Commission, the Supreme Court had upheld the independence of ECI and suggested a committee for his/her appointment.

In upholding the Democratic, Republican Structure of Indian Polity: In Kihoto Hollohan v. Zachillhur case : The 7 judge Constitution Bench held that “the Tenth Schedule to the constitution inserted by the constitution (Fifty-Second Amendment) Act, 1985, seeking to penalise and disqualify elected representatives, is violative of the fundamental principles of Parliamentary democracy and is, therefore, destructive of the basic feature of the Constitution.”

Impact: This judgment save the democratic nature of our constitution and also saved the people’s representatives and uphold their duty to represent the voice of their constituencies.

To limit the capricious use of Emergency Provisions by the Executive: In S.R. Bommai v. Union of India: 1994 case: SC said that the subjective satisfaction of the President regarding such a breakdown was beyond judicial scrutiny, but the material on which such satisfaction was based could certainly be analysed by the judiciary, including the Governor’s report. Thus uphold the limited form of government, which is part of basic principle of democracy also uphold by the judiciary.

Because of the above reasons, Judicial independence is necessary to upkeep the democratic nature of Indian polity. However, there are some instances, where Judiciary either be proactive or remain silent on major issues for example on Electoral Bond Case and Vishaka guidelines, which remain a black letters in the conduct of Judiciary. So, Judiciary must upkeep its independence by delivering quick justice to the victims to uphold democratic values of our founding fathers.

2. Who are entitled to receive free legal aid? Assess the role of the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) in rendering free legal aid in India.

Ans: It is the sprit and not the form of law that keeps the justice alive………………….LJ Earl Warren

In Santhose kumar Bariar v. State of Maharashtra: 2009: SC court agreed that the previous 13 judgements on death sentence are rendered per incuriam or ignorance of law. But however, by this time out of 13, 2 were hanged by neck. And majority of this death row convicts are illiterate or very poor, who lack the strength to afford the costlier judicial services. Thus, the poor and illiterate should be able to approach the courts and their ignorance and poverty should not be an impediment in the way of their obtaining justice from the courts and to implementing the state’s responsibility of providing free legal aid under Article 39, National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) Act: 1987 was enacted.

Eligible persons to receive free legal aid under NALSA Act:

Section 12 of the NALSA Act, provided the list of eligible persons to receive free legal aid. They are

  • A member of a Scheduled Caste or Scheduled Tribe;
  • A victim of trafficking in human beings or begar as referred to in Article 23 of the Constitution;
  • A woman or a child
  • A mentally ill or otherwise disabled person
  • A person under circumstances of undeserved want such as being a victim of a mass disaster, ethnic violence, caste atrocity, flood, drought, earthquake or industrial disaster
  • An industrial workman
  • A Juvenile in custody
  • Who receive an annual income of less than Rs.9000 rupees etc

Role of NALSA in Rendering Free Legal Aid:

  • Upholder of Right to life under Article 21: In Hussainara Khatoon v. State of Bihar: The court declared that “there can be no doubt that speedy trial, and by speedy trial, we mean reasonably expeditious trial, is an integral and essential part of the fundamental right to life and liberty enshrined in Article 21.” The court pointed out that Article 39-A emphasised that free legal service was an inalienable element of ‘reasonable, fair and just’ procedure and that the right to free legal services was implicit in the guarantee of Article 21.
  • To Uphold Principle of Natural Justice/Fair Application of Law: In Indira Gandhi v. Raj Narain the Supreme Court declared that justice will be delivered only when both parties are represented by their council. If any party is not represented by their council then trail will be vitiated, which goes against the principle of natural justice.
  • To Ensure Gender Justice: According to National Crime Record Bureau data around 4.28 lack incidents of crime against women were reported in 2021. Since, women and children are more vulnerable to crimes, NALSA been instrumental in providing free legal aid to them along with children and trans-gender community. Ex: National Legal Aid Helpline: 15100 etc
  • To Ensure Quicker Justice: Lok Adalats have been created under the NALSA Act: 1987, in which, there is no court fee and no rigid procedural requirements which makes this process very fast and parties can directly interact with the judge which can’t be possible in regular court of law.

Challenges faced by NALSA in providing Free Legal Aid:

  • Structural Issues in Justice Delivery System: ADR mechanism has hailed as a quick, less expensive procedure is not entirely true because expenses involved in appointing the specialist in the dispute resolution and lawyers who represent the parties are by no means less than that of litigation.
  • Enforceability: There is no clear guidelines on proper implementation of awards delivered under the ADR mechanism.
  • Limited Awareness: Majority of poor and illiterate people are unaware of the basic constitutional and legal rights.

Despite these challenges, NALSA had settled over 40 lack cases and provided Rs.2,700 crores as a compensation to victims and it is also instrumental in recognising the LGBTQ+ as third gender.

3. The states in India seem reluctant to empower urban local bodies both functionally as well as financially. Comment

Ans: Local self government is the life blood of liberty………………………………..John Lothrop Motley

There is a still truth in saying that “India lives in her villages”. Therefore in the Indian context true democracy that can sustain itself and function effectively is democracy at local level. In the words of S.K.Dey “If we were to rebuilt India work must start from villages”.

The first war of Independence 1857 put a immense stress on imperial finances which forced them to introduce the local representation to run local administration by local taxes. Lord Mayo thus introduced the system of elected representatives to urban municipalities.

Rippon Resolution: 1882: This is considered as the Magna Carta of local democracy in India because it proposed the establishment of rural local board. Balwant Rai Mehta committee: 1957:  Recommended 3 tier structure for Local Self Government from Village to district and between them an intermediate level. Later LM Singhvi committee recommended constitutional status to both rural and urban local bodies. Thus Rajiv Gandhi government gave them constitutional status through 73rd(Rural local govt) and 74th (Urban Local govt) constitutional amendment act.

Challenges in functional empowerment:

  • Poor coordination between Mayors and Executive officers: There is a deficiency of proper cooperation and coordination between the Mayors and Executive officers both in term of planning and prioritising works.
  • Politicization of Urban Local Bodies: Urban local bodies are generally viewed as extended arms of the ruling political parties in the state. Moreover, the state government permits the local governments to function to their advantage and not in accordance with ideals of democratic decentralization.
  • Principle of Subsidiarity: Constitutional status to panchayats and municipalities aimed at a fundamental shift in the nature of governance. However, experience of the past suggests that creating structures of elected local governments and ensuring regular elections do not necessarily guarantee effective local empowerment and has not always translated into real decentralisation of power because the Constitution left the issue of degree of empowerment and devolution to the State Legislature. State Government and its bureaucracy are not always in favour to effectively empower local governments because they view it as diminishing of their power and hold.
  • Delineation of functions: Under Article 243(G) and 243(W), Panchayats and Municipalities have been provided with certain powers and functions to prepare local plans for socio economic development with respect to subjects listed in 11th and 12th schedule.

The implementation space at local levels is thus occupied by a multiplicity of governmental agencies leading to confusion, unnecessary duplication and wastage of funds. Thus, there should be clear delineation of functions for each level of local government.

Challenges to Financial Autonomy:

  • State Finance Commissions: Under Article 243I, the state governments are required to appoint state finance commission, but since from its inception very few state governments have appointed these commissions to laid down the principle for distribution of funds between the state and local governments.
  • Devolution of funds: The major sources of income for local governments like property tax are not properly collected due to lack of a proper mechanism of levying and collection of such tax. Thus making these institutions extremely depend on state grants to run their administration.
  • Derailing the financial sources of Municipalities: There have been various instances in the past where approval from Municipalities has been either forced or forged for acquisition of land for various commercial purposes including mining. Merely by making Urban local bodies a part of Constitution will not solve the problem at the gross root level unless its limbs are empowered.

Despite these challenges, there are various initiative taken by local burocracy to overcome these difficulties by using technology and union governments has been pushing for various measures like E-Panchayat Mission mode project, New India Literacy programme, Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Yojana and many more to empower urban local bodies both functionally and financially.


4. The Crucial aspect of development process has been the inadequate attention paid to Human Resource Development in India. Suggest measures that can address this inadequacy

Ans: Indian being the most populous country as per (World Bank report) with limited natural resources has to capitalise on its human resource development for higher development. This development process should encompass the overall well being of its population (health, education and skills), economic opportunities, living conditions and gender equality etc.

Reasons for Inadequate Attention Paid to Human Resource Development:

  • Education treated as private responsibility of parents: Till the time ‘The Right to Education’ Act: 2009 was passed education, which is a fuel for development of human capital was largely seen as responsibility of parents not by the government.
  • Poverty: Despite the economic liberation, India hosts large number of poor people till 2005/06. Since then it able to brought about 415 million people out of poverty as per UN report, which forced many people to strive for sustenance with minimal investment in their skill developments.
  • Lack of Job opportunities: As aforesaid, till 1991, the major employer in India was public sectors which have limited opportunities, which resulted in huge unemployment, forced many to look for manual labour.
  • Politically driven development process: Till 2015, major developmental activities are led by planning commission, which is focused on top-down approach and inadequate focus on changing world and skill set of human resources

Measures to overcome these inadequacies:

  • Education is a basic human right: Education is a basic fundamental right. t is essential for the development of human personality and moral living. If education is restricted to only a privileged section it will be a huge injustice to the rest of the society.
  • Make Access to Skill Development Centres as Legal Right like MNREGA: As ike employment guarantee schemes for rural and urban families, make access to skill development centres both at rural and urban areas as a legal right.
  • Customisation of Human development Schemes to suite local needs: Missions/Schemes such as Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana and Skill India mission have to be customised to suit the demands of local skill requirements. Here governments have to give effective powers to district heads to suit these requirements.
  • Better access to Nutrition and Healthcare facilities: Expand the midday meals scheme to private educational institution either directly to parents under DBT or indirectly to schools and ensure 100% coverage to vaccination to all children, who missed out vaccination due to COVID-19.
  • Creating more employment opportunities: Promoting self employment by easy institutional credit, promotion of MSMEs, internationalisation of rupee, liberalised FDI norms and faster approvals for establishment and closure of businesses.
  • Mitigating the impact of climate change: It is estimated that India could account for about 3.4 crore of the projected eight crore global job losses from heat stress by 2030. The Reserve Bank of India’s latest report suggests that up to 4.5 per cent of India’s GDP could be at risk by 2030, owing to lost labour hours from extreme heat and humidity.
  • Promoting gender equality: Boosting female workforce participation is vital for HRD. Rectifying gender imbalances in education and job openings can aid this objective.

India, wanted to become a $5 trillion economy by 2024-25, with this objective, it shouldn’t neglect on human resources which is backbone to any economy even in a digitised world.

5. Discuss the role of competition commission of India in containing the abuse of dominant position by MNCs. Refer to the recent decision.

Ans:  With the objective of ensuring a fair play among different competitors, freedom of business and to protect the interests of the consumers, Competition Commission of India (CCI) was setup in 2009 under Competition Act: 2002. Recently CCI, had imposed a Rs. 1337 crore fine on Google for abusing dominant position on play store

The role of the competition commission of India is:

  • Eliminate practises having adverse effects on competition: while the Android source code is openly accessible and covers the basic features of a smartphone, it does not include Google’s proprietary applications. In order to access these application, mobile manufacturers has to enter into Mobile Application Distribution Agreements (MADA), which prevents them to go for other app-stores thereby eliminating the competition all together.
  • Promote and Sustain competition: Recently, CCI had ordered investigation on Amzon and Flipkart about the exclusive sales agreements with smart phone makers. These agreements were proved to be detrimental to traditional sellers and virtually eliminating completion.
  • Promotes the interests of customers: As of last year, Google has a 92% share in the global search engine market. Therefore, by having Revenue Sharing Agreements (RSAs) with mobile manufacturers, Google was able to “secure exclusivity” for its search services to the “total exclusion of competitors” thereby limiting the choices to customers.
  • Ensuring the freedom of trade in the Market of India: In the recent past, CCI was very proactive in ensuring the free and open competition among different players in the Indian market. Ex: Amazon-Flipkart case
  • Promoting Competition Awareness: By educating consumers and businesses about their Competition Act rights, the CCI fosters a competitive Indian environment, making MNC dominance more challenging.

Both the penalty and the regulator’s direction to Google “to modify its conduct”, will be welcomed by everyone who realizes the power of the big IT platforms to shut out competition and, therefore, choice for the users. These directions and measures are very much needed in a the biggest digital market in the world with most mobile subscribes with low cost internet access.

6. Virus of conflict is affecting the functioning of the SCO. In the light of the above statement point out the role of India in mitigating the problem.

Ans: Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) was formed with the objective of promoting friendly neighbourly, mutual trust among the members and common efforts for the protection of regional peace and counter the terrorism and extremism. However, it has been facing with several challenges both internally and externally, which raises questions about the effectiveness of the organisation.

Internal challenges and role of India in mitigating them:

  • Regional Peace and Security: Imirat Kavkaz (IK): Russia’s North Caucasus, The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), ETIM: East Turkistan Islamic Movement led by Uyghur Muslims in China, and Al-Queda, Taliban and more terrorist organisation for India have posing challenges to regional peace.

India’s Role: India has proposed intelligence sharing within the RATS (Regional Anti Terrorism Structure) among member countries. ‘Peaceful Mission’ Joint counter terrorism exercise were recommended by India.

  • SCO Economic Development Strategy: The Economic Development Strategy for 2030, a proposition by the SCO, proposed by China, was designed to amplify economic cooperation between member countries. The strategy aims to cultivate cooperation in key areas such as digital economy, transportation, finance, and energy.

India’s Role: India insisted on countries autonomy in deciding their economic decisions and window of time to smaller countries to decide on such regional economic strategy

  • Power struggle between Russia and China: China has been increasing its economic might in the central Asian countries for their strategic resources, which is threat to traditional influence of Russia.

India’s Role: India also wanted to counter the influence of China in Central Asia and wanted to play its card in Central Asian resources and connectivity. Thus, it is balancing out both Russia and China in Central Asia.

  • Rise of Authoritarian governments/Issues of Human rights: Apart from India, majority of members of SCO are authoritarian governments, who had a record of repressing human rights within their country.

India’s role: Judicial Cooperation: Fruitful cooperation through the Heads of Supreme Courts is a reliable platform for improving joint activities in protecting human rights and freedoms, strengthening justice, and the rule of law.

External Challenges and role of India in mitigating them:

  • Anti-West Alliance: With the inclusion of Iran, SCO, with Russia and China appears to be a Anti- West alliance to counter the West led G20 and G7 groupings.

India’s Role: India is the only country, which maintain very good ties with both West and SCO, which is playing a balancing act between these 2 opposing groupings

  • Bringing Stability in Afghanistan: Bringing stability is major priority for both West and SCO to prevent terrorism and bring peace and progress to the region.

India’s Role: India became a active members in the development process of Afghanistan and invested more than $3billion to promote growth in the country

  • Russia’s invasion of Ukraine: Since, the beginning of war, West has been imposing sanctions and cap on Russian oil and gas, which disrupted the global oil supply thus have an impact on global economy.

India’s role: India has been actively involved in ‘Friend Shoring’ to meet the energy requirements of Europe and trying to bring the conflict to end through negotiations.

India being a democratic and had the responsibility of promoting international peace in its constitution is actively promoting negotiations to bring the major conflicts of the world to end by keeping in mind its strategic foreign policy objectives.

7. Indian Diaspora has scaled new heights in the West. Describe its economic and political benefits for India

Ans: Indian Diaspora settled in foreign countries act as cultural links between India and those countries and they became the foreign policy assets and made significant influence in those countries political, economical and social fabric. This influence is more significant in Western countries where India became of head of states, CEOs of major MNCs and many more positions.

Economic Benefits for India:

  • Investments: Since the time of Indians becomes the heads of major MNCs, they have announced their major investments in India and becoming an active partners in Digital India and Make in India campaign.
  • Remittances: India’s is largest recipient of Remittances globally majorly due to influence of India’s in western world i.e in Gulf, Europe and America. This huge inflow of remittances helps Indian economy to fill the Current Account Deficit.
  • Technology Transfers: Diaspora members helps in the flow of technology and ideas into India, these members actively promoting the start-up ecosystem in India thereby creating more jobs and economic opportunities.
  • Reduction in Disguised unemployment in India: The West Asian Countries became a major employer to manual and Semi-skilled Indians, thus helping in reducing employment issues in India.

Political Benefits for India:

  • Become major vote bank in the West: Indian Diaspora became a major vote bank in Europe and in North America, which became a strategic tool for India to achieve its major objectives.
  • Soft Power: Increasing number of India in the west act as a soft power to India’s foreign policy. They becoming a shock observers and facilitators of talks on both political and economic front.
  • Heads of major Multi-Lateral Organisations: Indians becoming heads of major Multi-lateral financial institutions like World Bank and IMF and United Nations, which had both political and economic ramification both for India and host countries.
  • Lobbying agents: Indian Diaspora becoming a major lobby in West to resolve and influence their trade disputes/trade and governance policies and lobbying with their political leadership to support India’s entry into major export control regimes and to become a permanent member of UN Security Council.

To leverage their potential, India Government has actively engaging with them by organising various cultural, festivals and by providing major benefits through Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) card holder scheme.

8. The expansion and strengthening of NATO and a stronger US-Europe strategic partnership works well for India. What is your opinion about this statement? Give reasons and examples to support your answer.

Ans:   India since independence has become an active member of non-alignment movement and maintains strategic autonomy in its foreign policy. India neither be part of any side and neither encourage nor become a part of any military grouping, targeting other countries. India become a melting point of all ideologies and people since ancient times.

Expansion and Strengthening of NATO:

  • Ideological Basis behind NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) was formed majorly on ideological basis against Communism and Socialistic economic model of USSR. India in initial days had adopted socialism and later in 1990s moved into mixed economic model by recognising the best aspects in both capitalism and socialism.
  • NATO as a Military Alliance: Post World War-2, arms race had started between USA and Russia and actively involved in covert wars in other countries to their geo-political and geo-economic reasons and for their arms sale. Since India became a victim of colonisation and neo-colonisation, which were main reasons behind 2 world wars, does not want to be part of any military alliances.
  • Expansion of NATO: Recently, many East European countries like Finland became a member of NATO and many countries are on the list. Since, India has good economic and strategic partnership with these countries, it doesn’t have much impact on India.
  • Balancing between NATO and Collective Security Treaty Organisation: India is major buyer of both USA and Russia weaponry and defence system and it also compensate these grouping with G20 and SCO groupings. Thus it able to secure its geo-strategic and geo-political sphere both in Indo-pacific and in West.

Stronger US – Europe Strategic Partnership:

  • Indo-Pacific Economic Framework: The US led Indo-Pacific Economic Framework was seen as counter to RCEP (Regional Comprehensive Economic Policy) led by China. Many European countries are becoming more active in Indo-pacific like UK and France to counter rising China.
  • Partnership for Global Infrastructure: Under this plan, G7 countries mostly composed of US and EU countries wanted to raise $600 billions to fund infrastructure across the globe to counter the China’s belt and road initiative.
  • Boost India’s Exports: US and Europe were the biggest market destinations for Indian products and since India had good relations with both of them, Indian export can see a rise in future.
  • Technological Cooperation: Both US and EU are working on advanced technologies like 5G, 6G, AI, Robotics etc. They may help India to become a partner in the research and development of these technologies.
  • Strategic: US and EU are become members of Five Eyes Intelligence network, through which they helped India in recent clashes with China.

As foresaid, Expansion of NATO will not be having any impact on India, however the stronger US-Europe strategic relations, will have some positive outcomes for India in security, trade, research and development, communication and for strategic advantages.

1.Faster economic growth requires increased share of the manufacturing sector in GDP, particularly of MSMEs. Comment on the present policies of the Government in this regard. (150 Words) 10 Marks


Faster economic growth can indeed benefit from an increased share of the manufacturing sector in GDP, especially through the growth of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). Manufacturing often leads to job creation, technology advancement, and exports, contributing to overall economic development.

Government policies and initiatives aimed at supporting Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in India:

  1. MUDRA Loan Scheme: It offers collateral-free loans to MSMEs through three categories: Shishu (up to ₹50,000), Kishore (up to ₹5 lakh), and Tarun (up to ₹10 lakh).
  2. Goods and Services Tax (GST) Relief: The government has adjusted GST rates and compliance requirements to provide relief to small businesses.
  3. Credit Linked Capital Subsidy Scheme (CLCSS): This scheme provides capital subsidy to MSMEs for technology upgradation. It helps businesses modernize their machinery and stay competitive.
  4. Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP): PMEGP is a credit-linked subsidy program that assists individuals in setting up new micro-enterprises and small businesses. It provides financial support and training.
  5. Udyog Aadhaar Registration: The Udyog Aadhaar registration process simplifies the registration of MSMEs by providing them with a unique identification number. This makes it easier for them to access various government schemes and benefits.
  6. National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC): NSIC facilitates market access and export opportunities for MSMEs by organizing trade fairs, exhibitions, and providing marketing support.
  7. Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGTMSE): CGTMSE offers credit guarantees to banks and financial institutions to encourage them to provide collateral-free loans to MSMEs.


These policies aimed at addressing issues of MSMEs and help them to play an important role in the employment generation and economic development.

2.What is the status of digitalization in the Indian economy? Examine the problems faced in this regard and suggest improvements. (150 Words) 10 Marks


It’s essential to note that the digital landscape is rapidly evolving, and the status of digitalization in India have seen significant changes since then. It is important to comprehend that the support of the government, policies favoring its entry and existence, literacy rate of the population, robust infrastructure all contribute in its penetration among the masses.

Status of Digitalization in the Indian Economy:

  1. Digital Payments: India witnessed a surge in digital payment adoption, primarily driven by initiatives like the Unified Payments Interface (UPI), mobile wallets, and the digitization of government payments.
  2. E-Governance: The government launched numerous e-governance initiatives to provide online access to various services, including Aadhaar for identity verification and digitalization of land records.
  3. Financial Inclusion: The Jan Dhan Yojana aimed at providing banking services to all, and Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) schemes were instrumental in reaching financial services to rural areas.
  4. E-Commerce: The e-commerce sector in India experienced substantial growth, with companies like Flipkart, Amazon, and others expanding their operations.
  5. Digital Infrastructure: Improvements in internet penetration and mobile connectivity led to increased digital access, especially in rural areas.

Challenges Faced:

  1. Digital Divide: While urban areas have witnessed significant digitalization, a substantial digital divide exists in rural and remote regions due to limited internet access and digital literacy.
  2. Data Privacy and Security: Concerns regarding data privacy and security remain, with a need for robust regulations and safeguards to protect user data.
  3. Cybersecurity Threats: As digital adoption grows, so does the risk of cyberattacks and threats.
  4. Digital Literacy: A significant portion of the population lacks digital literacy, hindering their ability to utilize digital services effectively.

Suggestions for Improvement:

  1. Digital Literacy Programs: Implement widespread digital literacy programs, especially in rural and underserved areas, to empower individuals with the skills needed to access digital services.
  2. Rural Connectivity: Invest in improving digital infrastructure and expanding reliable internet access to rural and remote areas.
  3. Data Protection Laws: Strengthen data protection laws and regulations to ensure the privacy and security of user data. Compliance with global standards like GDPR can be considered.
  4. Cybersecurity Measures: Develop a robust cybersecurity framework to protect against cyber threats and build public awareness about online safety.


Given the dynamic nature of the digital landscape, ongoing efforts and adaptations are crucial to ensure that digitalization benefits all segments of the population and contributes to economic growth and development.

3.How does e-Technology help farmers in production and marketing of agricultural produce? Explain it. (150 Words) 10 Marks


E-technology, which encompasses digital tools and platforms, can significantly benefit farmers in the production and marketing of agricultural produce by providing them with access to information, resources, and markets.

Here’s how e-technology helps farmers in these aspects:

  1. Access to Information and Knowledge:

   – Crop Management: E-technology provides farmers with information on crop varieties, planting techniques, and best practices. They can access weather forecasts, soil health data, and pest and disease management advice.

   – Market Intelligence: Farmers can use digital platforms to stay informed about market prices, demand trends, and potential buyers. This helps them make informed decisions about what to grow and when to sell.

   – Training and Education: Online courses, webinars, and mobile apps offer farmers training on modern farming techniques, sustainable practices, and post-harvest handling, improving their skills and productivity.

  1. Precision Agriculture:

   – Data-Driven Decision-Making: E-technology allows farmers to collect and analyze data from sensors, drones, and satellite imagery. This data helps them optimize resource use, such as water and fertilizers, leading to improved yields and cost savings.

   – Farm Management Software: Software applications help farmers plan their planting schedules, monitor crop growth, and manage resources efficiently.

  1. Market Access and Marketing:

   – E-Marketplaces: Online platforms and mobile apps connect farmers directly with buyers, eliminating the need for intermediaries and ensuring better prices for their produce.

   – E-Commerce: Farmers can sell their products online to a broader customer base, including consumers in urban areas, thus expanding their market reach.

   – Supply Chain Tracking: E-technology enables farmers to track their products through the supply chain, ensuring the quality and traceability of their produce.


Thus, e-technology revolutionizes agriculture by equipping farmers with information, tools, and market access they didn’t have before. This not only improves their production efficiency but also enhances their ability to market their agricultural produce profitably. Moreover, it contributes to the overall modernization and sustainability of the agriculture sector.

4.State the objectives and measures of land reforms in India. Discuss how land ceiling policy on landholding can be considered as an effective reform under economic criteria.


The primary objectives of land reforms in India are redistribution of land, security of tenure, improving agricultural productivity and thereby ensuring social justice.

Measures of Land Reforms in India:

  1. Land Redistribution: Implement land redistribution policies to acquire surplus land from large landowners and distribute it among landless and marginal farmers.
  2. Tenancy Reforms: Protect the rights of tenants and sharecroppers, including providing them with legal recognition and ensuring fair rental terms.
  3. Land Records Modernization: Digitize and update land records to ensure accurate landownership information and reduce land disputes.
  4. Land Consolidation: Facilitate land consolidation schemes to create larger and more viable landholdings, which can be more efficiently farmed.
  5. Ceiling on Land Holdings: Introduce land ceiling policies to limit the maximum amount of land an individual or entity can hold, redistributing surplus land to the landless.

Effectiveness of Land Ceiling Policy under Economic Criteria:

Land ceiling policies can be considered effective under economic criteria for several reasons:

  1. Redistribution of Productive Assets: By imposing limits on land holdings, land ceiling policies aim to redistribute land from large landowners to smaller and often more productive farmers. This can lead to more efficient land use and increased agricultural output.
  2. Encouraging Investment: Smaller landholdings often incentivize farmers to invest in their land, as they can fully utilize the available resources. This includes investments in irrigation, mechanization, and improved farming practices, which can boost productivity.
  3. Enhancing Agricultural Efficiency: Land consolidation resulting from land ceiling policies can lead to more efficient land management.
  4. Reducing Income Inequality: Land ceiling policies contribute to reducing income inequality in rural areas by transferring excess land to landless or marginalized farmers. This can lead to a more equitable distribution of agricultural income.
  5. Boosting Rural Development: The land redistribution effect of land ceiling policies can stimulate rural development by increasing agricultural productivity, generating employment, and reducing rural poverty.


However, Challenges such as land records accuracy, resistance from large landowners, and ensuring that redistributed land remains productive can impact the success of these policies. Additionally, complementary measures like access to credit, technology, and marketing infrastructure are essential to maximize the economic benefits of land reforms.

5.Introduce the concept of Artificial Intelligence (AI). How does AI help clinical diagnosis? Do you perceive any threat to privacy of the individual in the use of AI in healthcare?


Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines or computer systems. It involves the development of algorithms and software that enable computers to perform tasks that typically require human intelligence, such as problem-solving, learning from experience, recognizing patterns, and making decisions. AI technologies include machine learning, natural language processing, computer vision, and robotics.

AI in Clinical Diagnosis:

AI plays a crucial role in healthcare, particularly in clinical diagnosis, by assisting medical professionals in various ways:

  1. Early Disease Detection: AI can analyze large datasets of medical records, imaging, and genetic information to identify early signs of diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular conditions, enabling timely intervention.
  2. Medical Imaging: AI-powered algorithms can analyze medical images, such as X-rays, MRIs, and CT scans, with high accuracy to detect anomalies and assist radiologists in diagnosis.
  3. Pattern Recognition: AI can recognize patterns in patient data and medical records, helping in the identification of disease trends, treatment responses, and potential outbreaks.
  4. Drug Discovery: AI-driven drug discovery accelerates the process of identifying potential drugs and understanding their interactions, reducing development timelines and costs.
  5. Personalized Medicine: AI can analyze genetic data to tailor treatments and medications based on an individual’s genetic makeup, optimizing therapeutic outcomes.

While AI offers significant benefits in healthcare, it also raises privacy concerns:

  1. Data Security: AI systems require access to vast amounts of patient data, including sensitive medical records. Ensuring the security and confidentiality of this data is essential to prevent unauthorized access and breaches.
  2. Data Misuse: There is a risk that AI algorithms trained on patient data could be used for purposes beyond clinical diagnosis, such as targeted advertising or insurance profiling, without patients’ consent.
  3. Informed Consent: Patients must be informed about how their data will be used in AI systems and provide informed consent. Transparency in data usage and sharing is crucial to maintaining patient trust.
  4. Data Anonymization: Effective anonymization techniques must be in place to de-identify patient data used in AI systems, preventing the identification of individuals from the data.
  5. Algorithm Bias: AI algorithms can inherit biases from the data they are trained on, potentially leading to biased diagnoses or treatment recommendations, which could disproportionately affect certain demographic groups.


To address these privacy concerns, healthcare institutions and AI developers must prioritize data security, transparency, informed consent, and regulatory compliance.

6.Discuss several ways in which microorganisms can help in meeting the current fuel shortage.


Microorganisms can play a significant role in addressing the current fuel shortage by contributing to the production of alternative and renewable fuels.

Here are several ways in which microorganisms can help in this regard:

  1. Biofuel Production:

   – Biodiesel: Microorganisms such as microalgae and certain bacteria can be used to produce biodiesel from organic materials like vegetable oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oil.

   – Bioethanol: Yeasts are commonly employed to ferment sugars and starches from crops like corn, sugarcane, and cellulosic biomass into bioethanol, which can be used as a gasoline substitute.

  1. Biogas Production:

   – Anaerobic Digestion: Microorganisms in anaerobic digesters break down organic matter (e.g., agricultural waste, sewage, and food waste) to produce biogas, primarily composed of methane. Biogas can be used for electricity generation and as a cooking and heating fuel.

  1. Hydrogen Production:

   – Dark Fermentation: Certain microorganisms can ferment organic matter in the absence of light to produce hydrogen gas. This hydrogen can serve as a clean energy source for various applications.

  1. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs):

   – Electricity Generation: MFCs use microorganisms to convert organic matter directly into electricity. They have potential applications in wastewater treatment plants and as a sustainable power source in remote areas.

  1. Methane Hydrate Utilization:

   – Methane-Producing Microbes: Microbes can assist in the extraction of methane from methane hydrates, a potential vast source of natural gas trapped in icy deposits beneath the ocean floor. This methane can serve as a natural gas substitute.


Microbial-based fuel production is environmentally sustainable and can reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional fossil fuels.

7.Dam failures are always catastrophic, especially on the downstream side, resulting in a colossal loss of life and property. Analyze the various causes of dam failures. Give two examples of large dam failures.


Dam failures can indeed be catastrophic, especially when they occur on the downstream side. Such failures can result in a significant loss of life and property damage. The consequences can include flooding, destruction of infrastructure, and environmental damage.

Causes of Dam Failures:

  1. Hydraulic Failure:

   – Overtopping: When excessive inflow or heavy rainfall leads to water levels rising above the dam’s spillway capacity, overtopping can occur.

   – Internal Erosion: Seepage through the dam’s foundation or materials can erode it from the inside.

  1. Structural Failure:

   – Foundation Issues: Poor geological conditions in the dam’s foundation can compromise its stability.

   – Design Flaws: Inadequate engineering design can lead to structural weaknesses.

  1. Material Failures:

   – Material Degradation: Deterioration of materials like concrete and steel over time.

   – Construction Defects: Errors during construction can weaken the dam’s structure.

  1. Natural Disasters:

   – Earthquakes: Seismic activity can stress dams.

   – Floods: Extreme rainfall, especially during monsoons, can trigger dam failures.

Examples of Dam Failures in India:

  1. Mettur Dam (1928), Tamil Nadu:

   – Cause: The Mettur Dam failure was primarily due to structural issues and design flaws. The dam was constructed during the British colonial period and suffered a catastrophic failure due to high water levels in the reservoir.

   – Consequences: The dam failure resulted in a loss of life and property.

  1. Machhu Dam (1979), Gujarat:

   – Cause: The Machhu Dam disaster was triggered by heavy rainfall. The excessive inflow caused the dam to overflow and eventually fail.

 – Consequences: The dam failure led to severe flooding in the town of Morbi, resulting in thousands of casualties and extensive damage to property and infrastructure.


These examples highlight the importance of dam safety, maintenance, and adherence to engineering standards.

8.What is oil pollution? What are its impacts on the marine ecosystem? In what way is oil pollution particularly harmful for a country like India?


Oil pollution refers to the release of crude oil or refined petroleum products into the environment, particularly aquatic ecosystems like oceans, seas, and rivers. This type of pollution can occur through various sources, including oil spills from tanker accidents, oil platform leaks, illegal discharge from ships, and runoff from land-based activities.

Impacts of Oil Pollution on the Marine Ecosystem:

  1. Harm to Marine Life: Oil spills coat the fur, feathers, and scales of marine animals, making it difficult for them to regulate body temperature. Oil ingestion or inhalation can be toxic and lead to health issues or death.
  2. Disruption of Food Chains: Oil pollution can contaminate and kill phytoplankton and zooplankton, which form the base of marine food chains. This disruption affects fish and other organisms higher up the food chain, leading to reduced fishery yields.

3.Destruction of Habitats: Oil spills can smother and destroy coastal habitats like mangroves, coral reefs, and marshes, which serve as breeding grounds and nurseries for many marine species.

  1. Water Quality: Oil slicks reduce the amount of sunlight that penetrates the water, affecting photosynthesis in marine plants and depleting oxygen levels, which can lead to dead zones.
  2. Long-Term Contamination: Even after a visible oil spill dissipates, residues can remain in sediments, affecting benthic organisms and the entire ecosystem.
  3. Economic Impact: Oil spills can devastate fishing and tourism industries, causing economic losses for coastal communities.

Why Oil Pollution Is Particularly Harmful for India:

  1. Coastal Economy: India has a long coastline of over 7,500 kilometers, and a significant portion of its population resides in coastal areas. Coastal communities heavily depend on fishing and tourism, making them vulnerable to the economic impacts of oil pollution.
  2. Rich Biodiversity: India’s coastal and marine ecosystems host a diverse range of species, including critical habitats like the Sundarbans mangrove forests and coral reefs. Oil pollution can cause irreversible damage to these ecosystems and disrupt the delicate balance of marine life.
  3. High Shipping Activity: India is one of the world’s busiest shipping regions. The presence of oil tankers and maritime traffic increases the risk of oil spills in its coastal waters.
  4. Limited Response Capacity: While India has made efforts to enhance its oil spill response capabilities, the vastness of its coastline and the complexity of managing oil pollution in diverse ecosystems present ongoing challenges.
  5. Climate Change Resilience: Coastal areas are susceptible to the impacts of climate change, such as sea-level rise and extreme weather events. Oil pollution can exacerbate these vulnerabilities.


Thus, oil pollution poses significant environmental, economic, and social challenges for India, given its extensive coastline, rich biodiversity, and coastal communities’ reliance on marine resources. Effective prevention, preparedness, and response measures are crucial to mitigate the adverse impacts of oil pollution in the Indian context.

9.Winning of ‘Hearts and Minds’ in terrorism affected areas is an essential step in restoring the trust of the population. Discuss the measures adopted by the Government in this respect as part of the conflict resolution in Jammu and Kashmir.


Winning the “Hearts and Minds”  involves not only addressing security concerns but also addressing the underlying socio-economic and political issues that contribute to radicalization and support for terrorism.

  1. Economic Development and Employment Generation:

   – The “Udaan” scheme was launched to provide skill development and job opportunities to the youth in Jammu and Kashmir. It offers training in various sectors and helps local youth secure employment in companies across India.

  1. Education and Youth Engagement:

   – The government has actively promoted education in the region. Initiatives like “Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan” have been implemented to increase school enrollment and improve the quality of education.

  1. Security and Law Enforcement:

   – Security forces have conducted targeted operations against terrorist organizations. For instance, “Operation All Out” was aimed at eliminating top militant commanders and reducing the overall threat level.

  1. Political Engagement:

   – The appointment of Dineshwar Sharma as the government’s representative for dialogue in Jammu and Kashmir was a significant step toward engaging with various political and community stakeholders.

  1. Public Outreach and Communication:

   – The government has used various platforms to communicate with the public. The launch of dedicated radio and TV channels in local languages helps in disseminating information and promoting government initiatives.

  1. Humanitarian Assistance:

   – After incidents of violence or natural disasters, the government has provided humanitarian aid and support, including medical assistance and relief supplies, to affected communities.

  1. Cultural and Religious Heritage Preservation:

   – Preservation and restoration projects for historical sites, religious shrines, and cultural landmarks are ongoing. For instance, the restoration of the Shankaracharya Temple in Srinagar is a notable effort.


These examples illustrate a multifaceted approach aimed at addressing the economic, educational, security, political, and cultural aspects of the conflict in Jammu and Kashmir. While challenges remain, these efforts reflect a commitment to engage with the local population, restore trust, and work toward conflict resolution and lasting peace in the region.

10.The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) by our adversaries across the borders to ferry arms/ammunitions, drugs, etc., is a serious threat to the internal security. Comment on the measures being taken to tackle this threat.


The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), often referred to as drones, by adversaries across borders to ferry arms, ammunition, drugs, and other illicit materials poses a significant threat to a nation’s internal security. Governments worldwide, including India, have recognized the urgency of addressing this threat and have been taking various measures to tackle it.

  1. Legislation and Regulation:

   – Drone Policy: India has implemented a comprehensive drone policy, including regulations and guidelines for drone operations. This policy classifies drones into different categories based on their size and use, prescribing rules for registration, licensing, and operation.

   – No-Fly Zones: Establishing no-fly zones around sensitive areas, such as military installations, airports, and government buildings, to restrict drone operations near critical infrastructure.

  1. Counter-Drone Technology:

   – Anti-Drone Systems: Deployment of anti-drone technology and systems that can detect, track, and neutralize rogue drones. These systems can disrupt communication links with the drone, jam its signals, or physically intercept and disable it.

   – Radar and Surveillance: The use of advanced radar and surveillance technology to detect and monitor unauthorized drone activities along borders and sensitive areas.

  1. Regulatory Enforcement:

   – Law Enforcement Agencies: Training and equipping law enforcement agencies to respond to drone threats effectively, including the confiscation of illegal drones and apprehension of operators.

   – Public Awareness: Conducting awareness campaigns to educate the public about the legal framework and the consequences of illegal drone operations.

  1. Coordination and Intelligence Sharing:

   – Multi-Agency Coordination: Promoting coordination among various law enforcement agencies, defense forces, and intelligence agencies to share information and respond collectively to drone threats.


The threat posed by the misuse of drones for illegal activities is continually evolving, requiring a proactive and multi-faceted approach. India, like many other countries, is actively working to develop and implement comprehensive strategies to detect, deter, and respond to the potential risks associated with drone technology.

11.Most of the unemployment in India is structural in nature. Examine the methodology adopted to compute unemployment in the country and suggest improvements.


Unemployment in India is indeed a complex issue, with both structural and cyclical components. To assess unemployment, the government uses the Current Weekly Status (CWS) methodology, which is part of the larger Periodic Labor Force Survey (PLFS).

Methodology for Computing Unemployment in India:

  1. Current Weekly Status (CWS): This methodology categorizes individuals aged 15 and above into three employment status groups during a reference week:

   – Employed: Those who worked for at least one hour on any day of the reference week.

   – Unemployed: Those who did not work but were actively seeking employment.

   – Not in the Labor Force: Those who did not work and were not seeking employment.

  1. Survey Data: The data is collected through large-scale household surveys conducted by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO).

Areas for Improvement:

  1. Frequent Updates: The PLFS is conducted annually, which can result in a time lag in the availability of data. More frequent updates, perhaps quarterly or semi-annually, could provide policymakers with more real-time insights into the employment situation.
  2. Incorporate Underemployment: The current methodology primarily focuses on unemployment but does not adequately capture underemployment, where individuals work in jobs that are below their skill levels or offer low wages. Expanding the scope to measure underemployment would provide a more comprehensive view of labor market dynamics.
  3. Informal Sector: The PLFS should be improved to better capture employment trends in the informal sector, where a significant portion of India’s workforce is employed. This sector often experiences irregular and low-paying jobs, which need to be accounted for in unemployment data.
  4. Seasonal Variation: India’s labor market is affected by significant seasonal variations, especially in agriculture. Adjusting for these variations in the methodology would lead to more accurate year-round unemployment estimates.
  5. Youth and Gender Disaggregation: Collecting data on youth unemployment (ages 15-29) and gender-specific unemployment rates can help identify specific challenges faced by these groups.
  6. Technology Integration: Utilize modern technology and data analytics to improve the efficiency of data collection and processing, reducing the time lag in reporting.
  7. Data Accessibility: Make survey data more accessible to researchers and analysts, allowing for independent validation and analysis of employment trends.


In summary, while the CWS methodology used to compute unemployment in India provides valuable insights, there is room for improvement to make it more dynamic, comprehensive, and timely. Addressing underemployment, seasonality, the informal sector, and enhancing data collection techniques can lead to a more accurate assessment of the country’s employment situation, aiding policymakers in designing effective interventions and policies.

12.Distinguish between ‘care economy’ and ‘monetized economy’. How can care economy be brought into monetized economy through women empowerment?


The “care economy” refers to all the unpaid and often invisible work that goes into providing care and support to individuals and communities. This includes activities like caregiving, child-rearing, household chores, and community support. Whereas The “monetized economy” refers to the formal economy, where economic activities are typically conducted in exchange for money or a form of payment.

Bringing the Care Economy into the Monetized Economy through Women Empowerment:

Empowering women can help bridge the gap between the care economy and the monetized economy by recognizing, valuing, and compensating care work. Here’s how:

  1. Recognition and Valuation: Acknowledge the significant contribution of women to the care economy and recognize that this work has economic and social value. This recognition can help reduce the invisibility of care work.
  2. Policy Measures: Implement policies that support women’s access to education and skill development, enabling them to participate in the monetized economy. This includes policies that promote women’s participation in formal employment.
  3. Equal Pay: Ensure that women receive equal pay for equal work in the monetized economy. Addressing the gender pay gap is crucial for the economic empowerment of women.
  4. Flexible Work Arrangements: Promote flexible work arrangements, such as part-time work or telecommuting, to enable women to balance their caregiving responsibilities with formal employment.
  5. Childcare and Eldercare Services: Invest in affordable and accessible childcare and eldercare services, which can reduce the burden of care work on women and enable them to engage in paid employment.
  6. Promotion of Women Entrepreneurs: Support women in entrepreneurship and business ownership. Encourage initiatives that help women start and grow their businesses, enabling them to participate actively in the monetized economy.


Empowering women economically and recognizing the value of their caregiving work is essential for achieving gender equality, reducing poverty, and creating a more inclusive and equitable society where both care and monetized work are valued and supported.

13.Explain the changes in cropping pattern in India in the context of changes in consumption pattern and marketing conditions.


Changes in cropping patterns in India are influenced by a complex interplay of factors, including changes in consumption patterns and marketing conditions.

Here’s an explanation of how these factors impact cropping patterns:

  1. Changes in Consumption Patterns:

   – Dietary Shift: As income levels rise, there is often a shift in dietary preferences towards more diversified and processed foods, including fruits, vegetables, dairy, and meat products.

  – Urbanization: With urbanization, there is an increased demand for perishable and high-value crops, such as fruits and vegetables, to supply urban markets.

– Health Awareness: Growing health consciousness among consumers has led to increased demand for organic and healthier food options, influencing the cultivation of crops like organic grains and vegetables.

 – Export Opportunities: Global demand for specific crops, such as basmati rice, spices, and specialty fruits, has led to increased cultivation of these crops for export markets.

  1. Marketing Conditions:

  – Market Access: Improved transportation infrastructure and logistics have enhanced market access for farmers, allowing them to reach distant markets more efficiently.

 – Price Fluctuations: Farmers often adjust their cropping patterns based on price fluctuations. They may switch to crops that offer better prices in response to market conditions.

 – Contract Farming: Contract farming agreements with agribusinesses can influence cropping patterns, as they provide farmers with assured markets and prices for specific crops.

 – Government Policies: Price support mechanisms, minimum support prices (MSPs), and procurement policies can influence cropping choices, as farmers may opt for crops covered by these policies.

 – Export Promotion: Government incentives and export promotion policies may encourage the cultivation of cash crops that have export potential.


Farmers adapt to consumer preferences, market opportunities, and government policies to make cropping decisions that are often influenced by economic considerations and market dynamics.


14.What are the direct and indirect subsidies provided to farm sector in India? Discuss the issues raised by the World Trade Organization(WTO) in relation to agricultural subsidies.


In India, the farm sector receives both direct and indirect subsidies to support agricultural production and rural livelihoods. Here are some examples of direct and indirect subsidies:

Direct Subsidies:

  1. Fertilizer Subsidy: The government provides subsidies on fertilizers to make them more affordable for farmers. This aims to increase agricultural productivity.
  2. Food Subsidy: Under the Public Distribution System (PDS), the government provides subsidized food grains to economically disadvantaged populations, which indirectly benefits farmers by stabilizing food prices.
  3. Crop Insurance Subsidy: Crop insurance schemes are subsidized to protect farmers from losses due to natural calamities, ensuring their financial security.
  4. Irrigation Subsidy: Schemes like the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana provide subsidies for the construction of irrigation infrastructure, helping farmers access water resources more effectively.

Indirect Subsidies:

  1. Electricity Subsidy: Many states in India provide subsidized electricity rates for agricultural purposes, reducing the cost of irrigation and farm operations.
  2. Interest Rate Subsidy: The government often provides interest rate subsidies on agricultural loans, making credit more affordable for farmers.
  3. MSP (Minimum Support Price) Policy: While not a direct subsidy, the MSP policy guarantees a minimum price for certain crops, ensuring that farmers receive a fair return for their produce.
  4. Research and Extension Services: Government-funded research and extension services help farmers access improved farming practices and technology, indirectly supporting their productivity.


The WTO has raised concerns about the impact of agricultural subsidies on international trade and market distortions.

Some key issues raised include:

  1. Market Distortions: Subsidies, particularly those related to MSPs and domestic support measures, can lead to overproduction and stockpiling of agricultural commodities. This excess production can depress global prices and distort international markets, affecting the competitiveness of farmers in other countries.
  2. Trade Barriers: Subsidies that lead to excess production can result in the dumping of surplus commodities in international markets at prices below production costs. This can disrupt global trade and disadvantage farmers in importing countries.
  3. Domestic Support Limits: The WTO has established limits on the level of domestic support that member countries can provide to their agricultural sectors. Countries that exceed these limits may face trade disputes and sanctions.
  4. Uneven Playing Field: Excessive subsidies in some countries can create an uneven playing field for farmers in other nations who do not have access to similar levels of support. This can hinder the competitiveness of farmers in less subsidized countries.
  5. Special and Differential Treatment: Developing countries argue for special and differential treatment, allowing them more flexibility in providing agricultural subsidies to support their rural development and food security goals.


While agricultural subsidies play a vital role in supporting the livelihoods of farmers and ensuring food security in India, they also have international implications related to trade and market distortions. The WTO seeks to address these issues through negotiations and agreements, balancing the need for domestic support with the goal of maintaining fair and open international trade in agricultural products.

15.The adoption of electric vehicles is rapidly growing worldwide. How do electric vehicles contribute to reducing carbon emissions and what are the key benefits they offer compared to traditional combustion engine vehicles?


Electric vehicles (EVs) play a crucial role in reducing carbon emissions and offer several key benefits compared to traditional combustion engine vehicles:

  1. Reduction in Carbon Emissions:

  – Zero Tailpipe Emissions: EVs produce no tailpipe emissions, which means they do not emit harmful pollutants like carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), or particulate matter (PM) during operation. This significantly improves urban air quality and reduces health risks associated with pollution.

   – Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions: EVs generate lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to internal combustion engine vehicles, especially when powered by electricity from renewable sources. Even when charged with electricity from fossil fuels, EVs can be more efficient and emit fewer GHGs due to power plant efficiencies.

   – Energy Efficiency: Electric motors are highly efficient (typically over 90%) compared to the internal combustion engines of traditional vehicles (typically 20-30%), resulting in less energy wasted as heat.

  1. Benefits of Electric Vehicles:

 – Lower Operating Costs: EVs are generally cheaper to operate than traditional vehicles because electricity is cheaper than gasoline or diesel fuel, and EVs have fewer moving parts that require maintenance.

   – Reduced Noise Pollution: EVs are quieter than combustion engine vehicles, reducing noise pollution in urban areas and making for a quieter and more peaceful environment.

   – Instant Torque: Electric motors deliver instant torque, providing quick acceleration and a smooth driving experience.

  – Regenerative Braking: EVs can recover energy during braking, which is typically wasted as heat in traditional vehicles. This feature improves energy efficiency and extends the vehicle’s range.

 – Lower Energy Costs: Charging an EV can be more cost-effective than refueling with gasoline, especially in regions with lower electricity prices.

 – Reduced Oil Dependency: EVs reduce dependence on oil imports, making a country less vulnerable to oil price fluctuations and geopolitical tensions related to oil supply.

– Incentives and Tax Benefits: Many governments offer incentives, tax credits, and subsidies to encourage EV adoption, making them more affordable for consumers.


The electric vehicles contribute significantly to reducing carbon emissions and offer numerous advantages compared to traditional combustion engine vehicles. Their adoption can lead to cleaner air, lower operating costs, and a more sustainable transportation system. However, to maximize their environmental benefits, it’s crucial to ensure that the electricity used to charge EVs comes from renewable and low-carbon sources.

16. What is the main task of India’s third moon mission which could not be achieved in its earlier mission? List the countries that have achieved this task. Introduce the system in the spacecraft launched and explain the role of the ‘Virtual Launch Control Centre’ at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre which contributed to the successful launch from Sriharikota. (Answer in 250 words)


Space is an unforgiving environment, characterized by high vacuum and ionizing radiation. Due to the lack of possibilities for in-situ repairs, the development of space missions demands meticulous planning, design, testing, analysis, and review.

Chandrayaan-3 (CH-3) is an ambitious journey to reach the moon, with the objective of achieving a soft landing, exploring the lunar surface, and collecting invaluable scientific data. This mission is a technological challenge undertaken by India, led by ISRO.


  1. Main Objective of India’s Third Moon Mission: Its MAIN TASK is to demonstrate the capability in safe landing and roving on the lunar surface especially at the moon’s south pole.

Previous Missions: Chandrayan 1 and Chandrayan 2

Unachieved Task: A major step taken was incorporating the learnings from the unsuccessful landing of Chandrayaan-2 mission in 2019. In Ch-2, certain unexpected variations in performances of the Lander module eventually resulted in higher velocities at touchdown, which was beyond the designed capability of the Lander’s legs, resulting in a hard landing.

  1. Countries That Achieved the Task:

III. Subsystems in the Spacecraft

Payloads and their scientific outcome

CH-3 houses a total of seven scientific instruments.

The lander (Vikram) carries four instruments, namely,

  1. ILSA, a seismometer, developed by LEOS
  2. RAMBHA-LP, a Langmuir Probe – designed, realized, and delivered by Space Physics Laboratory SPL/VSSC.
  3. CHASTE, a thermal probe – designed, realized, and delivered by SPL/VSSC.
  4. LRA, a Retroreflector from NASA.

The rover (Pragyan) has two instruments viz.,

  1. APXS, an X-ray spectrometer, provided by Physical Research Laboratory, PRL
  2. LIBS, a laser-based spectrometer, provided by LEOS.

The propulsion module has SHAPE (a spectro-polarimeter) instrument, developed by URSC.

  1. Role of the Virtual Launch Control Centre

Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC): The VSSC is ISRO’s lead unit for launch vehicles and is responsible for the design and development of the LVM3 (formerly GSLV Mk-III) launch vehicle.

Virtual Launch Control Centre: The virtual launch control centre (VLCC) at the VSSC will have an important role to play in safely seeing off the powerful LVM3 launch vehicle carrying the Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft.

Contribution to Launch: The facility allows the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to remotely carry out system checkouts on the launch vehicle prior to a mission.


India’s third moon mission represents a significant step in advancing lunar exploration, particularly in achieving the unaccomplished task. The spacecraft’s subsystems and the innovative use of a Virtual Launch Control Centre have played pivotal roles in this mission’s success, further solidifying India’s position in the field of space exploration.

17.Comment on the National Wetland Conservation Programme initiated by the Government of India and name a few India’s wetlands of international importance included in the Ramsar Sites.


The National Wetland Conservation Programme (NWCP) initiated by the Government of India is a significant conservation effort aimed at the preservation and sustainable management of wetlands across the country. Here are some key aspects and objectives of the NWCP:

Objectives of NWCP:

  1. Conservation: To conserve wetlands, which are vital ecosystems that provide numerous ecological services, including habitat for wildlife, water purification, flood control, and recreational opportunities.
  2. Sustainable Management: To promote the sustainable management of wetlands, ensuring that they continue to benefit both the environment and human communities.
  3. Biodiversity Protection: To protect the rich biodiversity found in wetlands, including numerous species of birds, aquatic life, and plant species.
  4. Awareness and Education: To raise awareness about the importance of wetland conservation among local communities, stakeholders, and the public.
  5. Legal Framework: To strengthen the legal and regulatory framework for wetland conservation in India.

India’s Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites):

India has several wetlands designated as Ramsar Sites, which are internationally recognized for their ecological significance and are protected under the Ramsar Convention.

  1. Chilika Lake, Odisha: Chilika Lake is the largest coastal lagoon in India and is known for its biodiversity, including migratory birds, dolphins, and fish species. It serves as an important stopover point for migratory waterfowl along the East Asia-Australasia Flyway.
  2. Keoladeo National Park, Rajasthan: Also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary, this wetland is a crucial wintering area for migratory birds, including several threatened and endangered species.
  3. Sundarbans, West Bengal: The Sundarbans mangrove forest is the largest deltaic mangrove forest in the world. It is home to the Bengal tiger and various other wildlife species. The Sundarbans are critical for protecting coastal areas from storm surges and serve as a breeding ground for fish and other aquatic species.
  4. Vembanad-Kol Wetland, Kerala: This wetland complex includes the Vembanad Lake, Ashtamudi Lake, and associated rivers and canals. It supports diverse flora and fauna and is essential for local livelihoods and tourism.
18.The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) has predicted a global sea level rise of about one metre by AD 2100. What would be its impact in India and the other countries in the Indian Ocean region?


A global sea level rise of approximately one meter by AD 2100, as predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), would have significant impacts on India and other countries in the Indian Ocean region. These impacts could include:

  1. Coastal Erosion and Flooding:

   – Coastal Cities and Infrastructure: Low-lying coastal cities and infrastructure in India and neighboring countries, such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, and Dhaka, could face increased flooding and erosion risks. This could lead to damage to homes, businesses, and critical infrastructure.

  1. Displacement of Populations:

 – Population Displacement: Sea-level rise could result in the displacement of coastal populations, leading to a strain on inland resources and potential conflicts over land and resources.

  1. Agricultural Impacts:

   – Saline Intrusion: Rising sea levels can lead to the intrusion of saltwater into freshwater sources, affecting agricultural land and reducing crop yields in coastal areas.

  1. Biodiversity Loss:

   – Mangrove Ecosystems: Coastal ecosystems like mangroves, which provide critical habitat for wildlife and act as natural buffers against storm surges, could be threatened.

  1. Economic Costs:

   – Economic Losses: The economic costs associated with sea-level rise, including damage to infrastructure and loss of agricultural productivity, could be substantial for countries in the Indian Ocean region.

  1. Health Risks:

– Water Quality and Disease: Saline intrusion can affect drinking water quality, potentially leading to health issues, and create breeding grounds for disease vectors like mosquitoes.

  1. Infrastructure Vulnerability:

   -Port Facilities: Sea-level rise could impact port facilities and disrupt maritime trade, affecting economies that rely on seaports.


To address these challenges, countries in the Indian Ocean region need to prioritize and invest in adaptation strategies, including the construction of coastal defenses, sustainable land use planning, disaster preparedness, and efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to mitigate further sea-level rise. International cooperation will also be crucial to address these shared challenges effectively.

19.What are the internal security challenges being faced by India? Give out the role of Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies tasked to counter such threats


India faces several internal security challenges, and its Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies play a crucial role in countering these threats. Some of the prominent internal security challenges include:

  1. Terrorism:

   – Threats from both domestic and international terrorist organizations, including radicalized individuals and groups.

   – State-sponsored terrorism emanating from neighboring countries.

  1. Insurgency and Naxalism:

  – Insurgent movements in regions like Jammu and Kashmir, Northeastern states, and areas affected by left-wing extremism (Naxalism).

   – Secessionist movements in some regions, demanding autonomy or independence.

  1. Communal and Ethnic Tensions:

   – Communal and ethnic conflicts, which can lead to violence and social unrest.

   – Issues related to identity politics and inter-community tensions.

  1. Cybersecurity Threats:

– Increasing cyber threats, including cyberattacks on critical infrastructure, financial institutions, and government systems.

   – Cyber espionage and information warfare.

  1. Border Security:

   – Challenges related to border security, including illegal border crossings, smuggling, and infiltration by militants.

   – Maritime security concerns, particularly in coastal regions.

  1. Economic Crimes:

   – Economic offenses, such as financial fraud, money laundering, and corruption.

   – Counterfeiting and smuggling activities.

  1. Radicalization and Extremism:

   – The radicalization of individuals and the spread of extremist ideologies, both online and offline.

   – Preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE) efforts.


Role of Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies:

India has several central intelligence and investigative agencies tasked with addressing these security challenges:

  1. Intelligence Bureau (IB):The IB is India’s internal intelligence agency. It plays a crucial role in gathering intelligence related to threats to national security, including terrorism, insurgency, and communal tensions. It also provides assessments and alerts to the government.
  2. Research and Analysis Wing (RAW): RAW is India’s external intelligence agency but occasionally plays a role in counterterrorism operations abroad when national security is at stake.
  3. National Investigation Agency (NIA): The NIA is responsible for investigating and prosecuting terrorism-related cases and other offenses that threaten national security. It has jurisdiction across India.
  4. Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI):The CBI investigates a wide range of criminal cases, including economic offenses, corruption, and cases referred by state governments. It also plays a role in counterterrorism investigations.
  5. Border Security Force (BSF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Assam Rifles, and Other Paramilitary Forces: These forces are responsible for border security and countering insurgency in various regions, including Jammu and Kashmir and the Northeast.
  6. State Police Forces: State police agencies also play a crucial role in maintaining internal security, investigating crimes, and countering local threats.
  7. Coast Guard: The Indian Coast Guard is responsible for maritime security and plays a role in safeguarding coastal regions.


These agencies work in coordination with each other, sharing intelligence and conducting joint operations when necessary to address internal security challenges effectively. Additionally, efforts are made to enhance intelligence sharing and international cooperation to counter transnational threats like terrorism and cyberattacks.

20. Give out the major sources of terror funding in India and efforts being made to curtail these sources. In the light of this, also discuss the aim and objective of the ‘No Money for Terror NMFT Conference recently held at New Delhi in November 2022.


Terrorist organizations in India rely on various sources for funding their activities.

Some major sources of terror funding in India include:

  1. External Sources including state sponsors of terrorism or sympathizers abroad. This can include funding from neighboring countries or international terrorist networks.
  2. Illegal Trade: Terrorists engage in various forms of illegal trade, such as smuggling of arms, narcotics, and counterfeit currency. Profits from these activities are used to finance their operations.
  3. Extortion and Protection Rackets: Some terrorist groups extort money from local businesses, particularly in areas where they hold influence. They may also run protection rackets, demanding payments from businesses in exchange for “protection” from violence.
  4. Money Laundering: Terrorist organizations may engage in money laundering schemes to legitimize the funds they receive from illegal activities.
  5. Donations: Radicalized individuals or sympathizers may provide financial support to terrorist organizations through donations, often under the guise of charity.

Efforts to curtail these sources of terror funding in India include:

  1. Legislation: India has enacted several laws and regulations to combat terror financing, including the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) and the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA). These laws provide authorities with legal tools to investigate and prosecute individuals and entities involved in terror funding.
  2. Financial Intelligence Units: India’s Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) monitors suspicious financial transactions and reports them to law enforcement agencies. This helps identify and track sources of terror funding.
  3. Increased Border Security: Strengthening border security measures is essential to prevent illegal trade and smuggling of arms, narcotics, and counterfeit currency.
  4. International Cooperation: India collaborates with international agencies and foreign governments to track and disrupt the flow of funds to terrorist organizations. Information sharing and joint operations play a crucial role in this effort.

Regarding the ‘No Money for Terror (NMFT)’ Conference held in New Delhi in November 2022, its aim and objectives were as follows:

The aim of the NMFT Conference was to strengthen international cooperation in the fight against terror financing and to share best practices and experiences among participating countries.


  1. Enhance Information Sharing: The conference aimed to facilitate the exchange of information and intelligence related to terror financing among participating nations. This information sharing helps countries identify and disrupt the flow of funds to terrorist organizations.
  2. Strengthen Legal Frameworks: Discussions centered around improving legal frameworks and regulatory measures to combat money laundering and terror financing.
  3. Promote Technological Solutions: Participants explored technological solutions and innovations that can aid in tracking and preventing the use of digital platforms for terror financing.
  4. Build Capacity: The conference provided a platform for countries to discuss capacity-building initiatives and technical assistance programs that can enhance their abilities to combat terror financing.
  5. International Commitment: It aimed to reaffirm the commitment of participating nations to work collectively to counter the financing of terrorism on a global scale.


Overall, the NMFT Conference played a crucial role in fostering international cooperation and coordination in the ongoing efforts to curtail the sources of funding for terrorist organizations, thereby strengthening global security.


1 What do you understand by ‘moral integrity’ and ‘professional efficiency in the context of corporate governance in India ? Illustrate with suitable examples. (150 Words)

Moral integrity and professional efficiency are two important aspects of corporate governance in India. Moral integrity refers to the quality of being honest, ethical, and truthful in all business dealings. It also implies a strong sense of values and principles that guide the actions of individuals within an organization. Professional efficiency, on the other hand, refers to the ability to perform tasks and responsibilities effectively and efficiently.

In the context of corporate governance in India, moral integrity is essential to build trust and credibility with stakeholders. For example, the Satyam scandal of 2009, where the company’s founder and chairman admitted to falsifying accounts and inflating profits, resulted in a loss of investor confidence and a decline in the company’s reputation. On the other hand, companies like Tata Group and Infosys, which are known for their ethical practices, have built a strong reputation and trust among their stakeholders.

Professional efficiency is also important in corporate governance as it ensures that responsibilities are fulfilled effectively and efficiently. For example, the successful implementation of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India was a result of the efficient functioning of the GST Council, which comprises representatives from the central and state governments.

In conclusion, moral integrity and professional efficiency are crucial for effective corporate governance in India. Companies that prioritize these values are more likely to build a strong reputation and trust among stakeholders.

2 ‘International aid’ is an accepted form of helping ‘resource-challenged’ nations. Comment on ‘ethics in contemporary international aid’. Support your answer with suitable examples (150 Words) 10 M

International aid is a crucial aspect of global development, as it provides much-needed support to nations that lack the resources to meet their basic needs. However, the ethics surrounding international aid have come under scrutiny in recent times. The key question that arises is whether aid is being used effectively and in the best interests of the recipient nations.

One of the main ethical concerns is the issue of dependency, where aid can create a culture of reliance on external assistance. This can lead to a lack of self-sufficiency and sustainability in the recipient nation, which can ultimately hinder their long-term development. For example, some argue that the continuous provision of food aid to developing countries can disrupt local markets and farmers, leading to decreased production and income.

Another ethical concern is the issue of conditionality, where aid is given with certain strings attached. This can often result in the imposition of policies and reforms that may not align with the recipient nation’s priorities. For instance, some argue that the structural adjustment programs imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank on developing countries have led to economic instability and social unrest.

While international aid is an essential means of supporting underdeveloped nations, it is crucial to ensure that it is provided in a way that is sustainable and empowers recipient nations to achieve self-sufficiency. The ethical considerations around international aid need to be carefully addressed to ensure that aid is used in the best interests of the recipient nations.

If we have seen the recent Chinese Foreign Policy of aid with a hidden motive to gain either preferential market access or unfulfillable conditionality. 

3 “Corruption is the manifestation of the failure of core values in the society.” In your opinion, what measures can be adopted to uplift the core values in the society? (150 Words) 10 M

Corruption in a society can have detrimental effects on its citizens. It creates a sense of mistrust and disillusionment among the people towards their government and institutions. This can lead to a breakdown of social order and increase crime rates. It is a reflection of failed value system in a society. The values like right to service, timely delivery of service, work is worship, all these values seem missing in that society.

In order to uplift the core values in society and prevent corruption, there are several measures that can be adopted. Firstly, education plays a crucial role in shaping one’s values and beliefs. Therefore, it is important to incorporate value-based education at all levels of schooling. This can help instill a sense of morality and ethics in individuals from a young age.

Secondly, promoting transparency and accountability in all aspects of governance can help prevent corruption. This can be achieved by implementing strong laws and regulations to deter corrupt practices, as well as ensuring that those who engage in corrupt activities are held accountable for their actions.

Thirdly, fostering a culture of integrity and honesty in the workplace can also help prevent corruption. Companies should have strong ethical codes and policies in place, and employees should be encouraged to report any unethical behavior they witness.

Fourthly, a time bound judicial remedy can be a catalyst in controlling the menace of corruption.

Finally, it is important to promote a culture of civic responsibility and engagement. This can be achieved by encouraging individuals to actively participate in their communities, and by ensuring that government institutions are accessible and responsive to the needs of the people.

Overall, uplifting core values in society requires a concerted effort from all stakeholders, including government, educational institutions, businesses, and individuals. By working together, we can create a more ethical and just society, free from corruption.

4. In the context of work environment, differentiate between ‘coercion’ and ‘undue influence’ with suitable examples. (150 Words) 10 M

Coercion is the act of forcing someone to do something against their will through the use of threats, intimidation or physical force. On the other hand, undue influence is the use of manipulation, persuasion, or other psychological tactics to influence someone’s decision-making process.

For example, in a workplace environment, a manager who threatens an employee with termination if they don’t comply with their demands is using coercion. This is a clear violation of the employee’s rights and can create a hostile work environment.

Another form of coercion is through the use of power dynamics, where managers or supervisors use their position of authority to force employees to comply with their wishes. This can be particularly harmful when there is a lack of transparency in decision-making processes, which can lead to feelings of distrust and resentment among employees.

In addition, coercion can also be present in the form of subtle pressure or manipulation tactics, such as guilt-tripping, shaming, or withholding rewards or opportunities. This can be difficult to detect, but can have a significant impact on an employee’s mental health and overall well-being.

On the other hand, undue influence can be more subtle. For example, if a supervisor constantly praises an employee for agreeing with their ideas and ignores those who disagree, this can create an environment where employees feel pressured to conform to the supervisor’s views.

It’s important for employers to be aware of these issues and to create a work environment that is free from coercion and undue influence. This includes providing training to managers on how to communicate effectively and respectfully with employees, and creating policies that protect employees from harassment and discrimination.

5. “The simplest acts of kindness are by far more powerful than a thousand heads bowing in prayer.” – Mahatma Gandhi (150 Words) 10 M

In a world that can seem harsh and unforgiving, it is easy to forget the power of simple acts of kindness. Mahatma Gandhi, a leader and activist who dedicated his life to nonviolent resistance, understood the transformative potential of small gestures.

While many may believe that grand gestures or demonstrations of power are necessary to make meaningful change, Gandhi’s quote reminds us that it is often the small, everyday acts of kindness that can make the biggest difference. A kind word, a helping hand, a moment of empathy can have a profound impact on someone’s life.

Everyday acts of kindness may seem small and insignificant, but they have the power to bring about positive change in our world. These simple gestures can brighten someone’s day, make them feel seen and valued, and inspire them to pay it forward. Whether it’s holding the door open for someone, offering a genuine compliment, or volunteering your time to help others, every act of kindness has the potential to create a ripple effect that can spread far and wide. So don’t underestimate the impact you can have on the world around you. Embrace kindness as a way of life and watch as it transforms not only the lives of others, but also your own.

It can be easy to feel overwhelmed by the problems of the world, but we should not underestimate the power we have to make a difference in our own small ways. By choosing to act with kindness and compassion, we not only make the world a better place for those around us, but we also inspire others to do the same. As Gandhi understood, it is these small acts of kindness that can truly change the world.

6. “To awaken the people, it is the women who must be awakened. Once she is on the move, the family moves, the village moves, the nation moves.” – Jawaharlal Nehru (150 Words) 10 M

Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, was a strong advocate for women’s empowerment and their role in societal progress. According to him, women are the key to awaken and mobilize the masses towards development.

He believed that once a woman is awakened and motivated to take action, her family, community, and ultimately, the entire nation will follow suit. This is because women play a vital role in shaping the culture and values of their households. They are often the primary caregivers and nurturers, and their influence extends beyond their immediate family to the wider community.

Awakened women possess a power that is both transformative and inspirational. It is a power that comes from within, fueled by a strong sense of purpose and a deep connection to their own intuition. When women awaken to their true potential, they become a force to be reckoned with – not just in their own lives, but in the world at large.

This power is not defined by physical strength or dominance over others. Rather, it is a power that comes from a place of inner strength and self-awareness. Awakened women are able to tap into their own innate wisdom and use it to guide their actions, making decisions that are aligned with their values and goals.

One of the most powerful aspects of this awakening is the sense of community that it creates. When women awaken to their true potential, they are able to connect with others who share their vision and passion. Together, they are able to create a network of support and encouragement, which can help them to achieve even greater things.

Nehru recognized that empowering women was essential for the progress of India as a nation. He championed women’s education, employment, and political participation, and his efforts have had a lasting impact on the country’s development.

Today, India continues to work towards achieving gender equality and empowering women in all spheres of life. The legacy of Nehru’s vision for women’s empowerment continues to inspire generations of Indian women to strive towards their full potential.

7. Do not hate anybody, because that hatred that comes out from you must, in the long run, come back to you. If you love, that love will come back to you, completing the circle.” – Swami Vivekanand. (150 Words) 10 M

Swami Vivekanand’s message is a reminder that our actions have consequences and that what we put out into the world will eventually come back to us. Hatred only breeds more hatred and negativity, while love and kindness create a positive ripple effect.

By choosing to love instead of hate, we not only make the world a better place but also create a positive cycle of energy that benefits not only ourselves but also those around us. It may not always be easy to love in the face of hate, but it is the only way to break the cycle and create a better future.

He knew that hatred is a destructive emotion that can poison the mind and heart of an individual. In his teachings, Swami Vivekananda stressed the importance of cultivating love, compassion, and understanding towards all beings.

According to Swami Vivekananda, hatred is born out of ignorance and fear. When we do not understand something or someone, we tend to fear it. This fear can quickly turn into hatred if left unchecked. Swami Vivekananda believed that the best way to overcome this fear and hatred is through knowledge and understanding.

He encouraged people to educate themselves about different cultures, religions, and beliefs. He believed that by learning about others, we can develop empathy and understanding towards them. In his famous speech at the Parliament of Religions in Chicago, Swami Vivekananda said, “I am proud to belong to a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance. We believe not only in universal toleration but we accept all religions as true.”

Swami Vivekananda’s teachings on hatred remind us of the importance of cultivating love and compassion towards all beings. He believed that by doing so, we can create a more peaceful and harmonious world.

Let us all strive to choose love and kindness in our thoughts, words, and actions, and create a world where hate has no place.

8. What really matters for success, character, happiness and lifelong achievements is a definite set of emotional skills – your EQ- not just purely cognitive abilities that are measured by conventional IQ tests.” Do you agree with this view ? Give reasons in support of your answer. (150 Words) 10 M

While cognitive abilities are undoubtedly important for success, emotional intelligence (EQ) plays a crucial role in determining one’s achievements, character, happiness and overall well-being.

EQ encompasses a range of skills, including self-awareness, empathy, self-regulation, motivation, and social skills. These skills enable individuals to understand and manage their own emotions, as well as those of others. 

Studies have shown that people with high EQ tend to be happier than those with low EQ. Emotional intelligence allows individuals to identify and manage negative emotions such as anger, fear, and frustration, leading to better mental health and well-being. Individuals with high EQ also tend to have better social skills, leading to stronger relationships, which are a significant factor in overall happiness.

Moreover, EQ is critical in the workplace. Employees with high EQ are better communicators, problem-solvers, and team players, leading to greater job satisfaction and career success. Employers also recognize the importance of EQ and often seek out candidates with high emotional intelligence.

Furthermore, EQ is not fixed at birth but can be developed and improved over time through practice and self-reflection. In contrast, IQ is largely determined by genetics and does not necessarily correlate with success or happiness.

Therefore, it is essential to prioritize the development of emotional intelligence, not just cognitive abilities, in order to lead a fulfilling and successful life.

9. Differentiate ‘moral intuition from ‘moral reasoning’ with suitable examples. (150 Words) 10 M

Moral intuition and moral reasoning are two main ways through which individuals form moral judgments. Moral intuition refers to an automatic, rapid, and unconscious judgment about right and wrong, which is primarily based on emotions or feelings. For instance, when we see someone suffering, we automatically feel empathy and recognize that it is wrong to cause harm to others. This intuitive response is not necessarily based on careful analysis or reasoning, but it is often accurate and can guide us in making ethical decisions.

On the other hand, moral reasoning is a more deliberate and conscious process of thinking about ethical issues. It involves using logical and rational analysis to assess different perspectives, consider consequences, and weigh the moral principles involved. For example, when deciding whether to donate money to a charity, we may consider the effectiveness of the charity’s programs, the needs of the beneficiaries, and our own moral obligations to help others.

In summary, moral intuition and moral reasoning are two complementary ways of making ethical judgments, and both are important in guiding our behavior and decision-making. While moral intuition is often automatic and emotional, moral reasoning is more deliberate and analytical, and both have their strengths and limitations.

10. Is conscience a more reliable guide when compared to laws, rules and regulations in the context of ethical decision making ? Discuss. (150 Words) 10 M

When it comes to ethical decision making, many people often wonder whether conscience is a more reliable guide than laws, rules, and regulations. Conscience refers to an individual’s inner sense of what is right or wrong. While laws and regulations are created by society to maintain order and protect citizens, they may not always align with an individual’s personal values and beliefs.

In some cases, following one’s conscience may lead to breaking the law. For example, during times of civil disobedience, individuals may feel compelled to protest against unjust laws and policies, even if it means facing legal consequences. In such cases, following one’s conscience may be a more reliable guide than blindly following laws and regulations.

In ethical decision making, it is important to have a support of conscience. This means having a clear understanding of one’s values and beliefs, and using them as a guide when making decisions. When faced with a difficult ethical dilemma, having a support of conscience can provide a sense of direction and help to ensure that decisions are aligned with one’s personal values.

Having a support of conscience also involves being open to learning and growing in one’s understanding of ethical issues. This may involve seeking out diverse perspectives, engaging in ethical discussions with others, and reflecting on past experiences and decisions.

However, it is important to note that conscience is not infallible and can be influenced by personal biases and experiences. This is why laws and regulations are necessary to establish a common standard of behavior and ensure that individuals are held accountable for their actions.

Ultimately, the decision to follow conscience or laws and regulations depends on the situation at hand and the individual’s personal values and beliefs. It is important to strike a balance between following one’s conscience and respecting the laws and regulations that govern society.

11. ‘Probity is essential for an effective system of governance and socio-economic development.’ Discuss. (150 Words) 10 M

Probity, or honesty and integrity, is a fundamental aspect of good governance and it is crucial to socio-economic development. Effective governance requires that the government and those in positions of power and authority are transparent and accountable in their actions. This includes being honest in their dealings with the public and ensuring that they act in the best interest of the people they serve.

In addition to promoting trust and confidence in the government, probity can also lead to economic growth and development. When individuals and businesses can rely on the government to act ethically and with integrity, they are more likely to invest in the country, creating jobs and stimulating economic growth.

However, the lack of probity can have serious consequences, including corruption, mismanagement, and a lack of public trust. These can lead to economic instability, social unrest, and a breakdown of the rule of law.

Therefore, it is crucial that probity is upheld in all aspects of governance and socio-economic development. This requires a commitment from all stakeholders, including the government, private sector, civil society, and citizens, to act with honesty and integrity at all times.

12. What were the major teachings of Guru Nanak? Explain their relevance in the contemporary world. (150 Words) 10 M

Guru Nanak was the founder of Sikhism, and his teachings focused on the importance of unity, equality, and selfless service. He believed in the oneness of God and the equality of all human beings, regardless of their caste, race, or gender. His teachings also emphasized the importance of living a moral and ethical life, and the need to help others and serve society.

These teachings are still relevant in the contemporary world, where there are still many instances of discrimination and inequality. The message of unity and equality is especially important in today’s world, where there is so much division and polarization. Guru Nanak’s emphasis on selfless service is also relevant in today’s world, where there is a growing need for people to come together and work towards common goals be it environmental protection, women centric issues, upholding the cause of vulnerable.

Overall, Guru Nanak’s teachings continue to inspire people around the world, and they serve as a reminder of the importance of compassion, service, and unity in our lives.

13. Explain the term social capital. How does it enhance good governance? (150 Words) 10 M

Social capital refers to the networks, norms, and trust that exist within a society. It is the social glue that binds individuals together and fosters cooperation and collaboration.

Good governance is a concept that refers to the way public institutions exercise power over people. It encompasses the principles of transparency, accountability, participation, and responsiveness to citizens’ needs and preferences.

Social capital enhances good governance by creating a sense of community and shared responsibility. When people trust one another and work together towards common goals, they are more likely to participate in the democratic process and hold their leaders accountable.

Social capital also promotes transparency and accountability. When people are connected to one another through networks, they have access to information and can hold their leaders accountable for their actions. This can help to reduce corruption and promote good governance.

Furthermore, social capital can help to promote social inclusion and reduce inequality. When people are connected to one another through networks, they are more likely to share resources and support one another. This can help to reduce poverty and promote social mobility.

Overall, social capital is an important component of good governance as it promotes cooperation, transparency, accountability, social inclusion, and reduces inequality.


1 You are working as an executive in a nationalized bank for several years. One day one of your close colleagues tells you that her father is suffering from heart disease and needs surgery immediately to survive. She also tells you that she has no insurance and the operation will cost about Rs. 10 lakh. You are also aware of the fact that her husband is no more and that she is from a lower middle class family. You are empathetic about her situation. However, apart from expressing your sympathy, you do not have the resources to fund her. A few weeks later, you ask her about the well-being of her father and she informs you about his successful surgery and that he is recovering. She then confides in you that the bank manager was kind enough to facilitate the release of Rs. 10 lakh from a dormant account of someone to pay for the operation with a promise that it should be confidential and be repaid at the earliest. She has already started paying it back and will continue to do no until it is all returned. (a) What are the ethical issues involved ? (b) Evaluate the behavior or the bank manager from an ethical point of view. (c) How would you react to the situation ?(Answer in 250 Words) 20 Marks

(a) The ethical issues involved in this situation are privacy and confidentiality of the account holder whose dormant account was used to facilitate the release of funds for the surgery. There is also an issue of conflict of interest as the bank manager facilitated the release of funds for the personal benefit of an employee.

(b) From an ethical point of view, the behavior of the bank manager can be evaluated as both positive and negative. On the positive side, the manager acted compassionately and helped a colleague in need, which is a kind and empathetic behavior. On the negative side, the manager breached the confidentiality of the dormant account holder and the bank’s policies by releasing the funds without proper authorization. This could lead to legal and ethical consequences.

(c) As an executive in the bank, it is important to follow the ethical and legal guidelines of the bank. In this situation, I would have advised my colleague to explore other options such as seeking help from family and friends or approaching social welfare organizations for financial assistance. I would also have informed her about the risks and consequences of using a dormant account for personal benefits without proper authorization.

Additionally, I would have reported the behavior of the bank manager to the appropriate authorities and ensured that the funds were repaid as soon as possible to avoid any further ethical and legal issues. It is important to maintain the integrity and reputation of the bank by adhering to ethical and legal guidelines.

Even a letter of warning/disciplinary action to the Bank Manager, for his approach can also be justified. 

2 A landslide occurred in the middle of the night on 20th July, 2023 in a remote mountain hamlet, approximately 60kilometers from Uttarkashi. The landslide was caused by torrential rains and has resulted in large-scale destruction of property and life. You, as district magistrate of the area, have rushed to the spot with a team of doctors, NGOs, media and police along with numerous support staff to oversee the rescue operations. A man came running to you with a request for urgent medical help for his pregnant wife who is in labor and is losing blood. You directed your medical team to examine his wife. They return and convey to you that this woman needs blood transfusion immediately. Upon enquiry, you come know that a few blood collection bags and blood group test kits are available in the ambulance accompanying your team. Few people of your team have already
volunteered to donate blood. Being a physician who has graduated for AIIMS, you know that blood for transfusion needs to be procured only through a recognized blood bank.
Your team members are divided on this issue; some favor transfusion while some others oppose it. The doctors in the team are ready to facilitate the delivery provided they are not penalized for transfusion. Now you are in a dilemma. Your professional training emphasizes on prioritizing service to humanity and saving lives of individuals.
(a)What are the ethical issues involved in this case?
(b) Evaluate the options available to you, being District Magistrate of the area.(Answer in 250 Words) 20 Marks

(a) The ethical issues involved in this case include the use of blood transfusion without proper screening and procurement from a recognized blood bank, which can pose serious health risks to the patient and violate medical ethics. Additionally, there is a conflict between the duty to save lives and the duty to adhere to professional standards and regulations.

(b) As District Magistrate, you have a responsibility to ensure the safety and well-being of the people in the affected area. In this case, you can consider the following options:

  1. Request for immediate medical assistance from a recognized blood bank to provide safe and screened blood for the patient in need.
  2. Encourage team members to donate blood for the patient, but only after proper screening and testing to ensure compatibility and safety.
  3. Explore alternative options for treatment, such as transporting the patient to a nearby hospital with proper facilities for safe blood transfusion.

It is important to prioritize the safety and well-being of the patient while also adhering to professional standards and regulations. Communicating clearly with all team members about the risks and benefits of each option can help in making an informed decision.

3. At 9 pm on Saturday evening, Rashika, a Joint Secretary, was still engrossed in her work in her office. Her husband, Vikram, is an executive in an MNC and frequently out of town in connection with his work. Their two children aged 5 and 3 are looked after by their domestic helper. At 9:30 pm her superior, Mr. Suresh calls her and asks her to prepare a detailed note on an important matter to be discussed in a meeting in the Ministry. She realises, that she will have to work on Sunday to finish the additional task given by her superior.
She reflects on how she had looked forward to this posting and had worked long hours for months to achieve it. She had kept the welfare of people uppermost in discharging her duties. She feels that she has not done enough justice to her family and she has not fulfilled her duties in discharging essential social obligations. Even as recently as last month she had to leave her sick child in the nanny’s care as she had to work in the office. Now, she feels that she must draw a line, beyond which her personal life should take precedence over her professional responsibilities. She thinks that there should be reasonable limits to the work ethics such as punctuality, hard work, dedication to duty and selfless service.
(a) Discuss the ethical issues involved in this case.
(b) Briefly describe at least four laws that have been enacted by the Government with respect to providing a healthy, safe and equitable working environment for women.
(c) Imagine you are in a similar situation. What suggestions would you make to mitigate such working conditions?(Answer in 250 Words) 20 Marks

(a) The ethical issues involved in this case are balancing work and personal life, fulfilling social obligations, and setting reasonable limits to work ethics. Rashika has been working long hours and sacrificing her personal life and family obligations to excel in her job. She feels conflicted between her responsibilities at work and her duties towards her family and society. It is important for individuals to find a healthy balance between work and personal life to avoid burnout and maintain overall well-being. It is also essential to fulfill social obligations and take care of family responsibilities.

(b) The Government has enacted several laws to provide a healthy, safe, and equitable working environment for women. These laws include the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013, which mandates the establishment of Internal Complaints Committees (ICCs) in all workplaces with more than 10 employees. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, which provides for paid maternity leave, nursing breaks, and other benefits to pregnant women. The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976, which prohibits discrimination in remuneration on the basis of gender. The Factories Act, 1948, which lays down provisions for the safety, welfare, and working conditions of women employees in factories.

(c) To mitigate such working conditions, it is essential to prioritize and manage time effectively. Rashika can delegate some of her work to her team members or seek help from her colleagues. She can also communicate her limitations to her superior and negotiate a reasonable timeline for completing the additional task. It is essential to establish healthy boundaries and set realistic expectations with respect to work and personal life. Rashika can also seek support from her family and friends to balance her responsibilities at work and home. It is vital to take care of physical and emotional well-being by practicing self-care and stress-reducing activities.

4. Vinod is an honest and sincere IAS officer. Recently, he has taken over as Managing Director of the State Road Transport Corporation, his sixth transfer in the past three years. His peers acknowledge his vast knowledge, affability and uprightness. The Chairman of the State Road Transport Corporation is a powerful politician and is very close to the Chief Minister. Vinod comes to know about many alleged irregularities of the Corporation and the high-handedness of the Chairman in financial matters.
A Board Member of the Corporation belonging to the Opposition Party meets Vinod and hands over a few documents along with a video recording in which the Chairman appears to be demanding bribe for placing a huge order for the supply of QMR tyres. Vinod recollects the Chairman expediting clearing of pending bills of QMR tyres. Vinod confronts the Board Member as to why he is shying away from exposing the Chairman with the so-called solid proof he has with him. The member informs him that the Chairman refuses to yield to his threats. He adds that Vinod may earn recognition and public support if he himself exposes he Chairman. Further, he tells Vinod that once his party comes to power, Vinod’s professional growth would be assured.
Vinod is aware that he may be penalized if he exposes the Chairman and may further be transferred to a distant place. He knows that the Opposition Party stands a better chance of coming to power in the forthcoming elections.
However, he also realizes that the Board Member is trying to use him for his own political gains.
(a) As a conscientious civil servant, evaluate the options available to Vinod.
(b) In the light of the above case, comment upon the ethical issues that may arise due to the politicization of bureaucracy.(Answer in 250 Words) 20 Marks

Vinod, being an honest and sincere IAS officer, is faced with a dilemma when he comes across alleged irregularities in the State Road Transport Corporation and the high-handedness of the Chairman in financial matters. He is handed over certain documents and a video recording by a Board Member of the Corporation belonging to the Opposition Party. The video recording shows the Chairman demanding a bribe for placing a huge order for the supply of QMR tyres.

Vinod is faced with two options. If he exposes the Chairman, he may be penalized and transferred to a distant place. However, he may also earn recognition and public support if he exposes the Chairman. The second option is to keep quiet and let things be.

As a conscientious civil servant, Vinod needs to evaluate the options available to him and choose the one that is in the best interest of the public. He needs to weigh the pros and cons of both options and then make an informed decision. He cannot let personal gain or fear of penalty influence his decision.

The above case highlights the ethical issues that may arise due to the politicization of bureaucracy. In this case, the Board Member of the Corporation belonging to the Opposition Party is trying to use Vinod for his own political gains. This shows how bureaucracy can be used as a tool for personal or political gain. It also highlights the need for a neutral and impartial bureaucracy that works for the betterment of the public rather than for personal or political gain.

5. You have just been appointed as Additional Director General of Central
Public Works Department. The Chief Architect of your division, who is to retire in six months, is passionately working on a very important project, the successful completion of which would earn him a lasting reputation for the rest of his life.
A new lady architect. Seema, trained at Manchester School of Architecture, UK joined as Senior Architect in your division. During the briefing about the project, Seema made some suggestions which would not only add value to the project, but would also reduce completion time. This has made the Chief Architect insecure and he is constantly worried that all the credit will go to her. Subsequently, he adopted a passive and aggressive behaviour towards her and has become disrespectful to her. Seema felt it embarrassing as the Chief Architect left no chance of humiliating her. He would very often correct her in front of other colleagues and raise his voice while speaking to her. This continuous harassment has resulted in her losing confidence and self-esteem. She felt perpetually tensed, anxious and stressed. She appeared to be in awe of him since he has had a long tenure in the office and has vast experience in the area of her work. You are aware of her outstanding academic credentials and career record in her previous organisations. However, you fear that this harassment may result in compromising her much needed contribution in this important project and may adversely impact her emotional well-being. You have also come to know from her peers that she is contemplating tendering her resignation.
(a) What are the ethical issues involved in the above case?
(b) What are the options available to you in order to complete the project as well as to retain Seema in the organization?
(c) What would be your response to Seema’s predicament? What measures would you institute to prevent such occurrences from happening in your organization ? (Answer in 250 Words) 20 Marks

(a) The ethical issues involved in the above case are workplace harassment, discrimination, and the potential loss of a valuable employee due to the Chief Architect’s insecurities and inappropriate behavior towards Seema.

(b) The options available to you in order to complete the project as well as to retain Seema in the organization are to address the issue of harassment with the Chief Architect and provide support to Seema to help her regain her confidence and self-esteem. You can also consider involving a third party such as HR or a mediator to ensure that the issue is resolved fairly and effectively. Additionally, you can provide opportunities for Seema to showcase her skills and contribution to the project, and recognize her for her achievements to boost her morale and motivation.

(c) In response to Seema’s predicament, you should provide her with emotional support and assure her that her contributions are valued and appreciated. You can also provide her with opportunities for professional development and growth, and ensure that she receives fair and equal treatment in the workplace. To prevent such occurrences from happening in your organization, you can establish clear policies and guidelines on workplace harassment and discrimination, and provide training and education to employees on respectful and inclusive behavior. You can also encourage a culture of openness and transparency where employees feel comfortable reporting any incidents of harassment or discrimination without fear of retaliation.

6. You hold a responsible position in a ministry in the government. One day in the morning you received a call from the school of your 11-year-old son that you are required to come and meet the Principal. You proceed to the school and find your son in the Principal’s office. The Principal informs you that your son had been found wandering aimlessly in the grounds during the time classes were in progress. The class teacher further informs you that your son has lately become a loner and did not respond to questions in the class, he had also been unable to perform well in the football trials held recently. You bring your son back from the school and in the evening, you along with your wife try to find out the reasons for your son’s changed behaviour. After repeated cajoling, your son shares that some children had been making fun of him in the class as well as in the WhatsApp group of the students by calling him stunted, duh and a frog. He tells you the names of a few children who are the main culprits but pleads with you to let the matter rest. After a few days, during a sporting event, where you and your wife have gone to watch your son play, one of your colleague’s son shows you a video in which students have caricatured your son. Further, he also points out to the perpetrators who were sitting in the stands. You purposefully walk past them with your son and go home. Next day, you find on social media, a video denigrating you, your son and even your wife, stating that you engaged in physical bullying of children on the sports field. The video became viral on social media. Your friends and colleagues began calling you to find out the details. One of your juniors advised you to make a counter video giving the background and explaining that nothing had happened on the field. You, in turn posted a video which you have captured during the sporting event, identifying the likely perpetrators who were responsible for your son’s predicament. You have also narrated what has actually happened in the field and made attempts to bring out the adverse effects of the misuse of social media.
(a)Based on the above case study, discuss the ethical issues involved in the use of social media.
(b)Discuss the pros and cons of using social media by you to put across the facts to counter the fake propaganda against your family. (Answer in 250 Words) 20 Marks

(a) The case study highlights several ethical issues that arise with the use of social media.

First, the children who made fun of the protagonist’s son engaged in cyberbullying, which is a form of harassment and can have serious negative impacts on the mental health and well-being of the victim.

Second, the video that was made denigrating the protagonist and his family is an example of the spread of false information or fake propaganda, which can be damaging to individuals, families, and communities.

Third, the viral nature of social media means that information can spread quickly and without proper context, leading to misunderstandings, miscommunications, and even harm. Fourth, the use of social media to spread hate or negativity can create a toxic online culture and contribute to a broader culture of hatred and intolerance.

Finally, the case study raises questions about the role of bystanders and the responsibility of individuals to intervene and stop harmful behavior, both online and offline.

(b) The use of social media by the protagonist to counter the fake propaganda against his family has both pros and cons.

On the one hand, social media can be a powerful tool to disseminate information and reach a wide audience quickly and effectively. By posting a counter video, the protagonist was able to provide context and clarify what actually happened on the sports field.

Additionally, the use of social media can help to raise awareness about important issues, such as cyberbullying and the misuse of social media, and promote positive messages of kindness, tolerance, and respect.

On the other hand, the use of social media can also be risky. It can be difficult to control the narrative or the message, and there is always the potential for the spread of false information or propaganda.

Moreover, the use of social media can sometimes escalate conflicts and lead to further harm or harassment. In this case, the protagonist’s decision to post a counter video may have further inflamed the situation and made his family a target for further abuse. Ultimately, the decision to use social media should be made carefully, taking into account the potential risks and benefits, and with a clear understanding of the ethical implications.