1 What do you understand by ‘moral integrity’ and ‘professional efficiency in the context of corporate governance in India ? Illustrate with suitable examples. (150 Words)

Moral integrity and professional efficiency are two important aspects of corporate governance in India. Moral integrity refers to the quality of being honest, ethical, and truthful in all business dealings. It also implies a strong sense of values and principles that guide the actions of individuals within an organization. Professional efficiency, on the other hand, refers to the ability to perform tasks and responsibilities effectively and efficiently.

In the context of corporate governance in India, moral integrity is essential to build trust and credibility with stakeholders. For example, the Satyam scandal of 2009, where the company’s founder and chairman admitted to falsifying accounts and inflating profits, resulted in a loss of investor confidence and a decline in the company’s reputation. On the other hand, companies like Tata Group and Infosys, which are known for their ethical practices, have built a strong reputation and trust among their stakeholders.

Professional efficiency is also important in corporate governance as it ensures that responsibilities are fulfilled effectively and efficiently. For example, the successful implementation of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India was a result of the efficient functioning of the GST Council, which comprises representatives from the central and state governments.

In conclusion, moral integrity and professional efficiency are crucial for effective corporate governance in India. Companies that prioritize these values are more likely to build a strong reputation and trust among stakeholders.

2 ‘International aid’ is an accepted form of helping ‘resource-challenged’ nations. Comment on ‘ethics in contemporary international aid’. Support your answer with suitable examples (150 Words) 10 M

International aid is a crucial aspect of global development, as it provides much-needed support to nations that lack the resources to meet their basic needs. However, the ethics surrounding international aid have come under scrutiny in recent times. The key question that arises is whether aid is being used effectively and in the best interests of the recipient nations.

One of the main ethical concerns is the issue of dependency, where aid can create a culture of reliance on external assistance. This can lead to a lack of self-sufficiency and sustainability in the recipient nation, which can ultimately hinder their long-term development. For example, some argue that the continuous provision of food aid to developing countries can disrupt local markets and farmers, leading to decreased production and income.

Another ethical concern is the issue of conditionality, where aid is given with certain strings attached. This can often result in the imposition of policies and reforms that may not align with the recipient nation’s priorities. For instance, some argue that the structural adjustment programs imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank on developing countries have led to economic instability and social unrest.

While international aid is an essential means of supporting underdeveloped nations, it is crucial to ensure that it is provided in a way that is sustainable and empowers recipient nations to achieve self-sufficiency. The ethical considerations around international aid need to be carefully addressed to ensure that aid is used in the best interests of the recipient nations.

If we have seen the recent Chinese Foreign Policy of aid with a hidden motive to gain either preferential market access or unfulfillable conditionality. 

3 “Corruption is the manifestation of the failure of core values in the society.” In your opinion, what measures can be adopted to uplift the core values in the society? (150 Words) 10 M

Corruption in a society can have detrimental effects on its citizens. It creates a sense of mistrust and disillusionment among the people towards their government and institutions. This can lead to a breakdown of social order and increase crime rates. It is a reflection of failed value system in a society. The values like right to service, timely delivery of service, work is worship, all these values seem missing in that society.

In order to uplift the core values in society and prevent corruption, there are several measures that can be adopted. Firstly, education plays a crucial role in shaping one’s values and beliefs. Therefore, it is important to incorporate value-based education at all levels of schooling. This can help instill a sense of morality and ethics in individuals from a young age.

Secondly, promoting transparency and accountability in all aspects of governance can help prevent corruption. This can be achieved by implementing strong laws and regulations to deter corrupt practices, as well as ensuring that those who engage in corrupt activities are held accountable for their actions.

Thirdly, fostering a culture of integrity and honesty in the workplace can also help prevent corruption. Companies should have strong ethical codes and policies in place, and employees should be encouraged to report any unethical behavior they witness.

Fourthly, a time bound judicial remedy can be a catalyst in controlling the menace of corruption.

Finally, it is important to promote a culture of civic responsibility and engagement. This can be achieved by encouraging individuals to actively participate in their communities, and by ensuring that government institutions are accessible and responsive to the needs of the people.

Overall, uplifting core values in society requires a concerted effort from all stakeholders, including government, educational institutions, businesses, and individuals. By working together, we can create a more ethical and just society, free from corruption.

4. In the context of work environment, differentiate between ‘coercion’ and ‘undue influence’ with suitable examples. (150 Words) 10 M

Coercion is the act of forcing someone to do something against their will through the use of threats, intimidation or physical force. On the other hand, undue influence is the use of manipulation, persuasion, or other psychological tactics to influence someone’s decision-making process.

For example, in a workplace environment, a manager who threatens an employee with termination if they don’t comply with their demands is using coercion. This is a clear violation of the employee’s rights and can create a hostile work environment.

Another form of coercion is through the use of power dynamics, where managers or supervisors use their position of authority to force employees to comply with their wishes. This can be particularly harmful when there is a lack of transparency in decision-making processes, which can lead to feelings of distrust and resentment among employees.

In addition, coercion can also be present in the form of subtle pressure or manipulation tactics, such as guilt-tripping, shaming, or withholding rewards or opportunities. This can be difficult to detect, but can have a significant impact on an employee’s mental health and overall well-being.

On the other hand, undue influence can be more subtle. For example, if a supervisor constantly praises an employee for agreeing with their ideas and ignores those who disagree, this can create an environment where employees feel pressured to conform to the supervisor’s views.

It’s important for employers to be aware of these issues and to create a work environment that is free from coercion and undue influence. This includes providing training to managers on how to communicate effectively and respectfully with employees, and creating policies that protect employees from harassment and discrimination.

5. “The simplest acts of kindness are by far more powerful than a thousand heads bowing in prayer.” – Mahatma Gandhi (150 Words) 10 M

In a world that can seem harsh and unforgiving, it is easy to forget the power of simple acts of kindness. Mahatma Gandhi, a leader and activist who dedicated his life to nonviolent resistance, understood the transformative potential of small gestures.

While many may believe that grand gestures or demonstrations of power are necessary to make meaningful change, Gandhi’s quote reminds us that it is often the small, everyday acts of kindness that can make the biggest difference. A kind word, a helping hand, a moment of empathy can have a profound impact on someone’s life.

Everyday acts of kindness may seem small and insignificant, but they have the power to bring about positive change in our world. These simple gestures can brighten someone’s day, make them feel seen and valued, and inspire them to pay it forward. Whether it’s holding the door open for someone, offering a genuine compliment, or volunteering your time to help others, every act of kindness has the potential to create a ripple effect that can spread far and wide. So don’t underestimate the impact you can have on the world around you. Embrace kindness as a way of life and watch as it transforms not only the lives of others, but also your own.

It can be easy to feel overwhelmed by the problems of the world, but we should not underestimate the power we have to make a difference in our own small ways. By choosing to act with kindness and compassion, we not only make the world a better place for those around us, but we also inspire others to do the same. As Gandhi understood, it is these small acts of kindness that can truly change the world.

6. “To awaken the people, it is the women who must be awakened. Once she is on the move, the family moves, the village moves, the nation moves.” – Jawaharlal Nehru (150 Words) 10 M

Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, was a strong advocate for women’s empowerment and their role in societal progress. According to him, women are the key to awaken and mobilize the masses towards development.

He believed that once a woman is awakened and motivated to take action, her family, community, and ultimately, the entire nation will follow suit. This is because women play a vital role in shaping the culture and values of their households. They are often the primary caregivers and nurturers, and their influence extends beyond their immediate family to the wider community.

Awakened women possess a power that is both transformative and inspirational. It is a power that comes from within, fueled by a strong sense of purpose and a deep connection to their own intuition. When women awaken to their true potential, they become a force to be reckoned with – not just in their own lives, but in the world at large.

This power is not defined by physical strength or dominance over others. Rather, it is a power that comes from a place of inner strength and self-awareness. Awakened women are able to tap into their own innate wisdom and use it to guide their actions, making decisions that are aligned with their values and goals.

One of the most powerful aspects of this awakening is the sense of community that it creates. When women awaken to their true potential, they are able to connect with others who share their vision and passion. Together, they are able to create a network of support and encouragement, which can help them to achieve even greater things.

Nehru recognized that empowering women was essential for the progress of India as a nation. He championed women’s education, employment, and political participation, and his efforts have had a lasting impact on the country’s development.

Today, India continues to work towards achieving gender equality and empowering women in all spheres of life. The legacy of Nehru’s vision for women’s empowerment continues to inspire generations of Indian women to strive towards their full potential.

7. Do not hate anybody, because that hatred that comes out from you must, in the long run, come back to you. If you love, that love will come back to you, completing the circle.” – Swami Vivekanand. (150 Words) 10 M

Swami Vivekanand’s message is a reminder that our actions have consequences and that what we put out into the world will eventually come back to us. Hatred only breeds more hatred and negativity, while love and kindness create a positive ripple effect.

By choosing to love instead of hate, we not only make the world a better place but also create a positive cycle of energy that benefits not only ourselves but also those around us. It may not always be easy to love in the face of hate, but it is the only way to break the cycle and create a better future.

He knew that hatred is a destructive emotion that can poison the mind and heart of an individual. In his teachings, Swami Vivekananda stressed the importance of cultivating love, compassion, and understanding towards all beings.

According to Swami Vivekananda, hatred is born out of ignorance and fear. When we do not understand something or someone, we tend to fear it. This fear can quickly turn into hatred if left unchecked. Swami Vivekananda believed that the best way to overcome this fear and hatred is through knowledge and understanding.

He encouraged people to educate themselves about different cultures, religions, and beliefs. He believed that by learning about others, we can develop empathy and understanding towards them. In his famous speech at the Parliament of Religions in Chicago, Swami Vivekananda said, “I am proud to belong to a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance. We believe not only in universal toleration but we accept all religions as true.”

Swami Vivekananda’s teachings on hatred remind us of the importance of cultivating love and compassion towards all beings. He believed that by doing so, we can create a more peaceful and harmonious world.

Let us all strive to choose love and kindness in our thoughts, words, and actions, and create a world where hate has no place.

8. What really matters for success, character, happiness and lifelong achievements is a definite set of emotional skills – your EQ- not just purely cognitive abilities that are measured by conventional IQ tests.” Do you agree with this view ? Give reasons in support of your answer. (150 Words) 10 M

While cognitive abilities are undoubtedly important for success, emotional intelligence (EQ) plays a crucial role in determining one’s achievements, character, happiness and overall well-being.

EQ encompasses a range of skills, including self-awareness, empathy, self-regulation, motivation, and social skills. These skills enable individuals to understand and manage their own emotions, as well as those of others. 

Studies have shown that people with high EQ tend to be happier than those with low EQ. Emotional intelligence allows individuals to identify and manage negative emotions such as anger, fear, and frustration, leading to better mental health and well-being. Individuals with high EQ also tend to have better social skills, leading to stronger relationships, which are a significant factor in overall happiness.

Moreover, EQ is critical in the workplace. Employees with high EQ are better communicators, problem-solvers, and team players, leading to greater job satisfaction and career success. Employers also recognize the importance of EQ and often seek out candidates with high emotional intelligence.

Furthermore, EQ is not fixed at birth but can be developed and improved over time through practice and self-reflection. In contrast, IQ is largely determined by genetics and does not necessarily correlate with success or happiness.

Therefore, it is essential to prioritize the development of emotional intelligence, not just cognitive abilities, in order to lead a fulfilling and successful life.

9. Differentiate ‘moral intuition from ‘moral reasoning’ with suitable examples. (150 Words) 10 M

Moral intuition and moral reasoning are two main ways through which individuals form moral judgments. Moral intuition refers to an automatic, rapid, and unconscious judgment about right and wrong, which is primarily based on emotions or feelings. For instance, when we see someone suffering, we automatically feel empathy and recognize that it is wrong to cause harm to others. This intuitive response is not necessarily based on careful analysis or reasoning, but it is often accurate and can guide us in making ethical decisions.

On the other hand, moral reasoning is a more deliberate and conscious process of thinking about ethical issues. It involves using logical and rational analysis to assess different perspectives, consider consequences, and weigh the moral principles involved. For example, when deciding whether to donate money to a charity, we may consider the effectiveness of the charity’s programs, the needs of the beneficiaries, and our own moral obligations to help others.

In summary, moral intuition and moral reasoning are two complementary ways of making ethical judgments, and both are important in guiding our behavior and decision-making. While moral intuition is often automatic and emotional, moral reasoning is more deliberate and analytical, and both have their strengths and limitations.

10. Is conscience a more reliable guide when compared to laws, rules and regulations in the context of ethical decision making ? Discuss. (150 Words) 10 M

When it comes to ethical decision making, many people often wonder whether conscience is a more reliable guide than laws, rules, and regulations. Conscience refers to an individual’s inner sense of what is right or wrong. While laws and regulations are created by society to maintain order and protect citizens, they may not always align with an individual’s personal values and beliefs.

In some cases, following one’s conscience may lead to breaking the law. For example, during times of civil disobedience, individuals may feel compelled to protest against unjust laws and policies, even if it means facing legal consequences. In such cases, following one’s conscience may be a more reliable guide than blindly following laws and regulations.

In ethical decision making, it is important to have a support of conscience. This means having a clear understanding of one’s values and beliefs, and using them as a guide when making decisions. When faced with a difficult ethical dilemma, having a support of conscience can provide a sense of direction and help to ensure that decisions are aligned with one’s personal values.

Having a support of conscience also involves being open to learning and growing in one’s understanding of ethical issues. This may involve seeking out diverse perspectives, engaging in ethical discussions with others, and reflecting on past experiences and decisions.

However, it is important to note that conscience is not infallible and can be influenced by personal biases and experiences. This is why laws and regulations are necessary to establish a common standard of behavior and ensure that individuals are held accountable for their actions.

Ultimately, the decision to follow conscience or laws and regulations depends on the situation at hand and the individual’s personal values and beliefs. It is important to strike a balance between following one’s conscience and respecting the laws and regulations that govern society.

11. ‘Probity is essential for an effective system of governance and socio-economic development.’ Discuss. (150 Words) 10 M

Probity, or honesty and integrity, is a fundamental aspect of good governance and it is crucial to socio-economic development. Effective governance requires that the government and those in positions of power and authority are transparent and accountable in their actions. This includes being honest in their dealings with the public and ensuring that they act in the best interest of the people they serve.

In addition to promoting trust and confidence in the government, probity can also lead to economic growth and development. When individuals and businesses can rely on the government to act ethically and with integrity, they are more likely to invest in the country, creating jobs and stimulating economic growth.

However, the lack of probity can have serious consequences, including corruption, mismanagement, and a lack of public trust. These can lead to economic instability, social unrest, and a breakdown of the rule of law.

Therefore, it is crucial that probity is upheld in all aspects of governance and socio-economic development. This requires a commitment from all stakeholders, including the government, private sector, civil society, and citizens, to act with honesty and integrity at all times.

12. What were the major teachings of Guru Nanak? Explain their relevance in the contemporary world. (150 Words) 10 M

Guru Nanak was the founder of Sikhism, and his teachings focused on the importance of unity, equality, and selfless service. He believed in the oneness of God and the equality of all human beings, regardless of their caste, race, or gender. His teachings also emphasized the importance of living a moral and ethical life, and the need to help others and serve society.

These teachings are still relevant in the contemporary world, where there are still many instances of discrimination and inequality. The message of unity and equality is especially important in today’s world, where there is so much division and polarization. Guru Nanak’s emphasis on selfless service is also relevant in today’s world, where there is a growing need for people to come together and work towards common goals be it environmental protection, women centric issues, upholding the cause of vulnerable.

Overall, Guru Nanak’s teachings continue to inspire people around the world, and they serve as a reminder of the importance of compassion, service, and unity in our lives.

13. Explain the term social capital. How does it enhance good governance? (150 Words) 10 M

Social capital refers to the networks, norms, and trust that exist within a society. It is the social glue that binds individuals together and fosters cooperation and collaboration.

Good governance is a concept that refers to the way public institutions exercise power over people. It encompasses the principles of transparency, accountability, participation, and responsiveness to citizens’ needs and preferences.

Social capital enhances good governance by creating a sense of community and shared responsibility. When people trust one another and work together towards common goals, they are more likely to participate in the democratic process and hold their leaders accountable.

Social capital also promotes transparency and accountability. When people are connected to one another through networks, they have access to information and can hold their leaders accountable for their actions. This can help to reduce corruption and promote good governance.

Furthermore, social capital can help to promote social inclusion and reduce inequality. When people are connected to one another through networks, they are more likely to share resources and support one another. This can help to reduce poverty and promote social mobility.

Overall, social capital is an important component of good governance as it promotes cooperation, transparency, accountability, social inclusion, and reduces inequality.


1 You are working as an executive in a nationalized bank for several years. One day one of your close colleagues tells you that her father is suffering from heart disease and needs surgery immediately to survive. She also tells you that she has no insurance and the operation will cost about Rs. 10 lakh. You are also aware of the fact that her husband is no more and that she is from a lower middle class family. You are empathetic about her situation. However, apart from expressing your sympathy, you do not have the resources to fund her. A few weeks later, you ask her about the well-being of her father and she informs you about his successful surgery and that he is recovering. She then confides in you that the bank manager was kind enough to facilitate the release of Rs. 10 lakh from a dormant account of someone to pay for the operation with a promise that it should be confidential and be repaid at the earliest. She has already started paying it back and will continue to do no until it is all returned. (a) What are the ethical issues involved ? (b) Evaluate the behavior or the bank manager from an ethical point of view. (c) How would you react to the situation ?(Answer in 250 Words) 20 Marks

(a) The ethical issues involved in this situation are privacy and confidentiality of the account holder whose dormant account was used to facilitate the release of funds for the surgery. There is also an issue of conflict of interest as the bank manager facilitated the release of funds for the personal benefit of an employee.

(b) From an ethical point of view, the behavior of the bank manager can be evaluated as both positive and negative. On the positive side, the manager acted compassionately and helped a colleague in need, which is a kind and empathetic behavior. On the negative side, the manager breached the confidentiality of the dormant account holder and the bank’s policies by releasing the funds without proper authorization. This could lead to legal and ethical consequences.

(c) As an executive in the bank, it is important to follow the ethical and legal guidelines of the bank. In this situation, I would have advised my colleague to explore other options such as seeking help from family and friends or approaching social welfare organizations for financial assistance. I would also have informed her about the risks and consequences of using a dormant account for personal benefits without proper authorization.

Additionally, I would have reported the behavior of the bank manager to the appropriate authorities and ensured that the funds were repaid as soon as possible to avoid any further ethical and legal issues. It is important to maintain the integrity and reputation of the bank by adhering to ethical and legal guidelines.

Even a letter of warning/disciplinary action to the Bank Manager, for his approach can also be justified. 

2 A landslide occurred in the middle of the night on 20th July, 2023 in a remote mountain hamlet, approximately 60kilometers from Uttarkashi. The landslide was caused by torrential rains and has resulted in large-scale destruction of property and life. You, as district magistrate of the area, have rushed to the spot with a team of doctors, NGOs, media and police along with numerous support staff to oversee the rescue operations. A man came running to you with a request for urgent medical help for his pregnant wife who is in labor and is losing blood. You directed your medical team to examine his wife. They return and convey to you that this woman needs blood transfusion immediately. Upon enquiry, you come know that a few blood collection bags and blood group test kits are available in the ambulance accompanying your team. Few people of your team have already
volunteered to donate blood. Being a physician who has graduated for AIIMS, you know that blood for transfusion needs to be procured only through a recognized blood bank.
Your team members are divided on this issue; some favor transfusion while some others oppose it. The doctors in the team are ready to facilitate the delivery provided they are not penalized for transfusion. Now you are in a dilemma. Your professional training emphasizes on prioritizing service to humanity and saving lives of individuals.
(a)What are the ethical issues involved in this case?
(b) Evaluate the options available to you, being District Magistrate of the area.(Answer in 250 Words) 20 Marks

(a) The ethical issues involved in this case include the use of blood transfusion without proper screening and procurement from a recognized blood bank, which can pose serious health risks to the patient and violate medical ethics. Additionally, there is a conflict between the duty to save lives and the duty to adhere to professional standards and regulations.

(b) As District Magistrate, you have a responsibility to ensure the safety and well-being of the people in the affected area. In this case, you can consider the following options:

  1. Request for immediate medical assistance from a recognized blood bank to provide safe and screened blood for the patient in need.
  2. Encourage team members to donate blood for the patient, but only after proper screening and testing to ensure compatibility and safety.
  3. Explore alternative options for treatment, such as transporting the patient to a nearby hospital with proper facilities for safe blood transfusion.

It is important to prioritize the safety and well-being of the patient while also adhering to professional standards and regulations. Communicating clearly with all team members about the risks and benefits of each option can help in making an informed decision.

3. At 9 pm on Saturday evening, Rashika, a Joint Secretary, was still engrossed in her work in her office. Her husband, Vikram, is an executive in an MNC and frequently out of town in connection with his work. Their two children aged 5 and 3 are looked after by their domestic helper. At 9:30 pm her superior, Mr. Suresh calls her and asks her to prepare a detailed note on an important matter to be discussed in a meeting in the Ministry. She realises, that she will have to work on Sunday to finish the additional task given by her superior.
She reflects on how she had looked forward to this posting and had worked long hours for months to achieve it. She had kept the welfare of people uppermost in discharging her duties. She feels that she has not done enough justice to her family and she has not fulfilled her duties in discharging essential social obligations. Even as recently as last month she had to leave her sick child in the nanny’s care as she had to work in the office. Now, she feels that she must draw a line, beyond which her personal life should take precedence over her professional responsibilities. She thinks that there should be reasonable limits to the work ethics such as punctuality, hard work, dedication to duty and selfless service.
(a) Discuss the ethical issues involved in this case.
(b) Briefly describe at least four laws that have been enacted by the Government with respect to providing a healthy, safe and equitable working environment for women.
(c) Imagine you are in a similar situation. What suggestions would you make to mitigate such working conditions?(Answer in 250 Words) 20 Marks

(a) The ethical issues involved in this case are balancing work and personal life, fulfilling social obligations, and setting reasonable limits to work ethics. Rashika has been working long hours and sacrificing her personal life and family obligations to excel in her job. She feels conflicted between her responsibilities at work and her duties towards her family and society. It is important for individuals to find a healthy balance between work and personal life to avoid burnout and maintain overall well-being. It is also essential to fulfill social obligations and take care of family responsibilities.

(b) The Government has enacted several laws to provide a healthy, safe, and equitable working environment for women. These laws include the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013, which mandates the establishment of Internal Complaints Committees (ICCs) in all workplaces with more than 10 employees. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, which provides for paid maternity leave, nursing breaks, and other benefits to pregnant women. The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976, which prohibits discrimination in remuneration on the basis of gender. The Factories Act, 1948, which lays down provisions for the safety, welfare, and working conditions of women employees in factories.

(c) To mitigate such working conditions, it is essential to prioritize and manage time effectively. Rashika can delegate some of her work to her team members or seek help from her colleagues. She can also communicate her limitations to her superior and negotiate a reasonable timeline for completing the additional task. It is essential to establish healthy boundaries and set realistic expectations with respect to work and personal life. Rashika can also seek support from her family and friends to balance her responsibilities at work and home. It is vital to take care of physical and emotional well-being by practicing self-care and stress-reducing activities.

4. Vinod is an honest and sincere IAS officer. Recently, he has taken over as Managing Director of the State Road Transport Corporation, his sixth transfer in the past three years. His peers acknowledge his vast knowledge, affability and uprightness. The Chairman of the State Road Transport Corporation is a powerful politician and is very close to the Chief Minister. Vinod comes to know about many alleged irregularities of the Corporation and the high-handedness of the Chairman in financial matters.
A Board Member of the Corporation belonging to the Opposition Party meets Vinod and hands over a few documents along with a video recording in which the Chairman appears to be demanding bribe for placing a huge order for the supply of QMR tyres. Vinod recollects the Chairman expediting clearing of pending bills of QMR tyres. Vinod confronts the Board Member as to why he is shying away from exposing the Chairman with the so-called solid proof he has with him. The member informs him that the Chairman refuses to yield to his threats. He adds that Vinod may earn recognition and public support if he himself exposes he Chairman. Further, he tells Vinod that once his party comes to power, Vinod’s professional growth would be assured.
Vinod is aware that he may be penalized if he exposes the Chairman and may further be transferred to a distant place. He knows that the Opposition Party stands a better chance of coming to power in the forthcoming elections.
However, he also realizes that the Board Member is trying to use him for his own political gains.
(a) As a conscientious civil servant, evaluate the options available to Vinod.
(b) In the light of the above case, comment upon the ethical issues that may arise due to the politicization of bureaucracy.(Answer in 250 Words) 20 Marks

Vinod, being an honest and sincere IAS officer, is faced with a dilemma when he comes across alleged irregularities in the State Road Transport Corporation and the high-handedness of the Chairman in financial matters. He is handed over certain documents and a video recording by a Board Member of the Corporation belonging to the Opposition Party. The video recording shows the Chairman demanding a bribe for placing a huge order for the supply of QMR tyres.

Vinod is faced with two options. If he exposes the Chairman, he may be penalized and transferred to a distant place. However, he may also earn recognition and public support if he exposes the Chairman. The second option is to keep quiet and let things be.

As a conscientious civil servant, Vinod needs to evaluate the options available to him and choose the one that is in the best interest of the public. He needs to weigh the pros and cons of both options and then make an informed decision. He cannot let personal gain or fear of penalty influence his decision.

The above case highlights the ethical issues that may arise due to the politicization of bureaucracy. In this case, the Board Member of the Corporation belonging to the Opposition Party is trying to use Vinod for his own political gains. This shows how bureaucracy can be used as a tool for personal or political gain. It also highlights the need for a neutral and impartial bureaucracy that works for the betterment of the public rather than for personal or political gain.

5. You have just been appointed as Additional Director General of Central
Public Works Department. The Chief Architect of your division, who is to retire in six months, is passionately working on a very important project, the successful completion of which would earn him a lasting reputation for the rest of his life.
A new lady architect. Seema, trained at Manchester School of Architecture, UK joined as Senior Architect in your division. During the briefing about the project, Seema made some suggestions which would not only add value to the project, but would also reduce completion time. This has made the Chief Architect insecure and he is constantly worried that all the credit will go to her. Subsequently, he adopted a passive and aggressive behaviour towards her and has become disrespectful to her. Seema felt it embarrassing as the Chief Architect left no chance of humiliating her. He would very often correct her in front of other colleagues and raise his voice while speaking to her. This continuous harassment has resulted in her losing confidence and self-esteem. She felt perpetually tensed, anxious and stressed. She appeared to be in awe of him since he has had a long tenure in the office and has vast experience in the area of her work. You are aware of her outstanding academic credentials and career record in her previous organisations. However, you fear that this harassment may result in compromising her much needed contribution in this important project and may adversely impact her emotional well-being. You have also come to know from her peers that she is contemplating tendering her resignation.
(a) What are the ethical issues involved in the above case?
(b) What are the options available to you in order to complete the project as well as to retain Seema in the organization?
(c) What would be your response to Seema’s predicament? What measures would you institute to prevent such occurrences from happening in your organization ? (Answer in 250 Words) 20 Marks

(a) The ethical issues involved in the above case are workplace harassment, discrimination, and the potential loss of a valuable employee due to the Chief Architect’s insecurities and inappropriate behavior towards Seema.

(b) The options available to you in order to complete the project as well as to retain Seema in the organization are to address the issue of harassment with the Chief Architect and provide support to Seema to help her regain her confidence and self-esteem. You can also consider involving a third party such as HR or a mediator to ensure that the issue is resolved fairly and effectively. Additionally, you can provide opportunities for Seema to showcase her skills and contribution to the project, and recognize her for her achievements to boost her morale and motivation.

(c) In response to Seema’s predicament, you should provide her with emotional support and assure her that her contributions are valued and appreciated. You can also provide her with opportunities for professional development and growth, and ensure that she receives fair and equal treatment in the workplace. To prevent such occurrences from happening in your organization, you can establish clear policies and guidelines on workplace harassment and discrimination, and provide training and education to employees on respectful and inclusive behavior. You can also encourage a culture of openness and transparency where employees feel comfortable reporting any incidents of harassment or discrimination without fear of retaliation.

6. You hold a responsible position in a ministry in the government. One day in the morning you received a call from the school of your 11-year-old son that you are required to come and meet the Principal. You proceed to the school and find your son in the Principal’s office. The Principal informs you that your son had been found wandering aimlessly in the grounds during the time classes were in progress. The class teacher further informs you that your son has lately become a loner and did not respond to questions in the class, he had also been unable to perform well in the football trials held recently. You bring your son back from the school and in the evening, you along with your wife try to find out the reasons for your son’s changed behaviour. After repeated cajoling, your son shares that some children had been making fun of him in the class as well as in the WhatsApp group of the students by calling him stunted, duh and a frog. He tells you the names of a few children who are the main culprits but pleads with you to let the matter rest. After a few days, during a sporting event, where you and your wife have gone to watch your son play, one of your colleague’s son shows you a video in which students have caricatured your son. Further, he also points out to the perpetrators who were sitting in the stands. You purposefully walk past them with your son and go home. Next day, you find on social media, a video denigrating you, your son and even your wife, stating that you engaged in physical bullying of children on the sports field. The video became viral on social media. Your friends and colleagues began calling you to find out the details. One of your juniors advised you to make a counter video giving the background and explaining that nothing had happened on the field. You, in turn posted a video which you have captured during the sporting event, identifying the likely perpetrators who were responsible for your son’s predicament. You have also narrated what has actually happened in the field and made attempts to bring out the adverse effects of the misuse of social media.
(a)Based on the above case study, discuss the ethical issues involved in the use of social media.
(b)Discuss the pros and cons of using social media by you to put across the facts to counter the fake propaganda against your family. (Answer in 250 Words) 20 Marks

(a) The case study highlights several ethical issues that arise with the use of social media.

First, the children who made fun of the protagonist’s son engaged in cyberbullying, which is a form of harassment and can have serious negative impacts on the mental health and well-being of the victim.

Second, the video that was made denigrating the protagonist and his family is an example of the spread of false information or fake propaganda, which can be damaging to individuals, families, and communities.

Third, the viral nature of social media means that information can spread quickly and without proper context, leading to misunderstandings, miscommunications, and even harm. Fourth, the use of social media to spread hate or negativity can create a toxic online culture and contribute to a broader culture of hatred and intolerance.

Finally, the case study raises questions about the role of bystanders and the responsibility of individuals to intervene and stop harmful behavior, both online and offline.

(b) The use of social media by the protagonist to counter the fake propaganda against his family has both pros and cons.

On the one hand, social media can be a powerful tool to disseminate information and reach a wide audience quickly and effectively. By posting a counter video, the protagonist was able to provide context and clarify what actually happened on the sports field.

Additionally, the use of social media can help to raise awareness about important issues, such as cyberbullying and the misuse of social media, and promote positive messages of kindness, tolerance, and respect.

On the other hand, the use of social media can also be risky. It can be difficult to control the narrative or the message, and there is always the potential for the spread of false information or propaganda.

Moreover, the use of social media can sometimes escalate conflicts and lead to further harm or harassment. In this case, the protagonist’s decision to post a counter video may have further inflamed the situation and made his family a target for further abuse. Ultimately, the decision to use social media should be made carefully, taking into account the potential risks and benefits, and with a clear understanding of the ethical implications.