1. “There is a need for simplification of procedure for disqualification of persons found guilty of corrupt practices under the Representation of peoples Act” Comment (150 words) 15 Marks

The Representation of Peoples Act is a crucial piece of legislation in India that governs the conduct of elections. One of the key issues that has been highlighted in recent years is the need for a simplified procedure for disqualifying individuals who have been found guilty of corrupt practices under this Act.

The current process for disqualification is complex and time-consuming, which often leads to delays in taking action against those who have violated the provisions of the Act. This, in turn, undermines the integrity of the electoral process and erodes public trust in the democratic system.

A simplified procedure for disqualification would help to address these challenges by streamlining the process and making it more efficient. This could involve the creation of a dedicated tribunal or court to handle these cases, with clear guidelines and timelines for the resolution of disputes.

In addition, there is a need to strengthen the enforcement mechanisms under the Act, including stricter penalties and more effective monitoring and reporting systems. This would help to deter individuals from engaging in corrupt practices and ensure that those who do are held accountable for their actions.

Overall, simplifying the procedure for disqualification under the Representation of Peoples Act is an important step towards ensuring free and fair elections in India, and restoring public trust in the democratic process.

2. “Recent amendments to the Right to information Act will have profound impact on the autonomy and independence of the Information Commission”. Discuss (150 words) 10 Marks

The Right to Information Act is a crucial tool in ensuring transparency and accountability in governance. However, recent amendments to the Act have raised concerns about its impact on the autonomy and independence of the Information Commission.

One of the key changes is the introduction of a provision that allows the central government to prescribe the term of office and conditions of service of Information Commissioners. This has been criticized as an attempt to exert control over the Commission and undermine its independence.

Additionally, the amendments have also introduced a provision that allows for the withdrawal of appeals filed under the Act. This has raised concerns about the right to access information and the ability of citizens to hold the government accountable.

The impact of these changes on the functioning of the Information Commission cannot be understated, and it is important for stakeholders to engage in a dialogue to ensure that the autonomy and independence of the Commission is safeguarded. Ultimately, the effectiveness of the Right to Information Act hinges on the ability of the Commission to function independently and without interference.

3. How far do you think cooperation, competition and confrontation have shaped the nature of federation in India? Cite some recent examples to validate your answer (Answer in 150 words) 10 Marks

Cooperation, competition and confrontation have all played significant roles in shaping the nature of federation in India. The Indian federal structure is unique in its own way, with power being divided between the central government and the state governments.

Cooperation has been an essential element in maintaining the federation’s unity, with the central government working closely with the states to ensure the smooth functioning of the country. The recent COVID-19 pandemic is an excellent example of the central and state governments’ cooperation, with both working together to combat the virus.

Competition has also played a role in shaping the federation, with the states competing with each other in various fields, from attracting investments to promoting tourism. The introduction of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) is an excellent example of this competition, as states vie for a larger share of the revenue generated from the tax.

Confrontation, on the other hand, has sometimes threatened the unity of the federation, with states and central governments clashing over issues such as federalism and autonomy. The recent farmers’ protests in Delhi are an example of this confrontation, with state governments supporting the farmers’ demands against the central government’s agricultural reforms.

In conclusion, cooperation, competition and confrontation have all shaped the nature of federation in India, with each playing a crucial role in maintaining and strengthening the country’s unity.

4. The judicial systems in India and UK seem to be converging as well as diverging in the recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between the two nations in terms of their judicial practices. (150 words) 10 Marks

The judicial systems in India and the UK have some similarities as well as differences. One of the key points of convergence between the two nations is the fact that both follow the common law system. This means that the decisions made by judges in previous cases form the basis for future decisions. Moreover, both countries have a hierarchy of courts, with the highest court being the final authority on legal matters.

However, there are also some notable differences between the two nations’ judicial practices. For instance, the Indian judiciary is known for its backlog of cases and delays in delivering justice. On the other hand, the UK judiciary is known for its more efficient and timely resolution of cases. Additionally, the UK has a jury system, where a group of ordinary citizens decides on the verdict of a case, while India has a judge-only system.

Overall, while some aspects of the judicial systems in India and the UK are converging, others are diverging. It is important for both nations to continue to learn from each other and strive towards a fair and efficient justice system that serves the needs of their citizens.

5. “Once a speaker, Always a speaker’! Do you think the practice should be adopted to impart objectivity to the office of the Speaker of Lok Sabha? What could be its implications for the robust functioning of parliamentary business in India. (150 words) 10 Marks

The idea of “Once a speaker, Always a speaker” is an interesting one, as it seeks to ensure that the Speaker of Lok Sabha remains impartial and objective throughout their tenure. However, it is important to consider the implications of such a practice on the functioning of parliamentary business in India.

On the one hand, having a Speaker who is not swayed by political biases could lead to fairer debates and more productive discussions in the Lok Sabha. It could also help to build trust and confidence in the parliamentary system, as citizens would know that the Speaker is not using their position for personal gain.

On the other hand, some may argue that the practice could lead to a lack of accountability for the Speaker, as they would not have to face re-election and may become complacent in their role. Additionally, it may be difficult to find individuals who are truly neutral and objective, which could limit the pool of potential candidates for the position.

Overall, it is important to weigh the potential benefits and drawbacks of adopting the “Once a speaker, Always a speaker” practice before making any decisions about its implementation in India’s parliamentary system.

6. In order to enhance the prospects of social development, sound and adequate health care policies are needed particularly in the fields of geriatric and maternal health care. Discuss. (150 words) 10 Marks

Health care policies play a vital role in promoting social development, especially in the areas of geriatric and maternal health care. The elderly population requires specialized health care services due to the unique challenges that come with aging, such as chronic illnesses and cognitive decline. Adequate health care policies for geriatric care must focus on preventative care, early diagnosis, and treatment of age-related diseases. This will improve the quality of life for the elderly population and reduce the burden on health care systems.

Similarly, maternal health care policies are essential for promoting the health and well-being of mothers and their children. Maternal health care policies should focus on providing prenatal care, safe delivery practices, and postpartum care. This will ensure that mothers and children receive the necessary care during pregnancy and childbirth, reducing the risk of maternal and infant mortality.

In conclusion, sound and adequate health care policies are crucial for promoting social development, particularly in the areas of geriatric and maternal health care. These policies should prioritize preventative care, early diagnosis, and treatment to enhance the quality of life for the elderly and promote safe and healthy pregnancies for mothers and their children.

7. “Institutional quality is a crucial driver of economic performance”. In this context suggest reforms in Civil Service for strengthening democracy. (150 words) 10 Marks

The Civil Service plays a crucial role in ensuring the smooth functioning of a democratic society. However, in many countries around the world, the Civil Service is plagued with inefficiencies and corruption, which can hinder economic progress and undermine democracy.

To strengthen democracy and improve economic performance, there are several reforms that could be implemented within the Civil Service. Firstly, there should be a greater emphasis on meritocracy in the hiring process, with candidates being chosen based on their qualifications and abilities rather than political connections or nepotism.

Secondly, there should be greater transparency and accountability within the Civil Service, with measures in place to prevent corruption and ensure that public funds are being used for their intended purpose.

Thirdly, training and development programs should be implemented to ensure that Civil Service employees have the skills and knowledge necessary to perform their jobs effectively.

Finally, there should be greater collaboration between the Civil Service and other government agencies and stakeholders, to ensure that policies and programs are implemented in a coordinated and effective manner.

By implementing these reforms, the Civil Service can become a more effective and efficient institution, which can in turn help to strengthen democracy and drive economic performance.

8. “The emergence of Fourth Industrial Revolution (Digital Revolution) has initiated e-Governance as an integral part of government”. Discuss. (150 words) 10 Marks

The Fourth Industrial Revolution, also known as the Digital Revolution, has brought about significant changes in the way we live, work, and communicate. With the advent of new technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, cloud computing, and the Internet of Things, the concept of e-Governance has become increasingly important.

E-Governance refers to the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to transform the way in which government interacts with citizens. It involves the use of digital platforms to deliver government services, information, and communication to citizens in a more efficient, transparent, and accessible manner.

The benefits of e-Governance are many, including improved efficiency, reduced costs, increased transparency, and greater citizen participation. E-Governance can also lead to better decision-making, as it provides governments with access to a wealth of data and analytics that can be used to inform policy.

However, the implementation of e-Governance requires careful planning and execution, as well as the development of appropriate legal and regulatory frameworks. It is important for governments to ensure that the benefits of e-Governance are shared equitably across all sections of society, and that the privacy and security of citizens’ data are protected.

9. Critically examine the role of WHO in providing global health security during the COVID-19 pandemic. (150 words) 10 Marks

The World Health Organization (WHO) has played a crucial role in providing global health security during the COVID-19 pandemic. As the leading international organization for public health, WHO has been at the forefront of the fight against COVID-19.

One of the key roles of WHO has been to provide guidance and support to countries in their efforts to contain and mitigate the spread of the virus. This has included providing advice on measures such as social distancing, testing and contact tracing, and the use of personal protective equipment.

Another important function of WHO has been to help coordinate the global response to the pandemic. This has involved working closely with other international organizations, such as the United Nations and the World Bank, as well as national governments and local health authorities.

Despite facing criticism and challenges, WHO has remained committed to its mission of promoting health and well-being for all people around the world. Looking forward, it will be important for WHO to continue to play a leadership role in the global response to COVID-19 and other public health emergencies.

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