1. What is Personality? What are the Philosophical aspects of Personality? (150 Words) 10 M


Personality is a term used to describe the unique set of characteristics, behaviors, and traits that make an individual distinct from others. It encompasses a person’s emotions, thoughts, and actions, and it is influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, and life experiences.

When we talk about the philosophical aspects of personality, we are referring to the different theories and perspectives that have been developed over time to explain and understand personality. One of the earliest philosophical perspectives on personality was put forth by the Greek philosopher Hippocrates, who believed that personality was determined by a person’s bodily fluids or “humors”.

Later, philosophers like Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Nietzsche proposed their own theories on personality. Kant believed that personality was a combination of rational and irrational elements, while Nietzsche argued that personality was shaped by an individual’s will to power.

In modern times, psychologists have also developed various theories on personality, such as the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud, the humanistic theory of Carl Rogers, and the social cognitive theory of Albert Bandura. These theories have helped us gain a deeper understanding of the complex nature of personality and how it develops over time.

Overall, the philosophical aspects of personality are a fascinating and important area of study that can help us better understand ourselves and others. By exploring these different perspectives, we can gain insights into what makes us unique and how we can navigate the complexities of human behavior.

2. What are the Physiological aspects of Personality? How geography determines these characteristics? (150 Words) 10 M


Personality can be defined as the unique set of characteristics, traits, behaviors, and patterns of thought that define an individual. It is what makes us who we are and distinguishes us from others. While there are many different theories and perspectives on personality, one aspect of it that is often overlooked is its physiological basis.

Physiological aspects of personality refer to the biological and genetic factors that contribute to an individual’s personality traits and characteristics. These aspects include brain structure and function, hormones, genetics, and other biological factors that influence behavior and thought patterns.

For example, research has shown that certain brain regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, play a significant role in emotional regulation and decision-making, which are key components of personality. Additionally, hormones such as testosterone and cortisol have been linked to personality traits such as aggression and stress response.

Genetics also play a role in personality, with studies indicating that certain traits such as extraversion and neuroticism have a significant heritable component. However, it is important to note that while genetics may predispose individuals to certain personality traits, environmental factors also play a significant role in shaping personality.

Geography can also play a role in shaping personality traits. Research has shown that people from different regions and cultures may exhibit different patterns of behavior and thinking. For instance, individuals from collectivistic cultures may prioritize social harmony and interdependence, while those from individualistic cultures may value personal autonomy and independence.

Overall, while personality is complex and multifaceted, understanding its physiological aspects can provide valuable insights into the factors that contribute to individual differences in behavior and thought patterns.

3. Define Attitude. What are the characteristic features of Attitude in Psychology? (250 words) 15 M


Attitude is a psychological construct that refers to a person’s overall evaluation of an object, person, or situation. It can be defined as a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way to some object or situation. Attitudes are shaped by a number of factors, including socialization, personal experience, and cultural norms.

There are three characteristic features of Attitude in Psychology.

The first is that attitudes are evaluative in nature. This means that they involve a judgment or assessment of some object or situation. Attitudes can be positive, negative, or neutral, depending on the individual’s perception of the object or situation.

The second characteristic feature of attitudes is that they are relatively stable over time. Attitudes are not typically formed or changed quickly, and they tend to persist over time. However, attitudes can be influenced or modified by new information or experiences. For it to change it needs regular effort over a prolonged period.

The third characteristic feature of attitudes is that they have a behavioral component. Attitudes are not just internal states of mind; they also influence an individual’s behavior. For example, a person with a positive attitude towards exercise is more likely to engage in physical activity than a person with a negative attitude towards exercise.

Other Characteristics of Attitude

1. Attitudes are learnt, they are not innate. Now the debates are contesting this view. But anyways the impact remains limited.

2. Attitudes have 3 aspects/components/constituents.

  • Cognitive: Belief
  • Affect: Emotional Attachment/hatred
  • Behavioural: Tendency to Behave

3. Attitudes have motivational properties. It will compel you to do something specific. E.g. Love for Country.

4. Attitudes do have intensity variations. Affect aspect of the attitude varies. E.g. I love to study, but my love to study Ethics is stronger than History.

Attitudes are innumerous.

In conclusion, attitude is an important psychological construct that influences our perceptions, judgments, and behaviors. Understanding the characteristic features of attitudes can help us to better understand ourselves and others, and to navigate the social world more effectively.

4 Enumerate the factors that play a role in the formation of Attitudes? (150 Words) 10 M

Attitudes are formed through a complex interplay of various factors. Here are some of the most influential factors that play a role in shaping our attitudes:

  1. Socialization: Our attitudes are largely shaped by our social environment, including our family, friends, and culture. We learn what is acceptable and unacceptable through socialization and adopt attitudes that reflect our surroundings.
  2. Personal experiences: Our personal experiences, both positive and negative, can shape our attitudes towards certain people, places, or things. For example, if we have had a negative experience with a particular type of food, we may develop a negative attitude towards it.
  3. Education: Our education can also play a role in shaping our attitudes. What we learn in school or through other educational experiences can inform our attitudes towards certain topics or issues.
  4. Media: The media we consume can also influence our attitudes, whether it’s through news coverage, entertainment, or advertising.
  5. Personality: Our individual personalities can also play a role in shaping our attitudes. Some people may be more open to new experiences and ideas, while others may be more skeptical or resistant to change.

Overall, attitudes are complex and multifaceted, and are influenced by a wide range of factors. Understanding these factors can help us better understand our own attitudes and those of others.

5 Explain the dimension of Classicial Conditioning Theory in the Formation of Attitudes. (150 Words) 10 Marks

Classical conditioning theory is a concept that describes how individuals learn to associate stimuli with certain behaviors or responses. Classical Conditioning: Russian Psychologist Ivan Patrovich Pavlol also known as Pavlovian Conditional Theory.

This theory is instrumental in the formation of attitudes. Attitudes are our evaluations of people, objects, or issues, and they are formed through our experiences and interactions with them.

Classical conditioning involves the pairing of a neutral stimulus with a meaningful one to create a new association. In the formation of attitudes, this process can occur when a neutral object or situation is paired with a positive or negative experience, leading to a positive or negative attitude towards it.

For example, if a person has a positive experience with a certain brand of product, they may develop a positive attitude towards it. Similarly, if a person has a negative experience with a particular issue, they may develop a negative attitude towards it.

It happens on a subconscious level. You have been conditioned to think in a specific way.

In this technique, the person is exposed to a positive and neutral stimulus repeatedly and after some time the response to neutral stimuli becomes the same as response to positive stimuli.

Example of White Mother

So, we can say in classical conditioning is a behavioural procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus is paired with a previously neutral stimulus.

Overall, classical conditioning plays a significant role in shaping our attitudes towards various people, objects, and issues. Understanding this dimension of classical conditioning theory can help individuals and organizations to better understand how attitudes are formed and how they can be changed or influenced.


6 What is instrumental Conditioning? Explain the process of Instrumental Conditioning with the help of an example? (150 Words) 10 M

Instrumental conditioning, also known as operant conditioning, is a type of learning process in which behavior is modified by its consequences. It involves linking a certain behavior with a particular outcome, either a positive reward or a negative punishment, in order to increase or decrease the likelihood of that behavior being repeated in the future.

For example, imagine a dog that is taught to sit on command. When the dog successfully sits on command, it is given a treat as a reward. This positive reinforcement strengthens the association between the behavior of sitting and the positive outcome of receiving a treat, making it more likely that the dog will sit on command in the future.

Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Porn | Psychology Today

On the other hand, if the dog jumps on people, it may be given a firm “no” and ignored. This negative punishment reduces the likelihood of the dog jumping on people in the future by associating that behavior with an unpleasant outcome.

Overall, instrumental conditioning is a powerful tool for shaping behavior in both animals and humans, and understanding its principles can help individuals modify their own behavior or that of others.

7. Discuss how ‘Observational Learning’ forms the core of formation of Attitudes, especially among the children? (150 Words) 10 M

Observational learning, also known as social learning, is the process of acquiring behavior, attitudes and values by watching and imitating others. Children learn through observation and imitation, and this type of learning plays a crucial role in the formation of their attitudes.

Children observe and learn from their parents, peers, and the media. For example, if a child observes their parents being respectful and kind to others, they are more likely to adopt these behaviors and develop a positive attitude towards others. Similarly, if a child sees their parents being intolerant or discriminatory towards certain groups of people, they may adopt these negative attitudes as well.

Observational Learning: Examples, Stages, History

Media also plays a significant role in shaping children’s attitudes. Children are exposed to a variety of media, including television shows, movies, and social media. They observe and learn from the behaviors and attitudes portrayed in these media. For example, if a child watches a television show where characters are shown using derogatory language towards a certain group of people, they may adopt these negative attitudes as well.

In conclusion, observational learning is a powerful tool in the formation of attitudes, especially among children. Parents, teachers, and media should be conscious of the behaviors and attitudes they model to ensure that children learn positive values and attitudes.

8 Define Attitude. What are the functions of Attitude? (150 Words) 10 M

Attitude is a psychological construct that refers to an individual’s tendency to evaluate other people, objects, or situations in a positive or negative way. Attitudes are formed through personal experiences, socialization, and cultural influences.

The functions of attitude can be classified into three categories: knowledge function, instrumental function, and expressive function. The knowledge function refers to the use of attitudes to organize and simplify information about the world. The instrumental function refers to the use of attitudes to achieve a goal or to avoid a negative outcome. The expressive function refers to the use of attitudes to express oneself and to communicate with others.

One of the primary functions of attitude is to help individuals organize and simplify the complex world around them. Attitudes serve as mental frameworks that help individuals categorize and interpret information, making it easier to understand and respond to different situations.

Another function of attitude is to provide individuals with a sense of identity and belonging. Attitudes can be used to signal one’s membership in a particular group, such as a political party, religious group or social club. This sense of belonging can provide individuals with a sense of purpose and meaning in their lives.

Attitudes also serve as a means of social interaction. They can be used to communicate one’s beliefs, values, and feelings to others, and can help individuals form relationships and alliances with others who share similar attitudes.

In addition, attitudes can also serve as a source of motivation, influencing an individual’s behavior and actions. For example, a positive attitude towards exercise can motivate an individual to engage in physical activity, while a negative attitude towards smoking can discourage an individual from smoking.

Attitudes can have a significant impact on an individual’s behavior, decisions, and interactions with others. Understanding the functions of attitudes can help individuals to better understand themselves and others, and to improve their communication and relationships.

9 Differentiate between Functionalism and Conflict Theory? Explain how the understanding of Functionalism and Conflict theory helps us to understand modern societies? (150 Words) 10 M

Functionalism and Conflict Theory are two distinct sociological frameworks that help explain the way societies function. Functionalism, also known as structural functionalism, views society as a system of interconnected parts that work together to maintain social stability and order. This perspective emphasizes the importance of social institutions, such as family, education, and government, and how they contribute to the overall functioning of society.

On the other hand, Conflict Theory sees society as a place of inequality and competition for resources and power. This perspective emphasizes the role of conflict and power dynamics in shaping social structures and institutions. Conflict theorists argue that social institutions are designed to benefit those in power and maintain the status quo, rather than promote equality and social justice.

While both frameworks offer valuable insights into the workings of society, they have their limitations. Functionalism tends to overlook the ways in which social institutions can reinforce inequality and oppression, while Conflict Theory can sometimes oversimplify complex social phenomena and overlook the positive functions of social institutions. It is important for sociologists to consider both perspectives when analyzing social issues and phenomena.

How Functionalism and Conflict theories help us to understand modern societies?

Functionalism is a theoretical approach that views society as a complex system that is made up of interdependent parts, each of which serves a specific function. According to functionalists, society is held together by shared values, norms, and beliefs that create social cohesion and ensure the smooth functioning of society. In this view, institutions such as family, education, and religion all serve important functions in society, and any dysfunction in these institutions can lead to social problems.

On the other hand, Conflict Theory sees society as a struggle for power and resources between different groups within society. According to this perspective, social inequality and conflict are built into the structure of society, with some groups having more power and resources than others. Conflict theorists argue that social change occurs when oppressed groups mobilize and challenge the dominant groups for greater access to resources and power.

Both perspectives offer valuable insights into modern societies. Functionalism helps us to understand how different parts of society work together to maintain stability and order, while Conflict Theory helps us to understand the dynamics of power and inequality that shape social relationships. By using both perspectives, we can gain a more complete picture of the complexities of modern societies and the challenges they face.


10 Describe the Cognitive Functions of Attitude? (150 Words) 10 M

Attitude is a psychological construct that refers to an individual’s overall evaluation of a particular object, group, or situation. Attitudes are an important aspect of social behavior, as they influence our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors towards other people and things. Attitudes are often formed through experiences and socialization processes, and they can change over time as a result of new experiences or information.

There are three main cognitive functions of attitudes: the affective function, the behavioral function, and the cognitive function. Cognitive functions are mental processes that involve thinking, perceiving, and understanding. In the context of attitudes, cognitive functions refer to the mental processes that individuals use to evaluate and make judgments about their attitudes. 

Systematic Processing

This involves systematic processing of a new input or a new data.

It is nothing but an effortful scrutiny and comparison of information (any input coming from the senses is information).

This is used for <1% of the data we get to know.

Heuristic Processing

Processing in which we tend to ignore the information that is irrelevant.

99% of the data that we get we use this process as this data is not important to us.

How we manage this bulk data, select the essential data and delete the obsolete or unwanted data is the core Cognitive ability that we have.

How the Cognitive Functions of the Attitude Help?

1.Safety from unwanted information

2.It makes it easier for understanding and interpreting the world

  • A. Always remember, visuals are neutral.
  • B. It is our interpretations that makes the difference
  • C. Out Attitude guide our interpretations

3.Attitude helps us in decision making fast and easy

  • A. But remind you, the decisions may not always be right
  • B. Victim of Caste Endogamy E.g of a Brahmin Girl
  • C. But her preconceived notions or attitudes helped her in taking fast decisions
11 Enumerate the factors behind Attitudinal Change? (150 Words) 10 M

Attitudinal change is a complex process that can be influenced by various factors. In this answer, we will enumerate some of the factors that can lead to attitudinal change.

Firstly, exposure to new information can lead to attitudinal change. When people are presented with new facts, evidence or experiences, they may change their attitudes to reflect the new information. For example, someone who previously held anti-vaccine beliefs may change their attitude after learning about the safety and efficacy of vaccines.

Secondly, social influence can also lead to attitudinal change. People are often influenced by the opinions of those around them, particularly those they respect or admire. For instance, a person may change their attitude towards a political issue after hearing the views of their favorite celebrity or political leader.

Thirdly, personal experience can also be a factor in attitudinal change. When people have personal experiences that contradict their existing beliefs, they may change their attitudes to reflect their new understanding. For example, someone who previously opposed same-sex marriage may change their attitude after meeting and forming relationships with members of the LGBTQ+ community.

Finally, cognitive dissonance can also lead to attitudinal change. When people hold two conflicting beliefs or ideas, they may experience discomfort or tension. To alleviate this discomfort, they may change one of their beliefs to bring it in line with the other. For instance, a person who smokes may change their attitude towards smoking after realizing that it is harmful to their health.

In conclusion, attitudinal change is a complex process that can be influenced by various factors, including exposure to new information, social influence, personal experience, and cognitive dissonance. Understanding these factors can help us to better understand why people change their attitudes and how we can promote positive attitudinal change in ourselves and others.

12. While air pollution during festivals gets the required attention, the massive increase in the garbage dumped on roads go unnoticed. In light of this statement, discuss how the ‘Broken window syndrome’ works for public spaces? (150 Words) 10 Marks

The “Broken Window Syndrome,” also known as the “Broken Windows Theory,” is a criminological concept that suggests that visible signs of disorder and neglect in an environment can contribute to an increase in crime and antisocial behavior. The theory was first introduced by social scientists James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling in 1982.

The core idea of the Broken Windows Theory is based on the metaphor of a broken window in a building. If a window is broken and left unrepaired, it sends a signal that no one cares about the building, creating an environment where further vandalism and neglect are more likely to occur. The theory argues that maintaining and monitoring urban environments to prevent small instances of disorder, such as broken windows, can prevent more serious crimes from happening.

In the context of public spaces, the Broken Windows Theory can be applied to the issue of garbage and littering. When there is visible litter and garbage on the streets, it signals a lack of care and attention to the environment. This can contribute to a sense of disorder, making people feel that the area is not well-maintained or monitored. Consequently, this may lead to an increase in littering and other forms of antisocial behavior.

During festivals or other events, when there is a massive increase in garbage dumped on roads, it not only poses environmental and health hazards but also contributes to the Broken Windows Syndrome. The presence of large amounts of litter can create a perception that the area is not adequately cared for or monitored, potentially leading to an increase in further littering and disregard for public spaces.

To address this issue, it is essential for communities and authorities to pay attention not only to major environmental concerns like air pollution but also to the smaller, visible signs of disorder such as littering. Implementing effective waste management strategies, increasing public awareness about the importance of maintaining clean public spaces, and enforcing anti-littering laws can all contribute to preventing the Broken Windows Syndrome and fostering a sense of community responsibility for the environment.

13. The attitude of studied ignorance by law enforcers is more brutal than the gravest of sins committed by a frenzy mob. Comment (150 Words) 10 Marks

The concept of “studied ignorance” refers to a deliberate choice by individuals, often those in positions of authority or power, to ignore or remain indifferent to certain information or situations. When this attitude is displayed by law enforcers, it can indeed have severe consequences and be perceived as more brutal than even grave sins committed by a frenzied mob. Here are a few reasons why:

  1. Breach of Trust and Duty: Law enforcement agencies are entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining law and order, ensuring public safety, and upholding justice. When those in positions of authority intentionally choose to ignore or turn a blind eye to crucial information or incidents, it represents a breach of the trust placed in them by society. This breach is particularly egregious because it involves a betrayal of the duty to protect and serve the public.

  2. Abuse of Power: Studied ignorance within law enforcement can be seen as an abuse of power. Authorities are granted the privilege of enforcing laws and protecting citizens, and when they choose to ignore critical issues or incidents, it can perpetuate a culture of impunity. This abuse of power undermines the very principles that law enforcement agencies are supposed to uphold, eroding public trust in the system.

  3. Impunity and Injustice: When law enforcers intentionally ignore or downplay certain information, it can contribute to a sense of impunity. This impunity sends a message that those in positions of power can act with impunity, evading accountability for their actions. In cases where grave sins are committed by a frenzied mob, the failure of law enforcers to address and rectify the situation may lead to a perpetuation of injustice.

  4. Erosion of Rule of Law: Studied ignorance undermines the rule of law, a fundamental principle of a just and fair society. Law enforcement agencies are expected to operate within the framework of established laws and procedures. When this is compromised by intentional ignorance, it weakens the foundation of the legal system, creating an environment where justice is selective and the rule of law is not consistently applied.

The attitude of studied ignorance by law enforcers can be perceived as more brutal than the actions of a frenzied mob because it represents a betrayal of trust, an abuse of power, a perpetuation of impunity, and an erosion of the foundational principles of justice and the rule of law. It undermines the very purpose for which law enforcement agencies exist and can have long-lasting negative consequences for the fabric of society.

14. The legal lens over the repetitive news on physical assault on women outraging their modesty under-covers the missing ethical vacuum. Discuss (150 Words) 10 Marks

The repetitive news on physical assault on women, especially incidents that outrage their modesty, often prompts a legal lens to address the issue, focusing on the criminal aspects and punitive measures. However, there is a significant ethical vacuum that remains unaddressed in many cases. Examining this issue through an ethical lens brings attention to broader societal concerns and the need for cultural and attitudinal changes. Here are some aspects to consider:

  1. Cultural Norms and Attitudes: The ethical vacuum often stems from deeply ingrained cultural norms and attitudes that perpetuate gender inequality and contribute to the objectification of women. An ethical examination of the issue requires questioning and challenging these cultural norms, promoting values of respect, equality, and dignity for all individuals.

  2. Education and Awareness: Addressing the ethical vacuum involves a focus on education and awareness. Ethical solutions go beyond legal consequences and involve efforts to educate communities about consent, respect, and gender equality. Initiatives aimed at changing societal attitudes and fostering empathy are crucial to creating a culture that rejects violence against women.

  3. Empowerment and Support: Ethical considerations extend to providing support and empowerment for survivors of assault. This involves not only legal recourse but also creating a supportive environment that encourages survivors to come forward, seek help, and be assured of their safety and well-being. Ethical solutions should prioritize the empowerment of women and marginalized communities.

  4. Accountability and Prevention: An ethical response to assaults on women involves not only holding perpetrators accountable but also preventing such incidents. This requires a proactive approach that includes community engagement, awareness campaigns, and programs aimed at preventing violence. Ethical considerations emphasize the collective responsibility of society in fostering a safe and respectful environment for everyone.

  5. Media and Representation: The media plays a crucial role in shaping societal perceptions. An ethical examination of the issue requires a critical look at media representation and the potential impact on cultural attitudes. Ethical reporting involves avoiding sensationalism and promoting responsible journalism that contributes to societal awareness and positive change.

  6. Institutional Change: Ethical solutions also call for institutional change within legal and law enforcement systems. This includes ensuring that laws are not only in place but are enforced effectively, and that the legal process is sensitive to survivors. Additionally, ethical considerations require addressing any systemic biases that may exist within these institutions.

While the legal lens is crucial in addressing the immediate criminal aspects of physical assault on women, an ethical examination is equally important. These efforts collectively contribute to creating a society that values and upholds the dignity and rights of all individuals, irrespective of gender.

Accordion Panel

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