1 .Emerging infectious diseases pose global health threats. Examine how advancements in biotechnology and data analytics can enhance disease surveillance, prevention, and response strategies with suitable examples. (150 Words) 10 Marks


Emerging infectious diseases refer to illnesses that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. These diseases are caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, and they have the potential to cause significant harm to human health and the global economy. Examples of emerging infectious diseases include COVID-19, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and SARS. Understanding the causes and risk factors of these diseases is crucial for preventing their spread and mitigating their impact on public health.

They pose a major global health threat, with the potential to cause widespread illness, death, and economic disruption.

Advancements in biotechnology and data analytics are providing new tools to enhance disease surveillance, prevention, and response strategies for EIDs.

  • Biotechnology can be used to develop new diagnostic tests that can rapidly and accurately identify EIDs. For example, the CRISPR gene editing technology can be used to develop rapid, point-of-care tests for EIDs.
  • Data analytics can be used to mine large datasets of health data to identify patterns and trends that may indicate the emergence of new EIDs. For example, data analytics can be used to track the spread of EIDs through social media and other online platforms.

These advancements are helping to improve our ability to:

  • Detect EIDs early: Early detection is essential for preventing the spread of EIDs and limiting their impact. Biotechnology and data analytics can help to detect EIDs earlier than ever before, giving us more time to take action.
  • Track the spread of EIDs: Once an EID has been detected, it is important to track its spread to prevent it from becoming a pandemic. Biotechnology and data analytics can help us to track the spread of EIDs in real time, so that we can quickly deploy resources and interventions where they are needed most.
  • Develop effective treatments: Biotechnology can be used to develop new treatments for EIDs. For example, gene therapy is being developed as a potential treatment for HIV/AIDS.
  • Develop vaccines: Vaccines are the most effective way to prevent EIDs. Biotechnology is being used to develop new vaccines against EIDs, such as the Zika virus vaccine.

The advancements in biotechnology and data analytics are providing new hope for the prevention and control of EIDs. By using these tools effectively, we can better protect ourselves from these emerging threats to global health.

Here are some specific examples of how biotechnology and data analytics are being used to enhance disease surveillance, prevention, and response strategies for EIDs:

  • In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) used data analytics to track the spread of the Ebola virus in West Africa. This information was used to help countries to allocate resources and deploy interventions to contain the outbreak.
  • In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) used biotechnology to develop a rapid diagnostic test for the Zika virus. This test was used to help identify and track the spread of the virus in the United States.
  • In 2020, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley used data analytics to identify potential hotspots for the spread of COVID-19. This information was used to help cities and states to target their public health interventions.


These are just a few examples of how biotechnology and data analytics are being used to enhance disease surveillance, prevention, and response strategies for EIDs. As these technologies continue to develop, we can expect to see even more innovative ways to use them to protect ourselves from emerging infectious diseases.

2. The Fourth Industrial Revolution is characterized by the integration of technologies like AI, IoT, and automation. Discuss the implications of these revolutions on employment, skills development, and economic sustainability. (250 Words) 15 Marks


The Fourth Industrial Revolution, marked by the integration of technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), and automation, has far-reaching implications on employment, skills development, and economic sustainability.

1. Employment:

  • Job Disruption: The Fourth Industrial Revolution is transforming industries by automating routine and repetitive tasks. While this enhances productivity, it can also lead to job displacement, particularly in sectors like manufacturing, logistics, and clerical work.
  • New Job Opportunities: On the flip side, it creates new job opportunities in fields related to technology, data science, AI, and digital marketing. These jobs require specialized skills, and there’s a growing demand for professionals in these domains.
  • Task Redefinition: Many jobs will see a redefinition of tasks, with automation handling repetitive aspects, allowing human workers to focus on more complex and creative aspects of their roles.

2. Skills Development:

  • Reskilling and Upskilling: The Fourth Industrial Revolution necessitates continuous reskilling and upskilling of the workforce. People need to adapt to new technologies and tools to remain relevant in the job market.
  • Digital Literacy: Digital literacy and proficiency are becoming core skills. The ability to work with digital tools, analyze data, and use automation platforms is increasingly vital.
  • Critical and Creative Thinking: As automation takes care of routine tasks, there is a growing demand for skills like critical thinking, problem-solving, and creativity. Human workers will focus on tasks that require empathy, strategic thinking, and innovation.
  • Adaptive Learning: Education and training systems must adapt to accommodate lifelong learning, with a focus on personalized, adaptive learning models that address the specific needs of individuals.

3. Economic Sustainability:

  • Increased Productivity: The integration of advanced technologies enhances productivity, which can lead to economic growth. Automation can reduce errors, improve efficiency, and lead to cost savings.
  • Inequality Concerns: There is a risk of increasing income inequality, as those with the skills and access to new technologies benefit more than those without. Policymakers must address these disparities to ensure economic sustainability.
  • Innovation and Competitive Advantage: Countries and companies that embrace the Fourth Industrial Revolution can gain a competitive advantage through innovation. This can attract investment and promote economic sustainability.
  • Sustainable Technologies: The revolution offers opportunities to develop and adopt sustainable technologies, which can have positive environmental and economic impacts.

Furthermore, economic models might shift due to changes in production processes and labor dynamics. The gig economy and remote work can become more prevalent, affecting traditional employment structures. Policymakers need to adapt regulations to protect workers’ rights, ensure fair wages, and provide benefits in this evolving landscape.


The Fourth Industrial Revolution brings about a paradigm shift in the world of work and economics. While it offers transformative benefits, it also demands proactive measures to address job displacement, foster skills development, and ensure economic sustainability.

3. The integration of renewable energy technologies is pivotal for sustainable development. Discuss the potential of solar and wind energy in meeting energy demands while mitigating environmental impacts. (250 Words) 15 Marks


Solar and wind energy play crucial roles in meeting energy demands while reducing environmental impacts. Solar energy harnesses the power of the sun to generate electricity, offering a virtually limitless and clean energy source. Wind energy, on the other hand, utilizes the kinetic energy of moving air to produce electricity, similarly offering a renewable and emission-free power option.

Both solar and wind technologies have several advantages:

  1. Clean and Renewable: Solar and wind energy are abundant and renewable resources, ensuring long-term energy availability without depletion.
  2. Low Environmental Impact: Unlike fossil fuels, solar and wind energy production does not emit greenhouse gases or air pollutants, minimizing the contribution to climate change and air quality degradation.
  3. Energy Independence: Solar and wind energy reduce dependency on imported fossil fuels, enhancing energy security for nations.
  4. Job Creation: The installation, operation, and maintenance of solar panels and wind turbines create employment opportunities, boosting local economies.
  5. Decentralization: Solar panels can be installed on rooftops and in remote areas, while wind turbines can be set up in various landscapes, promoting energy decentralization and resilience.

However, there are also challenges to consider:

  1. Intermittency: Both solar and wind energy are intermittent, as they depend on weather conditions. This requires energy storage solutions or backup sources for consistent power supply.
  2. Land and Resource Use: Large-scale solar farms and wind installations may require significant land and resources, potentially conflicting with other land uses or natural habitats.
  3. Energy Storage: Storing excess energy for times when the sun isn’t shining or the wind isn’t blowing is essential. Advances in energy storage technologies are necessary to address this challenge effectively.
  4. Infrastructure and Cost: The initial investment for setting up solar and wind infrastructure can be high, although costs have been decreasing over the years. Developing the necessary infrastructure can also pose logistical challenges.
  5. Visual and Aesthetic Impact: Some people are concerned about the visual impact of wind turbines or solar installations in their surroundings.

To fully harness the potential of solar and wind energy:

  1. Technological Advancements: Continued research and development are needed to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and enhance storage solutions.
  2. Smart Grids: Implementing smart grids can manage fluctuations in energy production and consumption, ensuring a reliable and stable energy supply.
  3. Policy Support: Governments can incentivize the adoption of solar and wind technologies through subsidies, tax incentives, and regulations that promote clean energy.
  4. Public Awareness: Educating the public about the benefits of solar and wind energy can foster support for their integration into the energy mix.


By addressing these challenges and leveraging their benefits, solar and wind energy can significantly contribute to sustainable development by meeting energy demands while minimizing environmental impacts.

4. Discuss the contributions of Indian scientists in space technology, particularly in the field of space exploration, satellite development, and interplanetary missions. How have these achievements elevated India's position in the global space community? (250 Words) 15 Marks


Indian scientists have made remarkable contributions to space technology, particularly in the fields of space exploration, satellite development, and interplanetary missions. These achievements have significantly elevated India’s position in the global space community, showcasing its capabilities and fostering international collaborations.

Space Exploration:

  1. Chandrayaan Missions: The Chandrayaan-1 and Chandrayaan-2 missions focused on lunar exploration. Chandrayaan-1 made significant discoveries, including evidence of water molecules on the moon’s surface. Chandrayaan-2’s orbiter continues to provide valuable data about the moon’s surface and environment.
  2. Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan): India’s Mars Orbiter Mission was a major achievement, making India the first Asian nation to reach Mars orbit and the fourth space agency globally to do so. It demonstrated India’s capability to conduct complex interplanetary missions.

Satellite Development:

  1. Remote Sensing Satellites: The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has developed an array of remote sensing satellites that monitor and gather data about the Earth’s surface, weather patterns, and natural resources. These satellites contribute to disaster management, agriculture, and environmental monitoring.
  2. Navigation Satellites: The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), also known as NavIC, provides accurate positioning information for navigation and timing applications in India and the surrounding region.

Interplanetary Missions:

  1. Vikram Lander and Pragyan Rover: As part of the Chandrayaan-2 mission, India’s Vikram lander attempted a soft landing on the moon’s surface. While the landing was not successful, the mission demonstrated India’s capacity to develop lander and rover technology for planetary exploration.
  2. Gaganyaan Mission: India is preparing for its first manned space mission, Gaganyaan, which aims to send Indian astronauts (Gagannauts) to space. This mission represents a significant step toward human spaceflight capability.

Global Position:

  1. Affordable Launch Services: India has gained recognition for its cost-effective launch services through the ISRO’s commercial arm, Antrix Corporation. The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) has successfully launched numerous satellites for various countries, bolstering India’s reputation as a reliable launch provider.
  2. International Collaboration: India has established partnerships with other space agencies, organizations, and countries for joint missions, research, and satellite launches. These collaborations have enhanced India’s credibility and contributions to global space exploration efforts.
  3. Commercial Space Market: India’s space achievements have attracted attention from the commercial space sector. The growing interest in launching satellites aboard Indian rockets has contributed to economic growth and technological advancements.


Overall, Indian scientists have made significant strides in space technology, demonstrating innovation, determination, and expertise. The achievements in space exploration, satellite development, and interplanetary missions have not only expanded our understanding of the cosmos but have also elevated India’s standing in the global space community, positioning it as a capable and reliable player in the world of space exploration and technology.

5. Evaluate the role of traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions in intellectual property discussions. How can IPR frameworks recognize and protect the contributions of indigenous communities? (250 Words) 15 Marks


Traditional knowledge (TK) and traditional cultural expressions (TCEs) hold immense value, reflecting the collective wisdom and creativity of indigenous communities around the world. In intellectual property (IP) discussions, recognizing and protecting the contributions of indigenous communities becomes essential to preserve cultural heritage, ensure equitable benefits, and respect the rights of these communities. 

The role of traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions in intellectual property discussions is a topic that has gained increasing attention in recent years. Indigenous communities around the world have long held valuable knowledge and cultural expressions that are unique to their identities and histories. However, these communities have often been marginalized in discussions around intellectual property rights (IPR), which tend to prioritize Western conceptions of property and ownership.

Role of Traditional Knowledge and Cultural Expressions:

  1. Cultural Heritage: TK and TCEs embody generations of knowledge, practices, and artistic expressions that are integral to the identity and heritage of indigenous communities.
  2. Biodiversity and Sustainability: Many indigenous communities possess valuable knowledge about biodiversity, traditional medicines, and sustainable resource management. This knowledge can contribute to modern scientific understanding and environmental conservation.
  3. Community Identity: TK and TCEs reinforce the identity, spirituality, and social cohesion of indigenous groups, playing a vital role in their social fabric.


  1. Misappropriation: TK and TCEs are vulnerable to misappropriation and unauthorized commercial use, leading to cultural exploitation and loss of economic benefits for indigenous communities.
  2. Inadequate Protection: Conventional IP frameworks might not adequately safeguard these cultural expressions due to differences in the nature of knowledge and the communal ownership of these creations.

Recognizing and Protecting Indigenous Contributions:

  1. Customary Law Recognition: IP frameworks can recognize the customary laws and practices of indigenous communities related to TK and TCEs. These traditional systems can coexist alongside formal IP laws.
  2. Specialized Protection Mechanisms: Countries can establish sui generis systems specifically designed to protect TK and TCEs, taking into account their communal nature and unique characteristics.
  3. Informed Consent and Benefit Sharing: Prior informed consent from indigenous communities should be sought before using their knowledge or cultural expressions. Mechanisms for equitable benefit sharing from commercial use can be established.
  4. Database and Registry Creation: Establishing databases or registries that document TK and TCEs can help establish ownership, facilitate access for researchers, and prevent unauthorized use.
  5. Collaborative Research: Encouraging collaborative research between indigenous communities, researchers, and institutions can lead to a better understanding of TK and TCEs while respecting the rights and interests of the communities.
  6. Capacity Building: Empowering indigenous communities to manage and protect their own knowledge and expressions through education, legal assistance, and awareness programs is crucial.
  7. International Agreements: International treaties like the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits can provide a framework for the protection of traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources.
  8. Respect for Cultural Protocols: IP frameworks should consider and respect the cultural protocols, rituals, and taboos associated with TK and TCEs.


Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions are valuable assets that deserve recognition, respect, and protection within intellectual property discussions. IP frameworks should be adaptable and sensitive to the communal nature of these creations, promoting equitable benefit sharing and cultural preservation while respecting the rights and interests of indigenous communities.

6. Analyze the role of blockchain technology in enhancing data security and transparency in financial transactions. How can blockchain applications extend beyond cryptocurrencies and revolutionize various sectors? (250 Words) 15 Marks


Blockchain technology plays a transformative role in enhancing data security and transparency in financial transactions. Its decentralized and tamper-resistant nature addresses many of the vulnerabilities associated with traditional financial systems. Beyond cryptocurrencies, blockchain has the potential to revolutionize various sectors by providing secure, transparent, and efficient solutions.

Role in Enhancing Data Security and Transparency:

  1. Decentralization: Unlike traditional centralized databases, blockchain operates on a distributed network of nodes. This decentralization reduces the risk of a single point of failure, making it highly resistant to hacking and unauthorized access.
  2. Immutability: Once a transaction is recorded on a blockchain, it is almost impossible to alter or delete. This immutability ensures the integrity of financial records and prevents fraudulent activities.
  3. Encryption: Blockchain transactions are encrypted, ensuring that sensitive financial information remains confidential and secure.
  4. Smart Contracts: Smart contracts are self-executing contracts with predefined rules. They automate processes, ensuring that transactions are executed only when specific conditions are met, reducing the risk of human error or manipulation.
  5. Transparency: Every transaction recorded on a blockchain is visible to all participants, promoting transparency and accountability in financial activities.

Applications Beyond Cryptocurrencies:

  1. Supply Chain Management: Blockchain can enhance transparency and traceability in supply chains by recording each step of a product’s journey, from raw materials to end-users. This helps prevent counterfeiting, ensure product quality, and streamline logistics.
  2. Healthcare: Blockchain can securely store and share patients’ medical records while giving patients control over who accesses their data. This improves data security and interoperability among healthcare providers.
  3. Voting Systems: Blockchain can revolutionize voting systems by providing a transparent, secure, and tamper-proof way to record votes, thereby enhancing the integrity of elections.
  4. Identity Verification: Blockchain can be used to create secure digital identities that individuals can control, enabling secure access to services while protecting personal data.
  5. Real Estate: Blockchain can streamline property transactions by providing transparent and secure ownership records, reducing the need for intermediaries and minimizing fraud.
  6. Supply Chain Finance: Blockchain can facilitate financing for small suppliers by providing transparent and secure records of transactions, reducing risk for lenders.
  7. Energy Trading: Blockchain can enable peer-to-peer energy trading by allowing individuals to trade excess energy generated from renewable sources, reducing dependence on centralized energy providers.
  8. Cross-Border Payments: Blockchain-based solutions can enable faster and more cost-effective cross-border payments by eliminating intermediaries and reducing settlement times.


Blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize various sectors by providing enhanced data security, transparency, and efficiency. Its applications extend far beyond cryptocurrencies, offering solutions for supply chain management, healthcare, voting, identity verification, real estate, and more. As these applications continue to develop, blockchain has the power to reshape industries and improve the way transactions are conducted, adding value through increased security, transparency, and reduced friction.

7. Analyze the significance of recent advancements in biotechnology, such as gene editing techniques like CRISPR-Cas9. How do these developments have the potential to revolutionize healthcare, agriculture, and ethical considerations? (150 Words) 10 Marks


Recent advancements in biotechnology, particularly gene editing techniques like CRISPR-Cas9, hold immense significance and the potential to revolutionize multiple sectors, including healthcare, agriculture, and ethical considerations.

Healthcare Revolution:

  1. Precision Medicine: Gene editing allows precise modification of genes responsible for diseases. This could lead to personalized treatments tailored to an individual’s genetic makeup, enhancing treatment efficacy and minimizing side effects.
  2. Genetic Disorders: CRISPR-Cas9 offers the possibility of correcting genetic mutations responsible for inherited disorders, such as sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis, potentially curing these conditions.
  3. Cancer Therapies: Gene editing can be used to develop novel cancer therapies, like modifying immune cells to target and destroy cancer cells, enhancing the effectiveness of treatment.
  4. Drug Development: Biotechnology enables the creation of disease models for drug testing, allowing for safer and more effective drug development.

Agricultural Transformation:

  1. Crop Improvement: Gene editing can create crops with improved yields, nutritional content, and resistance to pests and diseases, potentially addressing global food security challenges.
  2. Reduced Environmental Impact: Biotechnology can reduce the need for chemical pesticides and fertilizers, promoting more sustainable agricultural practices.
  3. Climate Adaptation: Genetic modification could help develop crops that are more resilient to changing climate conditions, contributing to agricultural stability.

Ethical Considerations:

  1. Off-Target Effects: Gene editing techniques can inadvertently alter unintended genes, raising concerns about unforeseen consequences.
  2. Germline Editing: Editing genes in human embryos or germline cells has the potential to pass on genetic modifications to future generations. Ethical debates surround the implications of making irreversible changes to the human gene pool.
  3. Inequality: Access to advanced biotechnologies like CRISPR-Cas9 could exacerbate global inequalities in healthcare and agriculture, unless equitable distribution is ensured.
  4. Unintended Consequences: Modifying ecosystems or organisms could lead to ecological disruptions with far-reaching consequences.
  5. Designer Babies: The ability to edit genes for traits like intelligence or appearance raises ethical questions about the commodification of human beings and the potential for creating “designer babies.”


Recent advancements in biotechnology, particularly gene editing techniques like CRISPR-Cas9, have the potential to bring about transformative changes in healthcare and agriculture. While these advancements offer exciting possibilities, they also raise ethical considerations that need to be carefully addressed. Striking a balance between innovation, responsible use, equitable distribution, and ethical considerations will be crucial in harnessing the full potential of these technologies for the betterment of society.

8 Digital Technologies and its role in emerging India? (250 Words) 15 Marks

8. Examine the role of digital technologies in promoting financial inclusion and digital literacy in India. How have government initiatives like “Digital India” impacted marginalized communities and rural areas?


Digital technologies have played a crucial role in promoting financial inclusion and digital literacy in India. They have helped bridge the gap between traditional financial services and underserved populations, particularly in marginalized communities and rural areas. The “Digital India” initiative, launched by the Indian government, has significantly impacted these areas by providing access to various digital services.

The role of digital technologies in promoting financial inclusion and digital literacy includes:

  1. Mobile Banking and Payment Services: Mobile phones have become a key tool for financial inclusion. Mobile banking and payment apps enable individuals, even those without bank accounts, to access and manage their finances, make transactions, and receive payments digitally.
  2. Online Banking and Financial Services: Digital platforms provide access to banking services, loans, insurance, and investment opportunities, eliminating the need for physical visits to bank branches.
  3. Financial Education: Digital platforms offer educational resources, videos, and tutorials that empower individuals with financial knowledge, helping them make informed decisions about managing money and accessing financial services.
  4. E-Government Services: Digital technologies enable citizens to access government services online, reducing the need for physical presence and paperwork. This includes services related to identification, subsidies, and social welfare programs.
  5. Microfinance and Peer-to-Peer Lending: Digital platforms facilitate microfinance and peer-to-peer lending, allowing individuals and small businesses to access credit without the traditional barriers of collateral and paperwork.

The “Digital India” initiative, launched in 2015, aims to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. It has had a significant impact on marginalized communities and rural areas in the following ways:

  1. Increased Access: Through the expansion of digital infrastructure and internet connectivity, marginalized communities and rural areas have gained access to online services, information, and educational resources.
  2. Financial Inclusion: Government initiatives, along with private sector efforts, have led to the establishment of digital payment systems, making it easier for people in remote areas to conduct financial transactions securely.
  3. Service Delivery: Digital platforms have enabled the efficient delivery of government services and subsidies directly to beneficiaries, reducing leakages and improving transparency.
  4. Education and Literacy: Digital technologies have facilitated access to online education and skill development programs, enhancing digital literacy and empowering individuals to participate in the digital economy.
  5. Entrepreneurship and E-Commerce: Digital platforms have opened doors for rural entrepreneurs to sell products and services online, expanding market reach and income opportunities.

Despite these positive impacts, challenges remain:

  1. Digital Divide: Disparities in internet access and digital skills still persist, limiting the benefits of digital technologies for some marginalized communities.
  2. Technological Barriers: Lack of familiarity with technology, language barriers, and digital illiteracy can hinder the adoption of digital services.
  3. Cybersecurity and Privacy: Ensuring the security of digital transactions and protecting personal data are ongoing concerns.


Digital technologies, coupled with government initiatives like “Digital India,” have played a transformative role in promoting financial inclusion and digital literacy in marginalized communities and rural areas, gradually empowering individuals to participate more fully in the digital economy.

9. Assess the progress made in indigenous defence manufacturing, including the production of fighter jets, submarines, and artillery systems. (250 Words) 15M

Assess the progress made in indigenous defence manufacturing, including the production of fighter jets, submarines, and artillery systems. How has the “Atmanirbhar Bharat” initiative furthered the goal of self-reliance in defence technology? (250 Words) 15M


Indigenous defence manufacturing in India has seen significant progress over the years, with notable achievements in the production of fighter jets, submarines, and artillery systems. The “Atmanirbhar Bharat” (Self-Reliant India) initiative has played a crucial role in advancing the goal of self-reliance in defence technology by promoting domestic production and reducing dependency on imports.

Fighter Jets:

India’s indigenous fighter jet program, the Tejas Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), has made significant strides. The development and production of the Tejas mark a step forward in building advanced combat aircraft domestically. The Indian Air Force has inducted variants of the Tejas into its fleet, showcasing progress in developing modern fighter capabilities.


India’s submarine manufacturing capabilities have also progressed. The “Project 75” initiative involves the construction of Scorpène-class submarines at the Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL). The collaboration with foreign partners has facilitated the transfer of technology and expertise, contributing to India’s indigenous submarine building capabilities.

Artillery Systems:

Indigenous artillery production has been revitalized with initiatives like the “Dhanush” howitzer and the Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS). These projects signify efforts to develop state-of-the-art artillery systems that meet the requirements of the armed forces.

The “Atmanirbhar Bharat” initiative, launched in 2020, aims to promote self-reliance across various sectors, including defence. It has furthered the goal of self-reliance in defense technology in the following ways:

  1. Domestic Production: The initiative emphasizes increasing domestic production of defence equipment, reducing reliance on imports. This push has led to greater investment in indigenous research, development, and manufacturing.
  2. Technology Transfer: The initiative encourages partnerships and technology transfer with foreign defence manufacturers, allowing India to gain expertise and technical know-how in critical areas.
  3. Indigenous Design and Innovation: “Atmanirbhar Bharat” seeks to promote indigenous design and innovation. This approach encourages the development of cutting-edge defence technologies tailored to India’s specific needs.
  4. Export Potential: By fostering a strong domestic defence industry, the initiative aims to create opportunities for exporting defence equipment and technologies, contributing to India’s global standing.
  5. Collaboration: The initiative promotes collaboration between government agencies, the private sector, and research institutions to drive research, development, and manufacturing of defence technologies.

Despite these advancements, challenges remain in achieving complete self-reliance:

  1. Technical Challenges: Developing advanced defence technologies, especially in areas with high technical complexity, requires continuous research and development efforts.
  2. Budget Constraints: Adequate funding and resources are essential to support indigenous defence manufacturing and research projects.
  3. Timelines: Developing and fielding advanced defence systems can be time-consuming, potentially affecting operational readiness.
  4. Quality Control: Ensuring high standards of quality and reliability is crucial for defence equipment, and maintaining these standards in indigenous production can be challenging.


While significant progress has been made in indigenous defence manufacturing, including fighter jets, submarines, and artillery systems, achieving complete self-reliance in defence technology is an ongoing endeavour. The “Atmanirbhar Bharat” initiative provides a framework to strengthen domestic capabilities, reduce import dependency, and foster innovation in India’s defence industry.

10. What do you understand by Compulsory Licensing ? Write about the conditions under which compulsory license can be granted in India and various issues associated with Compulsory Licensing.(150 Words) 10M


Compulsory license is an authorization granted by the Government to someone else i.e., a third party to produce a patented product without the consent of the patent owner who has been taking undue advantage of exclusive rights granted by patent.

Compulsory licensing tries to eliminate misuse of patent rights by a patent holder in view of public health or anti-competitive practices which would result in restricting trade or hindering technology transfer.

Conditions to grant compulsory license in India:

Under Indian Patent Laws, a compulsory licensing can be granted after 3 years of getting a patent. Moreover, the Indian Patent Office might grant a compulsory license only if the use of the patented product is not satisfying public requirements, or the patented product is not accessible to the public at a reasonable price, or the patentee has not worked the patented product in India.

Some of the criteria which the Indian Patent Office considers include for instance: if the third party has already approached the patent owner to obtain a license, or whether the third party has capabilities to meet public interest by manufacturing the patented product, or the actual type of the invention and its benefits for the public.

Issues associated:

  • Grey Market: The local supply of patented products may lead to the creation of a grey market in different ways. In comparison to black marketing which involves counterfeit or illegal goods, grey marketing may not be called illegal. But they cause revenue loss and pose an economic burden on the country. Grey marketing has a big role in the infringement of intellectual property rights.
  • Difference in standards of National Emergency: This is one of the issues being raised from time to time against compulsory licensing that no fixed standardized definition of a national health emergency is available.
  • Apprehensions of the Patent holder: The patentee spends a lot of money and effort to develop an invention, and the compulsory license holder gets the benefit without putting in any effort.
  • Royalty-Free Practice or Low Royalty: A compulsory license is granted in the situation of crisis, emergency, or urgency which means it is granted for people in great need as well as at affordable prices


Countries should include compulsory licensing as an essential public health policy tool, to be resorted to only in extreme cases when there is no other way out.

11. Critically examine the role of Green Biotechnology in improving the conditions of farmers in India.(150 Words) 10M


According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization – Feeding a world population of 9.1 billion in 2050 will require raising overall food production by 70 .In this context, biotechnology becomes important because it allows farmers to grow more food on less land using farming practices that are environmentally sustainable.

Role of biotechnology in improving the living conditions of farmers

In cropping

Climate-resilient crops: This will enable farmers to save themselves from losses that occur due to crop losses. Ex: Water-resistant paddy can tackle incessant rains.

Genetic engineering can accelerate improvements in plants by increasing the diversity of the gene pool. It can also help in the production of plants that have-a short maturing period; higher yield and potential to promote food production even in adverse conditions like drought, salinity.Ex- Bt Cotton improved cotton yields in India

Nutritional capacity enhancement: Genetic engineering can produce crops with a higher concentration of vitamins.

Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry

Sexing of semen and embryos (by removing the Y chromosome) can help to produce only female that led to increase in milk production ,there by income of the farmers.

Cloning, somatic cell nuclear transfer, transgenic animals that leads to improving the breed quality thus making them disease and climate resistant.

Transgenic cows can produce milk with a more balanced protein & nutrients for human babies than natural cow-milk. → More income by selling such premium products.


Biotechnology has indeed helped in improving the lives of farmers up to a certain extent but to be universally acceptable, still, a long distance has to be covered. The Government needs to harness the potential of biotechnology through innovative initiatives like Biotech-Kisan. While continuing and increasing the share of funding in basic research, the government should encourage and incentivize the private sector to invest substantially in applied research

12. Cardiac disease in India’s younger population is growing concern. Comment.(150 Words) 10M


According to the Indian Heart Association, one person dies from a heart attack every 33 seconds. Historically, heart disease was seen as a condition that primarily affected older adults, changing lifestyles and dietary habits have contributed to an alarming rise in heart disease among younger people in India.

One of the major factors contributing support they need to this trend is the rising prevalence of risk factors such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity among young in India. According to the World Health Organization, India is the diabetes capital of the world, with an estimated 77 million people living with the disease. Similarly, the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure has been on the rise among younger Indians because of dietary habits & physical inactivity.

Causes of Cardiac Arrests

Another important factor contributing to the rise of heart disease among younger people in India face a variety of stressors, including pressure to succeed academically and professionally, family expectations, and social isolation, Stress can have a significant impact on heart health. and chronic stress has been linked to a higher risk of developing cardio vascular disease

Unfortunately, the rise of heart disease among younger people in India has not been met with adequate resources and attention from the healthcare system Many younger people may not realize they are at risk for heart disease, or may not seek medical care until their condition has become severe. Additionally, healthcare resources in India are often limited and overburdened, which can make it further difficult .


To address this growing problem, there is a need for increased awareness and education about the risk factors for heart disease, as well as greater investment in preventive measures and treatment options. This could include promoting healthy lifestyle habits, providing more resources for mental health and stress management, expanding access to affordable healthcare.

13. Cyber attacks on our critical infrastructure is a growing concern. In this backdrop elucidate the various steps taken by the government to safeguard its critical infrastructure. Highlight the loopholes and suggest a way out as well? (250 Words) 15 Marks


Cyberattacks on critical infrastructure pose a significant and growing concern for governments worldwide. Safeguarding critical infrastructure from cyber threats is essential to ensure the uninterrupted functioning of vital services. In the recent past the KNPPP (kudamkulam Nuclear Power Project, ISRO main servers and government websites of important ministries were all under attacks at various points of time. 

In response to these challenges, governments have taken several steps to enhance cybersecurity in critical infrastructure:

Steps Taken by Governments to Safeguard Critical Infrastructure:

  1. Regulatory Frameworks: Governments have established regulatory frameworks that require critical infrastructure operators to adhere to cybersecurity standards and reporting requirements. The IT Act and its amendments, The Cyber Security Policy of 2003 and its amendments also put in place.

  2. Establishments of Institutional arrangements: The NCIIPC, NCCC, NIB, CERT-In and its replication at domain levels are all examples of steps in this direction.
  3. Public-Private Partnerships: Collaboration between government agencies and private sector organizations is encouraged to share threat intelligence and best practices.

  4. Sector-Specific Agencies: Many governments have designated sector-specific agencies responsible for cybersecurity within critical sectors such as energy, transportation, and healthcare. E.g., CERT-Railways, CERT-Defence etc.

  5. National Cybersecurity Strategies: Governments have developed national cybersecurity strategies that outline objectives, policies, and actions for enhancing critical infrastructure protection.

  6. Incident Response Plans: Governments and critical infrastructure operators have established incident response plans to manage and mitigate cyber threats effectively.

  7. Continuous Monitoring: Implementation of continuous monitoring systems to detect and respond to cyber threats in real time.

  8. Employee Training: Enhancing the cybersecurity awareness and training of critical infrastructure employees to recognize and mitigate potential threats.

Loopholes and Challenges:

  1. Resource Constraints: Many critical infrastructure operators, especially smaller organizations, may lack the necessary resources and expertise to implement robust cybersecurity measures.

  2. Complexity and Interconnectivity: The complexity and interconnectivity of critical infrastructure systems make them vulnerable to cascading cyberattacks.

  3. Legacy Systems: Many critical infrastructure systems still rely on legacy technologies that are more susceptible to cyber threats.

  4. Insider Threats: Insider threats, whether intentional or unintentional, can pose significant risks to critical infrastructure.

  5. Cybersecurity Skills Gap: A shortage of cybersecurity professionals presents a challenge for both governments and the private sector.

Suggestions to Enhance Safeguards:

  1. Increased Funding: Governments should allocate more funding to critical infrastructure cybersecurity programs, particularly for smaller organizations that may struggle with resource constraints.

  2. Mandatory Standards: Stricter mandatory cybersecurity standards for critical infrastructure sectors should be enforced.

  3. Improved Information Sharing: Enhance information sharing mechanisms between the government and private sector to provide timely threat intelligence.

  4. Regular Drills and Exercises: Conduct regular cybersecurity drills and exercises to test incident response plans and increase preparedness.

  5. Modernization of Legacy Systems: Invest in the modernization of legacy systems with an emphasis on security.

  6. Education and Workforce Development: Governments should invest in education and workforce development programs to address the cybersecurity skills gap.


Safeguarding critical infrastructure from cyber threats is an ongoing and evolving challenge. It requires a combination of regulations, public-private collaboration, resource allocation, and technological modernization. Addressing these vulnerabilities is crucial to ensure the resilience of critical infrastructure in the face of cyberattacks.

India is not a signatory to even one international conventions or agreements on the Cyber security platform, be it OSAKA Track Diplomacy, be it US Cloud Act etc. We need to collaborate at international level to learn the best practices and understand the forms and means of latest threats before they hit us. 

14. Give a detailed account of India's Samudrayan Mission. In what ways it showcases India's capability in deep ocean missions? (250 Words) 15 Marks


Samudrayaan Mission is aimed to develop a self propelled manned submersible to carry 3 human beings to a water depth of 6000 meters in the ocean with a suite of scientific sensors and tools for deep ocean exploration. It has an endurance of 12 hours of operational period and 96 hours in case of emergency.

The manned submersible will allow scientific personnel to observe and understand unexplored deep sea areas by direct interventions. Further, it will enhance the capability for deep sea man rated vehicle development.

The projected timeline is five years for the period 2020-2021 to 2025-2026.

National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), Chennai, an autonomous institute under MoES, has developed 6000m depth rated Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and various other underwater instruments such as Autonomous Coring System (ACS), Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) and Deep Sea Mining System (DSM) for the exploration of deep sea.

India’s capabilities and activities in deep ocean missions: 

  1. Ocean Exploration: India has been involved in ocean exploration through organizations like the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) and the Indian National Center for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS). These organizations have conducted research in various areas of oceanography.

  2. Deep-Sea Research Vessels: India operates research vessels like RV Sindhu Sankalp and RV Sindhu Sadhana equipped with advanced technology for deep-sea exploration.

  3. Ocean Observation Systems: India has deployed oceanographic and meteorological buoys and other observation systems in the Indian Ocean for data collection and research.

  4. Deep-Sea Mining: India has shown interest in deep-sea mining for minerals, particularly polymetallic nodules. The Ministry of Earth Sciences has been actively exploring the potential for deep-sea mining.

  5. Collaboration with International Partners: India collaborates with various international organizations and countries for deep ocean research and exploration.


To get specific and up-to-date information on the “Samudrayan Mission” and its showcasing of India’s capabilities in deep ocean missions, I recommend checking the latest news releases, official government websites, or reputable news sources for the most current information regarding this mission or any other related developments.