1. The practice of stubble burning has contributed immensely towards environmental pollution in the NCR and the adjoining region. The government is unable to motivate the farmers to adopt other measures to treat the stubble residue. Suggest some measures that can be instituted at farmer level and region specific level to address the menace of stubble burning in India? (250 Words) 15 Marks


In recent years, stubble burning has become a major problem in India, particularly in the northern states. The practice of burning crop residue after harvest is a quick and easy way for farmers to clear their fields and prepare for the next season. However, it has a detrimental impact on the environment, leading to air pollution and contributing to climate change.

At the farmer level:

  1. Financial Incentives: Provide financial incentives to farmers to encourage them to adopt alternative methods of stubble management, such as mulching, composting, or using it for animal fodder. Subsidies on equipment like Happy Seeders can be considered to ease the financial burden.

  2. Awareness and Education: Launch farmer-centric awareness campaigns to educate them about the environmental and health hazards of stubble burning. These campaigns can be run by government agencies, NGOs, and agricultural extension services.

  3. Technical Support: Establish technical support centers or helplines where farmers can seek guidance on alternative practices. These centers can also offer training on proper stubble management techniques.

  4. Promotion of Custom Hiring: Encourage custom hiring of farm machinery for residue management, making it affordable for small and marginal farmers who may not have access to expensive equipment.

At the region-specific level:

  1. Crop Diversification: Promote crop diversification by offering subsidies and incentives for growing crops that don’t leave behind substantial residue, such as pulses, oilseeds, or alternative crops.

  2. Market Development: Develop and strengthen markets for crop residue utilization. Encourage industries that can use crop residue as raw material for products like paper, biofuels, or biomass-based power generation.

  3. Effective Monitoring: Set up a robust monitoring system to track incidents of stubble burning. This data can be used for better planning and targeting of interventions.

  4. Legislation and Penalties: Enforce stricter regulations and penalties for stubble burning. Ensure that the laws are implemented effectively and consistently.

  5. Research and Innovation: Invest in research and development to find innovative, cost-effective, and sustainable solutions for stubble management, including technology advancements and new agricultural practices.

  6. Collaboration: Collaborate with neighboring states and share best practices and technology to address the issue collectively.


Addressing the menace of stubble burning in India requires a multi-faceted approach that combines incentives, education, regulation, and innovation at both the individual farmer and regional levels. It’s essential to work closely with farmers, scientists, and policymakers to find long-term, sustainable solutions to this pressing environmental issue.

2. The loss of biodiversity resulting in the loss of endangered species is a growing concern worldwide. In this backdrop, describe how the community based conservation efforts can be a game changer? (250 Words) 15 Marks


India is home to a vast array of endangered species, including tigers, elephants, and rhinos, just to name a few. In recent years, community-based conservation efforts have emerged as a promising approach to help protect these species from extinction.

Community-based conservation involves working closely with local communities to develop and implement conservation strategies that take into account the needs and interests of both people and wildlife. This approach recognizes that conservation is not just about protecting animals, but also about improving the lives and livelihoods of the people who share their habitat.

  1. Local Knowledge and Engagement: Communities often possess a deep understanding of their local ecosystems, including the behavior and habitat of endangered species. Involving them in conservation efforts taps into this invaluable knowledge, enhancing the effectiveness of conservation strategies.

  2. Stewardship and Ownership: When communities are engaged in conservation, they develop a sense of ownership and stewardship over their natural resources. This leads to more responsible and sustainable management of the environment, as communities recognize the long-term benefits of preserving biodiversity.

  3. Sustainable Resource Management: Community-based conservation encourages the sustainable use of natural resources, preventing over-exploitation. By ensuring that local livelihoods are linked to the health of the ecosystem, these initiatives promote practices that are less destructive to the environment.

  4. Economic Incentives: Conservation efforts that provide economic incentives to communities can be highly effective. Eco-tourism, sustainable agriculture, and non-timber forest products can create income opportunities for locals, reducing their dependence on activities that harm biodiversity.

  5. Conflict Resolution: Engaging communities can help resolve conflicts between conservation goals and local needs. A collaborative approach allows for negotiations and compromises that balance the interests of endangered species with those of the community.

  6. Cultural Preservation: Many indigenous and local cultures have a deep spiritual and cultural connection to their natural surroundings. Community-based conservation respects and preserves these cultural values, which can, in turn, strengthen their commitment to protecting biodiversity.

  7. Local Empowerment: Empowering local communities through conservation projects can have broader social and economic benefits. It can lead to improved governance, education, and social cohesion within the community.

  8. Scale and Cost-Efficiency: Community-based conservation can be implemented at a wide scale and often at a lower cost compared to top-down, centralized approaches. It leverages the manpower and knowledge of local communities.

  9. Adaptability: Community-based approaches can adapt to local conditions and needs, making them more flexible and resilient in the face of changing circumstances or emerging threats.

  10. International Support: Community-based conservation often receives strong international support and funding, as it aligns with the principles of sustainable development and local empowerment.


Community-based conservation efforts offer a holistic, sustainable, and culturally sensitive approach to addressing the loss of biodiversity and protecting endangered species. By empowering communities to take responsibility for their natural heritage, these initiatives can be a game changer in the global effort to preserve the planet’s biodiversity.

3. The climate change is affecting the onset, intensity and duration of the Indian monsoon affecting the patterns of agricultural practices and output. In the background to this statement, explain the consequences of this on our agriculture and water resources? (250 Words) 15 Marks


The Indian monsoon has always been a crucial element for Indian agriculture, as it provides the necessary water for crops to grow. However, due to climate change, the onset, intensity, and duration of the monsoon have been affected. This has led to significant consequences for our agriculture and water resources.

It is crucial that we take steps to mitigate the effects of climate change and ensure that our farming communities have the support they need to adapt to these changes.

  1. Erratic Monsoon Patterns: Climate change has led to increased variability in the Indian monsoon, resulting in erratic rainfall patterns. Delayed or irregular monsoons can disrupt sowing and planting schedules, affecting crop growth and yields. Farmers face uncertainty in planning their agricultural activities.

  2. Shifts in Crop Calendar: Altered monsoon patterns force farmers to adapt by changing their crop calendars. Early or late monsoons may necessitate the cultivation of short-duration or drought-resistant crops, affecting traditional cropping patterns.

  3. Reduced Crop Yields: Irregular monsoons and prolonged dry spells can lead to water stress, affecting crop development and productivity. This results in reduced crop yields and economic losses for farmers.

  4. Increased Risk of Drought and Floods: Climate change exacerbates the risk of both droughts and floods. While droughts can lead to crop failures and food shortages, floods can destroy standing crops and infrastructure, causing significant economic and human losses.

  5. Water Scarcity: Changing monsoon patterns also affect water resources. Reduced or erratic rainfall can lead to decreased water availability in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. This water scarcity affects irrigation for agriculture, leading to water stress in farming regions.

  6. Groundwater Depletion: Prolonged dry spells and increased demand for irrigation during erratic monsoons can lead to over-extraction of groundwater. This not only depletes aquifers but also affects the long-term sustainability of agriculture in many areas.

  7. Livelihood Vulnerability: The consequences of climate change on agriculture have a direct impact on the livelihoods of millions of farmers in India. Reduced crop yields and economic losses can lead to increased vulnerability and poverty among rural communities.

  8. Food Security: Climate-induced disruptions in agriculture can threaten food security in the country. Variability in crop production affects the availability and affordability of food, impacting the well-being of the population.

  9. Increased Pressure on Water Resources: Rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns due to climate change exacerbate the stress on water resources. This can lead to conflicts over water use and necessitate more sustainable water management practices.


Climate change-induced shifts in the Indian monsoon have far-reaching consequences for agriculture and water resources in India. These challenges necessitate adaptive strategies, such as drought-resistant crops, improved irrigation practices, and sustainable water management, to mitigate the adverse effects on food production, livelihoods, and water availability. It is essential for India to prioritize climate-resilient agriculture and water resource management to address these challenges effectively.

4. The Western Ghats are an Ocean of environmental treasure. Discuss the significance of the Western Ghats in the bio-diversity conservation efforts? (250 Words) 15 Marks


The Western Ghats, also known as the Sahyadri Mountains, are a range that runs parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, covering six states. This region is home to a diverse range of flora and fauna, with over 5,000 species of flowering plants, 139 mammal species, 508 bird species, and more than 500 reptile and amphibian species.

The significance of the Western Ghats in biodiversity conservation efforts cannot be overstated. It is recognized as one of the world’s eight “hottest hotspots” of biological diversity, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The region also has a significant role in controlling the climate of the Indian subcontinent, serving as a vital watershed for many rivers.

  1. Biodiversity Hotspot: The Western Ghats are one of the world’s top biodiversity hotspots, housing a rich variety of flora and fauna. They support a staggering array of plant and animal species, including many that are endemic and found nowhere else on the planet.

  2. Endemic Species: The Ghats are home to numerous endemic species, which means they are found exclusively in this region. This high degree of endemism underscores the unique ecological importance of the Western Ghats.

  3. Wildlife Diversity: The region hosts diverse wildlife, including large mammals like tigers, leopards, and elephants. It is also a crucial habitat for many threatened and endangered species, such as the Nilgiri langur, lion-tailed macaque, and Malabar civet.

  4. Avian Diversity: The Western Ghats are a paradise for bird watchers, with over 500 species of birds. Many migratory birds also visit the region, making it a critical stopover point.

  5. Floral Richness: The Ghats are known for their rich floral diversity. They are home to a wide range of plant species, including valuable medicinal plants and commercially important timber species.

  6. Ecosystem Services: The Western Ghats provide vital ecosystem services such as water purification, soil conservation, and carbon sequestration. They help maintain the environmental balance and support human well-being in the surrounding areas.

  7. Climate Regulation: The Ghats play a crucial role in regulating the regional climate. They influence rainfall patterns, acting as a barrier to the southwest monsoon winds and contributing to the climate stability of the region.

  8. Sustenance for Indigenous Communities: Many indigenous communities and local populations depend on the Western Ghats for their livelihoods, utilizing the rich biodiversity for food, medicine, and other resources.

  9. Scientific and Conservation Research: The Western Ghats are a focus of extensive scientific research, helping us better understand biodiversity, ecosystems, and the impacts of climate change. This research informs conservation strategies.

  10. Tourism and Education: The region’s ecological significance and natural beauty attract ecotourists and provide an excellent platform for environmental education and awareness.

  11. Global Conservation Priority: Due to their importance, the Western Ghats have been recognized as a priority area for conservation efforts, both by the Indian government and international organizations.


The Western Ghats are an invaluable treasure trove of biodiversity, and their conservation is essential for maintaining global biodiversity. Efforts to protect and preserve this ecological wonder are critical for the well-being of the region, the nation, and the planet as a whole.

Conservation efforts in the Western Ghats are ongoing, with the government implementing various measures to protect the region’s biodiversity. These include the establishment of protected areas, wildlife corridors, and the promotion of sustainable tourism.

2. Examine the significance of community-based conservation approaches in natural resource management by providing examples of successful community-led conservation initiatives in India. (150 Words) 10M


The 30×30 initiative, also known as the “30 by 30” initiative, is a global conservation goal aimed at protecting 30% of the world’s land and marine areas by the year 2030. This initiative is a response to the growing concerns about biodiversity loss, habitat degradation, and climate change, which necessitate urgent conservation efforts to safeguard ecosystems and the services they provide to humanity.

The 30×30 initiative recognizes that preserving a significant portion of the Earth’s land and oceans is vital for several reasons:

  1. Biodiversity Conservation: Protecting 30% of the planet’s land and marine areas would provide safe havens for a wide variety of species, helping to halt the ongoing loss of biodiversity.

  2. Climate Mitigation: Conserved natural areas, especially forests and wetlands, act as carbon sinks, absorbing and storing carbon dioxide, which is essential for climate change mitigation.

  3. Ecosystem Services: Protected areas maintain critical ecosystem services, such as clean water, pollination, and flood control, benefiting both the environment and human communities.

  4. Resilience to Climate Change: Preserved ecosystems are more resilient to climate change impacts, which is essential for the long-term sustainability of life on Earth.

  5. Cultural and Recreational Values: These protected areas also hold cultural significance and provide recreational opportunities for people.

India, like many countries, faces several challenges in achieving the targets stipulated under the 30×30 initiative:

  1. Land Pressure: India has a large and growing population, leading to significant pressure on land for agriculture, infrastructure development, and urban expansion. Allocating 30% of land for conservation while meeting other development needs is a complex task.

  2. Fragmentation of Habitats: Many of India’s natural habitats are already fragmented due to land-use changes. Conserving large, continuous areas for biodiversity is challenging.

  3. Conflict between Conservation and Livelihoods: In India, many communities depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. Striking a balance between conservation and these livelihoods is a complex and sensitive task.

  4. Land Tenure Issues: Land ownership and tenure in India are often complex, involving multiple stakeholders. Identifying and designating protected areas may involve land disputes and legal challenges.

  5. Financial and Technological Resources: Adequate funding and advanced technologies are required for the effective management and monitoring of protected areas. India may face challenges in allocating the necessary resources.

  6. Enforcement and Poaching: Effective enforcement of protected areas against activities like poaching and illegal logging is crucial. India needs to strengthen its enforcement mechanisms.

  7. Climate Change Impacts: Climate change itself poses challenges to existing protected areas, as the distribution of species and ecosystems may shift. Adaptation strategies are needed.

  8. Stakeholder Engagement: Engaging local communities, indigenous groups, and other stakeholders in the process of designating and managing protected areas is essential but can be challenging due to varying interests.


The 30×30 initiative presents a significant global conservation goal, and India faces various challenges in achieving these targets. Successful implementation will require comprehensive planning, strong governance, and the engagement of all relevant stakeholders to balance the imperative for conservation with the needs of development and local communities.

6. The agricultural activities are one of the largest contributors of GHGs in the world. Discuss, what correctional measures in the agricultural practices can be initiated to control the contribution of agriculture in the emission of GHGs? (250 Words) 15 Marks


Agriculture is a crucial industry that feeds the growing population of the world. However, it also has a significant impact on the environment, particularly in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. According to studies, agricultural activities contribute to around 14% of global GHG emissions, making it one of the largest contributors to climate change. To address this issue, corrective measures can be initiated in agricultural practices.

  1. Improved Livestock Management:

    • Enteric Fermentation: Research and develop feed additives that reduce methane emissions from livestock during digestion.
    • Livestock Breeding: Promote livestock breeding for higher efficiency and lower methane production.
    • Manure Management: Implement efficient manure management systems to reduce methane emissions from manure decomposition.
  2. Rice Cultivation:

    • Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD): Promote the use of AWD techniques that allow intermittent drying of paddy fields, reducing methane emissions.
    • Alternate Crop Choices: Encourage the cultivation of less methane-emitting rice varieties and diversify cropping systems.
  3. Reduced Synthetic Fertilizer Use:

    • Precision Agriculture: Promote precision agriculture techniques that optimize fertilizer application, reducing nitrous oxide emissions.
    • Organic Farming: Support the transition to organic farming methods that rely on natural fertilizers and reduce synthetic nitrogen inputs.
  4. Land Use and Agroforestry:

    • Reforestation and Afforestation: Encourage the planting of trees on agricultural lands to sequester carbon and reduce emissions.
    • Agroforestry: Integrate tree planting within agricultural systems to reduce emissions and enhance carbon sequestration.
  5. Conservation Tillage:

    • No-Till and Reduced Tillage: Promote conservation tillage methods that reduce carbon dioxide emissions and improve soil health.
    • Cover Crops: Use cover crops to prevent soil erosion and increase carbon sequestration.
  6. Renewable Energy Sources:

    • Solar and Wind Power: Integrate renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, on farms to reduce reliance on fossil fuels for irrigation and other farm operations.
  7. Water Management:

    • Efficient Irrigation: Promote efficient irrigation systems that reduce water wastage and associated emissions.
    • Water Recycling: Implement water recycling and reuse systems to reduce the energy required for water pumping.
  8. Crop Residue Management:

    • Stubble and Residue Utilization: Encourage farmers to utilize crop residues for energy production or as organic matter in soil, reducing the need for burning.
  9. Integrated Pest Management (IPM):

    • Biological Pest Control: Promote IPM practices that minimize the use of chemical pesticides, reducing carbon and energy-intensive pesticide production.
  10. Education and Training:

    • Disseminate information on sustainable farming practices and provide training to farmers to ensure the adoption of GHG-reducing techniques.
  11. Government Incentives and Regulations:

    • Implement policies, regulations, and incentives to encourage farmers to adopt GHG-reducing practices, such as carbon trading, subsidies for sustainable practices, and emissions reporting requirements.


Reducing GHG emissions from agriculture requires a multifaceted approach, including changes in livestock management, crop cultivation techniques, and land-use practices. Collaboration among farmers, researchers, policymakers, and industry stakeholders is essential to implement these correctional measures effectively and mitigate the agricultural sector’s contribution to GHG emissions.

7. India aspires to reduce poverty at any cost. However, how far is it ethical to work towards poverty eradication ignoring the environmental consequences. There has to be a trade off between either of the two. Discuss (250 Words) 15 Marks


India is a country that is still battling the issue of poverty. The government has taken several steps towards poverty eradication, but the question that arises is whether the cost of these measures is too high. Poverty eradication often comes at the cost of environmental degradation and destruction. The rapid industrialization and urbanization in India have led to large-scale pollution and destruction of natural resources. The question is how far is it ethical to work towards poverty eradication while ignoring the environmental consequences? The answer is not straightforward.

The Ethical Dilemma:

  1. Justice and Equity: Poverty eradication is an ethical imperative as it aims to address fundamental issues of justice and equity. Every individual has the right to a dignified life with access to basic necessities, and addressing poverty is a moral duty.

  2. Interdependence: Poverty and environmental issues are interconnected. Poor communities often bear the brunt of environmental degradation, such as air and water pollution or loss of biodiversity. Ignoring poverty while focusing solely on environmental conservation can exacerbate existing inequalities.

  3. Intergenerational Equity: Ethical considerations also include the well-being of future generations. Environmental degradation can have long-lasting negative consequences for the planet, and it’s an ethical responsibility to mitigate these effects for the benefit of future generations.

The Trade-Off:

  1. Resource Consumption: Poverty reduction may lead to increased resource consumption, potentially accelerating environmental degradation. For example, as people escape poverty, their demand for energy, food, and goods often rises, putting pressure on natural resources.

  2. Environmental Degradation: In the pursuit of poverty reduction, there is a risk of overexploiting natural resources, deforestation, habitat destruction, and pollution, all of which can have detrimental environmental consequences.

  3. Short-Term vs. Long-Term: Poverty reduction measures may focus on immediate relief, which can sometimes have short-term environmental costs. This trade-off can challenge policymakers to balance short-term needs with long-term sustainability.

Finding the Right Balance:

  1. Sustainable Development: The concept of sustainable development aims to strike a balance between poverty reduction and environmental conservation. It advocates for economic growth that is environmentally sustainable and socially equitable.

  2. Inclusive Policies: Ethical policymaking involves ensuring that poverty reduction strategies include measures to protect the environment. For instance, promoting green technologies and sustainable agricultural practices.

  3. Education and Awareness: Public education and awareness campaigns can help people understand the importance of both poverty reduction and environmental conservation, encouraging responsible behavior and consumption.

  4. Regulation and Enforcement: Enforcing laws and regulations that protect the environment while promoting poverty reduction is crucial. This involves monitoring and holding accountable those who engage in environmentally harmful activities.


The trade-off between poverty eradication and environmental consequences is a complex ethical challenge. However, it’s imperative to recognize that these goals are not inherently incompatible. With thoughtful planning and a commitment to sustainable development, it is possible to pursue poverty reduction without sacrificing environmental sustainability. Ethical policymaking and public awareness play key roles in finding the right balance to ensure a just and sustainable future for all.

8. We generally restrict our thought about the cost of climate change towards climatic events, core economic activities, while ignoring its effects on the tourism sector in a country like India. Discuss the measures that need to be instituted to lower the effects of climate change and climate change induced disasters with the help of examples in each effort? (250 Words) 15 Marks


Tourism is a significant contributor to India’s economy, and the sector is heavily influenced by climate change. The impacts of climate change on tourism can be severe, resulting in reduced tourist activity and economic loss. To mitigate these effects, several measures need to be implemented.

The tourism sector in countries like India is indeed vulnerable to the effects of climate change, and it’s vital to institute measures to mitigate these impacts. Climate change-induced disasters, such as extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and temperature shifts, can significantly affect tourism. 

  1. Climate-Resilient Infrastructure:

    • Example: Developing resilient infrastructure, such as flood-resistant buildings and roads in coastal areas, to safeguard tourist destinations against sea-level rise and extreme weather events.
  2. Diversification of Tourist Activities:

    • Example: Promoting a variety of tourism activities, like adventure tourism and cultural experiences, to reduce the dependence on weather-dependent activities, such as beach tourism.
  3. Weather Forecast and Early Warning Systems:

    • Example: Implementing advanced weather forecasting and early warning systems to provide tourists with real-time information about changing weather conditions and potential hazards.
  4. Eco-Friendly Tourism Practices:

    • Example: Encouraging eco-friendly tourism practices, such as responsible wildlife viewing and low-impact trekking, to minimize negative environmental impacts and ensure the sustainability of natural attractions.
  5. Community-Based Tourism Initiatives:

    • Example: Supporting community-based tourism initiatives that empower local communities to manage tourism activities and ensure a more equitable distribution of benefits. This can enhance local resilience to climate change impacts.
  6. Adaptation and Disaster Preparedness Plans:

    • Example: Developing comprehensive adaptation and disaster preparedness plans for tourist destinations, including evacuation routes, emergency shelters, and post-disaster recovery strategies.
  7. Climate-Resilient Transport:

    • Example: Investing in climate-resilient transportation infrastructure, such as elevated roadways or railways in flood-prone areas, to ensure the movement of tourists during extreme weather events.
  8. Awareness and Education:

    • Example: Raising awareness among tourists about the environmental and cultural sensitivity of destinations, encouraging responsible behavior and practices.
  9. Policy and Regulation:

    • Example: Implementing and enforcing regulations that limit the construction of tourism infrastructure in vulnerable areas, ensuring that development is in line with climate-resilience principles.
  10. Collaboration and Research:

    • Example: Collaborating with international organizations and experts to conduct research on climate change impacts on tourism and sharing best practices for mitigation and adaptation.
  11. Green Certification and Standards:

    • Example: Promoting green certification and standards for hotels and tour operators to encourage sustainable and environmentally responsible practices within the tourism sector.
  12. Insurance and Risk Management:

    • Example: Developing insurance and risk management mechanisms to protect tourism businesses and infrastructure against climate change-related losses and damages.

Finally, it is essential to develop and implement effective disaster management plans that address the risks posed by climate change-induced disasters. This includes measures such as early warning systems, emergency response plans, and evacuation plans. For instance, the Kerala government has implemented a comprehensive disaster management plan that has helped in mitigating the effects of floods, which are becoming increasingly frequent due to climate change.


Addressing the impacts of climate change on the tourism sector in India and other countries requires a multi-pronged approach, which includes infrastructure development, adaptation strategies, community involvement, and responsible tourism practices. These measures not only help mitigate the adverse effects of climate change but also contribute to the long-term sustainability of the tourism industry and the well-being of local communities.

9. Today the world aspires to reach the stage of Net Zero Carbon emission, and India is no exception to this. In the recently concluded UNFCCC COP-26, India announced 'Panchamrit', which also includes a net zero by 2070. Is this realistically achievable. Also throw light on the various aspects of Panchamrit as announced by India? (250 Words) 15 Marks


The goal of achieving Net Zero Carbon emissions has become a global priority, and India has joined the race with its recent announcement of ‘Panchamrit’ at the UNFCCC COP-26. This initiative aims to achieve net zero emissions by 2070, but the question remains whether this goal is achievable in reality.

To understand the feasibility of this goal, we need to look at the various aspects of Panchamrit. The initiative includes five key elements: renewable energy, electric mobility, waste-to-energy, green hydrogen, and carbon capture and storage. By focusing on these areas, India hopes to reduce its carbon footprint and achieve a sustainable future.

Realistic Achievability:

  1. Technological Advancements: The achievement of net-zero emissions relies on the development and deployment of low-carbon and renewable technologies. India’s progress in renewable energy and the potential for further innovation can facilitate this transition.

  2. Energy Transition: A major portion of carbon emissions in India comes from the energy sector. Transitioning to renewable energy sources, improving energy efficiency, and phasing out coal could significantly contribute to achieving the goal.

  3. Adaptation and Mitigation: India needs to invest in both adaptation and mitigation measures, such as afforestation, reforestation, carbon capture, and the promotion of sustainable agriculture.

  4. Behavioral Change: Encouraging sustainable lifestyles and consumption patterns among citizens is crucial. Promoting public transport, electric vehicles, and reduced meat consumption can help.

  5. International Collaboration: Collaboration with other nations and access to financial and technological support will be vital. International partnerships can facilitate the achievement of India’s net-zero target.

Aspects of Panchamrit:

  1. Panchamrit Commitment: Panchamrit stands for five elements: First is sustainable lifestyle, Second is green mobility, Third is clean energy, Fourth is clean drinking water, and Fifth is the redressal of pollution.

  2. Sustainable Lifestyle: This element emphasizes the need for adopting eco-friendly, low-impact lifestyles, including reduced consumption, waste reduction, and sustainable choices.

  3. Green Mobility: It promotes the transition to sustainable transportation, including the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs), expansion of public transport, and the development of EV charging infrastructure.

  4. Clean Energy: This aspect focuses on the expansion of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, and a reduction in the reliance on fossil fuels, particularly coal.

  5. Clean Drinking Water: Access to clean and safe drinking water is crucial. Ensuring water quality and availability is part of Panchamrit’s commitment to addressing environmental challenges.

  6. Redressal of Pollution: Efforts to mitigate and reduce various forms of pollution, including air, water, and soil pollution, are essential for achieving a sustainable and healthy environment.


India’s commitment to Panchamrit and the net-zero target demonstrates its dedication to addressing climate change and environmental sustainability. While achieving net zero by 2070 is ambitious, it sends a positive signal to the world, and with dedicated efforts, international support, and advancements in technology, it is a goal that can be realized. However, successful implementation and continuous evaluation of progress will be key to its achievement.

10. Critically assess the role of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in ensuring sustainable development. Highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the current EIA framework in India. (250 Words) 15M


Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a pivotal tool in promoting sustainable development by evaluating the potential environmental and social consequences of proposed projects. Its main role is to ensure that development activities do not harm the environment, communities, and long-term well-being.


  1. Identification of Impacts: EIA helps in identifying both direct and indirect impacts of projects on the environment.
  2. Informed Decision-Making: By providing a thorough understanding of potential impacts, EIA aids decision-makers in making informed choices that balance development goals with environmental protection.
  3. Public Participation: EIA requires involving the public and stakeholders in the decision-making process, ensuring that diverse perspectives are considered.
  4. Mitigation and Alternatives: EIA pushes for the identification of mitigation measures and alternative project designs that can reduce adverse impacts, encouraging sustainable practices.
  5. Adaptive Management: EIA can facilitate ongoing monitoring and assessment, enabling adjustments in project implementation based on new information and changing circumstances.


  1. Lack of Expertise: Insufficient technical expertise can lead to incomplete or inaccurate assessments. This can result in underestimation of impacts or ineffective mitigation strategies.
  2. Inconsistent Implementation: The quality of EIAs can vary widely, as there might be differences in the rigor of assessments due to a lack of standardized guidelines.
  3. Conflicts of Interest: The involvement of consultants hired by the project proponents can lead to potential conflicts of interest, raising concerns about the impartiality of the assessment.
  4. Limited Monitoring: The post-approval phase often lacks adequate monitoring and enforcement mechanisms, which can lead to non-compliance with mitigation measures.
  5. Weak Public Participation: While public participation is a strength, it can be weakened by a lack of accessible information, limited time for review, and communities’ unequal access to resources.


To enhance the effectiveness of the EIA framework in India, addressing these weaknesses is essential. Stricter regulations on conflict of interest, standardized assessment guidelines, capacity building for experts, enhanced public engagement, and robust post-approval monitoring are some steps that can be taken.

11. Examine the significance of community-based conservation approaches in natural resource management by providing examples of successful community-led conservation initiatives in India. (150 Words) 10M


Community-based conservation approaches are vital for effective natural resource management as they empower local communities to actively participate in and take ownership of conservation efforts.


  1. Local Knowledge and Participation: Local communities possess traditional knowledge about their ecosystems, which can greatly contribute to effective resource management.
  2. Sustainability: Community-based initiatives focus on long-term sustainability, as locals understand the need to maintain resources for future generations.
  3. Reduced Conflicts: When communities are engaged in decision-making, conflicts between conservation efforts and local livelihoods can be minimized, resulting in more harmonious coexistence.
  4. Customized Solutions: Community-led initiatives can adapt to local needs, considering cultural, social, and economic aspects that external agencies might overlook.

Examples of Successful Initiatives in India:

  1. Bishnoi Community, Rajasthan: The Bishnoi community in Rajasthan has a deep-rooted cultural practice of conserving wildlife and forests. Their efforts played a significant role in the protection of the blackbuck antelope and other species in the region.
  2. Van Panchayats in Uttarakhand: The Van Panchayat system empowers local communities to manage and protect forests. They are responsible for decisions related to forest use, ensuring sustainable timber extraction, and preventing illegal logging.
  3. Mendha-Lekha, Maharashtra: The village of Mendha-Lekha successfully gained community rights over their forests under the Forest Rights Act. They now manage their resources sustainably, promoting biodiversity and supporting local livelihoods.
  4. Khapra Beetle Eradication by Bishnoi Community: The Bishnoi community in Haryana played a crucial role in eradicating the invasive khapra beetle by embracing organic farming and pest management practices.
  5. Sariska Tiger Reserve’s Joint Forest Management: The implementation of Joint Forest Management in Sariska Tiger Reserve involved local communities in protection efforts, leading to increased wildlife sightings and habitat improvement.
  6. Village Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala: The Kadar tribe in Kerala manages a Village Wildlife Sanctuary, protecting the Nilgiri tahr and other species. They employ traditional knowledge to balance conservation and sustainable resource use.


These examples illustrate how community-based conservation approaches can yield positive outcomes, fostering a sense of stewardship and sustainability while aligning conservation goals with the needs of local communities.

12. Can Wildlife conservation and economic development coexist. Discuss (150 Words) 10 Marks


The statement “Wildlife conservation and economic development can coexist” highlights the idea that environmental protection and economic progress are not necessarily mutually exclusive.

Positive Aspects:

  1. Eco-Tourism: Many of India’s conservation policies have embraced eco-tourism as a means to generate revenue for both conservation and local economies.
  2. Community-Based Conservation: Policies like the Forest Rights Act and community-based conservation initiatives have recognized the rights of local communities over natural resources.
  3. Sustainable Livelihoods: Conservation policies that promote sustainable use of forest resources, non-timber forest products, and eco-friendly industries can create alternative livelihoods for local communities, reducing their dependency on resource-intensive activities.

Challenges and Considerations:

  1. Conflicting Interests: Rapid economic development can sometimes lead to conflicts with conservation goals, particularly when industries encroach on wildlife habitats or exploit natural resources unsustainably.
  2. Inequitable Distribution: The benefits of economic development and tourism may not always reach marginalized and tribal communities.
  3. Infrastructure Development: Infrastructural projects associated with economic development, such as roads and dams, can fragment habitats and disrupt wildlife corridors, adversely affecting species and ecosystems.
  4. Poaching and Illegal Trade: Economic development can inadvertently fuel wildlife poaching and illegal trade by increasing demand for animal products or displacing communities, which might then turn to illegal activities.
  5. Tourism Pressure: Unregulated tourism can harm fragile ecosystems, disturb wildlife, and lead to resource depletion if not properly managed.

Balancing Conservation and Development:

India’s conservation policies, such as Project Tiger, Project Elephant, and Biosphere Reserves, reflect efforts to ensure that wildlife conservation and economic development coexist. However, achieving this balance requires:

  • Community Involvement: Engaging local communities in decision-making processes ensures their needs are met and their interests are aligned with conservation efforts.
  • Sustainable Practices: Encouraging sustainable resource use and adopting eco-friendly industries can prevent overexploitation and habitat destruction.
  • Strict Enforcement: Stringent enforcement of anti-poaching measures and regulations against illegal trade is essential to protect wildlife from economic exploitation.
  • Adaptive Management: Conservation policies need to evolve based on feedback, research, and changing circumstances, allowing for adjustments to balance conservation and development.


While challenges exist, India’s conservation policies demonstrate that with careful planning, community involvement, and sustainable practices, wildlife conservation and economic development can indeed coexist, benefiting both the environment and local communities.

13. Climate change is closely linked to environmental degradation. Assess the impact of climate change on fragile ecosystems such as coral reefs and mountain regions. How can adaptation and mitigation strategies safeguard these ecosystems? (250 Words) 15M


Climate change is intricately linked to environmental degradation, and its impact on fragile ecosystems like coral reefs and mountain regions is particularly pronounced. 

Impact on Coral Reefs:

  1. Coral Bleaching: Rising sea temperatures cause corals to expel their symbiotic algae, resulting in bleaching and increased vulnerability to disease. This leads to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function.
  2. Ocean Acidification: Elevated carbon dioxide levels lead to ocean acidification, which hampers the ability of corals and other marine organisms to build calcium carbonate skeletons, weakening the reef structure.
  3. Sea Level Rise: Rising sea levels threaten to inundate coral reefs, reducing the available space for reef growth and disturbing coastal habitats.

Impact on Mountain Regions:

  1. Glacial Retreat: Higher temperatures cause glaciers to melt rapidly, affecting downstream water availability, biodiversity, and livelihoods dependent on glacier-fed rivers.
  2. Shift in Ecosystems: The warming climate causes shifts in vegetation zones and habitats, affecting wildlife that may not be able to adapt or migrate fast enough.
  3. Increased Landslides and Avalanches: Melting glaciers and permafrost increase the risk of landslides and avalanches, posing dangers to human settlements and ecosystems.

Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies:

Coral Reefs:

  1. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs): Establishing well-managed MPAs can provide a safe haven for marine life, allowing ecosystems to recover and build resilience.
  2. Coral Restoration: Active efforts to restore damaged coral reefs through techniques like coral transplantation and coral farming can enhance their resilience.
  3. Sustainable Fishing Practices: Implementing sustainable fishing practices reduces pressure on reef ecosystems and ensures the long-term health of marine life.

Mountain Regions:

  1. Community-Based Adaptation: Engaging local communities in adaptive practices such as terracing, water conservation, and afforestation helps them cope with changing conditions.
  2. Glacial Lake Management: Monitoring and managing glacial lakes to prevent outburst floods can safeguard downstream communities and infrastructure.
  3. Climate-Resilient Infrastructure: Building infrastructure that can withstand extreme weather events and temperature fluctuations reduces the risks posed by climate change.
  4. Reforestation: Planting native trees can stabilize slopes, reduce soil erosion, and enhance carbon sequestration in mountainous areas.

Global Strategies:

  1. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Mitigating climate change at the global level through emission reduction is crucial to slow down the pace of temperature rise.
  2. International Collaboration: Collaborative efforts to limit temperature rise, such as the Paris Agreement, help create a global framework for addressing climate change’s impacts on ecosystems.


The impacts of climate change on fragile ecosystems like coral reefs and mountain regions are severe. However, with a combination of local, regional, and global strategies, including adaptive measures and mitigation efforts, it is possible to enhance the resilience of these ecosystems and protect their biodiversity, while also safeguarding human livelihoods and well-being.

14. Industries play a significant role in economic growth, but they also contribute to environmental degradation. Critically analyze the significance of Scientific Social Responsibility in mitigating the ill effects of industrial practices. (150 Words) 10M


Industries indeed contribute to economic growth, but their operations can lead to environmental degradation if not properly managed. To address this challenge, both corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives and regulatory mechanisms play important roles in promoting sustainable industrial practices.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR):

  1. Environmental Conservation: Many industries are now integrating environmental sustainability into their business strategies. They invest in reducing their ecological footprint by adopting energy-efficient technologies, minimizing waste generation, and promoting recycling.
  2. Community Engagement: CSR encourages industries to engage with local communities, understanding their concerns and involving them in decision-making. This fosters trust and can lead to collaborative solutions that benefit both the industry and the community.
  3. Stakeholder Accountability: By voluntarily taking responsibility for their impacts, industries demonstrate accountability to stakeholders, including customers, investors, and regulators. This can enhance their reputation and competitiveness.

Regulatory Mechanisms:

  1. Laws and Regulations: Governments impose environmental laws and regulations that set standards for pollution control, waste management, and resource conservation. These regulations act as a baseline for industries to ensure their practices are environmentally responsible.
  2. Emission Limits: Regulatory frameworks establish emission limits for pollutants such as greenhouse gases, particulate matter, and chemicals. Industries must comply with these limits, which reduces their impact on air and water quality.
  3. Permits and Audits: Regulatory bodies often require industries to obtain permits based on their environmental impact assessments. Regular audits ensure that industries adhere to established norms and take corrective actions if needed.

Synergy Between CSR and Regulatory Mechanisms:

While CSR reflects an industry’s voluntary commitment to sustainable practices, regulatory mechanisms set legal boundaries to ensure compliance. The synergy between the two is essential for effective sustainable development. While CSR demonstrates industry leadership and willingness to go beyond legal requirements, regulations provide a level playing field and ensure that all industries follow minimum environmental standards.

15. Evaluate the concept of sustainable development in the context of India's growing economy. How can sustainable development goals be aligned with environmental conservation objectives? (250 Words) 15M


The concept of sustainable development in the context of India’s growing economy refers to a balanced approach that seeks to meet the present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Evaluation of Sustainable Development in India:

  1. Economic Growth: India’s economic growth has lifted millions out of poverty and increased living standards. However, it has also led to increased resource consumption, pollution, and habitat loss, posing environmental challenges.
  2. Social Inclusion: Sustainable development emphasizes equity and social inclusion. India’s focus on poverty alleviation, education, healthcare, and social welfare programs demonstrates efforts to ensure benefits reach marginalized populations.
  3. Environmental Concerns: Rapid urbanization, industrialization, and population growth have strained natural resources and ecosystems. Issues like air and water pollution, deforestation, and biodiversity loss highlight the need for environmentally conscious development.

Aligning Sustainable Development Goals with Environmental Conservation:

  1. Inclusive Growth: Balancing economic growth with social inclusivity ensures that the benefits of development are equitably distributed, reducing disparities that can exacerbate environmental degradation.
  2. Renewable Energy: Prioritizing renewable energy sources like solar and wind reduces dependence on fossil fuels, mitigates pollution, and curbs greenhouse gas emissions.
  3. Green Infrastructure: Incorporating green infrastructure like urban parks, green roofs, and sustainable transportation systems promotes environmental health in urban areas.
  4. Circular Economy: Encouraging resource recycling, waste reduction, and sustainable production can minimize the ecological footprint of economic activities.
  5. Conservation and Restoration: Protecting and restoring ecosystems through conservation initiatives and afforestation efforts helps maintain biodiversity and natural services that support development.
  6. International Commitments: Aligning with global sustainability commitments, such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, reinforces India’s dedication to environmental conservation.


India’s growing economy offers opportunities to embrace sustainable development that benefits society and the environment. Balancing economic aspirations with environmental conservation requires comprehensive policy integration, innovative strategies, and collective efforts.


16. PM2.5 and PM 10 are the major contributors of air pollution in urban areas. Critically examine the various measures taken by government to control their emissions. (150 Words) 10M


PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or smaller) and PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 micrometers or smaller) are indeed significant contributors to air pollution in urban areas, posing serious health and environmental risks.

Emission Standards:

Governments set emission standards for industries, vehicles, and power plants to limit the release of particulate matter into the air.

Critique: While emission standards are necessary, their enforcement and monitoring can be challenging. Some industries may not comply fully, leading to continued emissions.

Vehicle Emission Control:

Implementation of vehicle emission norms (such as Bharat Stage standards in India) that require vehicles to meet specific pollution control criteria.

Promotion of electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid vehicles to reduce vehicular emissions.

Critique: Adoption of emission norms has led to improved vehicle technology, but enforcement and rapid adoption of cleaner vehicles can be slow.

Industry Regulations:

Mandating industries to adopt cleaner production technologies and pollution control measures.

Imposing penalties on industries for non-compliance with emission standards.

Critique: Industries might face challenges in transitioning to cleaner technologies due to financial constraints or technical limitations.

Air Quality Monitoring:

Establishing air quality monitoring networks to track PM2.5 and PM10 levels in real-time.

Providing public access to air quality data to raise awareness and encourage behavior change.

Critique: Data accuracy and monitoring network coverage can vary, impacting the reliability of information.

Green Infrastructure:

Planting trees, creating green spaces, and installing green walls can help reduce particulate matter levels.

Encouraging urban planning that prioritizes green infrastructure to absorb pollutants.

Critique: The effectiveness of green infrastructure depends on factors such as species selection and maintenance.

Dust Control Measures:

Implementing measures to control construction dust, such as water sprinkling and covering construction sites.

Enforcing regulations for road dust control, including paved roads and periodic cleaning.

Critique: Ensuring consistent compliance with dust control measures can be challenging.


While governments have taken various measures to control PM2.5 and PM10 emissions, the effectiveness of these measures depends on proper implementation, enforcement, and ongoing monitoring. Addressing urban air pollution requires a multi-faceted approach involving regulatory action, technological advancements, public awareness, and sustained efforts to minimize the health and environmental impacts of particulate matter pollution.

17. There is increase in the frequency of cyclonic storms in the Arabian Sea in the past decade. Examine the reasons behind this changing trend and the concerns associated with it. (250 words) 15M


The observed increase in the frequency of cyclonic storms in the Arabian Sea over the past decade can be attributed to a combination of natural climatic variability and potential influences from climate change. There are several reasons behind this changing trend:

  1. Warmer Sea Surface Temperatures: The Arabian Sea has been experiencing warmer sea surface temperatures due to global warming. Warm waters provide the energy needed for cyclones to intensify and develop.
  2. Climate Change: Changing climate patterns, including shifts in atmospheric circulation and increased moisture content in the atmosphere, can contribute to cyclone formation and intensification.
  3. Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD): The positive phase of IOD, known as the Indian Ocean’s counterpart to El Niño, can lead to warmer sea surface temperatures in the western Indian Ocean, creating favorable conditions for cyclone development.
  4. Atmospheric Conditions: Favorable atmospheric conditions, such as low wind shear and high humidity, are conducive to cyclone formation and intensification.
  5. Oceanic Factors: Variations in ocean currents, including the presence of warm ocean currents, can influence cyclone formation and intensity.

Concerns associated with the increasing frequency of cyclonic storms in the Arabian Sea include:

  1. Impact on Coastal Areas: Cyclones bring heavy rainfall, strong winds, and storm surges, which can lead to flooding, coastal erosion, and damage to infrastructure and homes.
  2. Loss of Lives and Livelihoods: Cyclones can result in loss of human lives, displacement of populations, and disruption of livelihoods, particularly in vulnerable coastal communities.
  3. Environmental Degradation: Cyclones can cause ecological damage, including coral reef destruction, habitat loss, and contamination of coastal waters with debris and pollutants.
  4. Disruption of Economies: Cyclone impacts on agriculture, fisheries, and tourism can disrupt local and regional economies, leading to economic losses.
  5. Challenges in Preparedness and Response: Frequent cyclones can strain disaster preparedness and response systems, making it challenging to provide timely assistance and relief to affected communities.
  6. Climate Migration: Frequent cyclones, along with other climate-related factors, may contribute to climate-induced migration as people seek safer and more stable living conditions.

To address these concerns and adapt to the changing trend of increasing cyclonic storms, it is crucial to:

  • Strengthen early warning systems to provide timely alerts to vulnerable communities.
  • Invest in resilient infrastructure and coastal protection measures.
  • Develop and implement disaster preparedness and response plans.
  • Enhance community awareness and capacity-building for disaster management.
  • Incorporate climate change considerations in urban planning and land use policies.