1.Faster economic growth requires increased share of the manufacturing sector in GDP, particularly of MSMEs. Comment on the present policies of the Government in this regard. (150 Words) 10 Marks


Faster economic growth can indeed benefit from an increased share of the manufacturing sector in GDP, especially through the growth of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). Manufacturing often leads to job creation, technology advancement, and exports, contributing to overall economic development.

Government policies and initiatives aimed at supporting Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in India:

  1. MUDRA Loan Scheme: It offers collateral-free loans to MSMEs through three categories: Shishu (up to ₹50,000), Kishore (up to ₹5 lakh), and Tarun (up to ₹10 lakh).
  2. Goods and Services Tax (GST) Relief: The government has adjusted GST rates and compliance requirements to provide relief to small businesses.
  3. Credit Linked Capital Subsidy Scheme (CLCSS): This scheme provides capital subsidy to MSMEs for technology upgradation. It helps businesses modernize their machinery and stay competitive.
  4. Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP): PMEGP is a credit-linked subsidy program that assists individuals in setting up new micro-enterprises and small businesses. It provides financial support and training.
  5. Udyog Aadhaar Registration: The Udyog Aadhaar registration process simplifies the registration of MSMEs by providing them with a unique identification number. This makes it easier for them to access various government schemes and benefits.
  6. National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC): NSIC facilitates market access and export opportunities for MSMEs by organizing trade fairs, exhibitions, and providing marketing support.
  7. Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGTMSE): CGTMSE offers credit guarantees to banks and financial institutions to encourage them to provide collateral-free loans to MSMEs.


These policies aimed at addressing issues of MSMEs and help them to play an important role in the employment generation and economic development.

2.What is the status of digitalization in the Indian economy? Examine the problems faced in this regard and suggest improvements. (150 Words) 10 Marks


It’s essential to note that the digital landscape is rapidly evolving, and the status of digitalization in India have seen significant changes since then. It is important to comprehend that the support of the government, policies favoring its entry and existence, literacy rate of the population, robust infrastructure all contribute in its penetration among the masses.

Status of Digitalization in the Indian Economy:

  1. Digital Payments: India witnessed a surge in digital payment adoption, primarily driven by initiatives like the Unified Payments Interface (UPI), mobile wallets, and the digitization of government payments.
  2. E-Governance: The government launched numerous e-governance initiatives to provide online access to various services, including Aadhaar for identity verification and digitalization of land records.
  3. Financial Inclusion: The Jan Dhan Yojana aimed at providing banking services to all, and Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) schemes were instrumental in reaching financial services to rural areas.
  4. E-Commerce: The e-commerce sector in India experienced substantial growth, with companies like Flipkart, Amazon, and others expanding their operations.
  5. Digital Infrastructure: Improvements in internet penetration and mobile connectivity led to increased digital access, especially in rural areas.

Challenges Faced:

  1. Digital Divide: While urban areas have witnessed significant digitalization, a substantial digital divide exists in rural and remote regions due to limited internet access and digital literacy.
  2. Data Privacy and Security: Concerns regarding data privacy and security remain, with a need for robust regulations and safeguards to protect user data.
  3. Cybersecurity Threats: As digital adoption grows, so does the risk of cyberattacks and threats.
  4. Digital Literacy: A significant portion of the population lacks digital literacy, hindering their ability to utilize digital services effectively.

Suggestions for Improvement:

  1. Digital Literacy Programs: Implement widespread digital literacy programs, especially in rural and underserved areas, to empower individuals with the skills needed to access digital services.
  2. Rural Connectivity: Invest in improving digital infrastructure and expanding reliable internet access to rural and remote areas.
  3. Data Protection Laws: Strengthen data protection laws and regulations to ensure the privacy and security of user data. Compliance with global standards like GDPR can be considered.
  4. Cybersecurity Measures: Develop a robust cybersecurity framework to protect against cyber threats and build public awareness about online safety.


Given the dynamic nature of the digital landscape, ongoing efforts and adaptations are crucial to ensure that digitalization benefits all segments of the population and contributes to economic growth and development.

3.How does e-Technology help farmers in production and marketing of agricultural produce? Explain it. (150 Words) 10 Marks


E-technology, which encompasses digital tools and platforms, can significantly benefit farmers in the production and marketing of agricultural produce by providing them with access to information, resources, and markets.

Here’s how e-technology helps farmers in these aspects:

  1. Access to Information and Knowledge:

   – Crop Management: E-technology provides farmers with information on crop varieties, planting techniques, and best practices. They can access weather forecasts, soil health data, and pest and disease management advice.

   – Market Intelligence: Farmers can use digital platforms to stay informed about market prices, demand trends, and potential buyers. This helps them make informed decisions about what to grow and when to sell.

   – Training and Education: Online courses, webinars, and mobile apps offer farmers training on modern farming techniques, sustainable practices, and post-harvest handling, improving their skills and productivity.

  1. Precision Agriculture:

   – Data-Driven Decision-Making: E-technology allows farmers to collect and analyze data from sensors, drones, and satellite imagery. This data helps them optimize resource use, such as water and fertilizers, leading to improved yields and cost savings.

   – Farm Management Software: Software applications help farmers plan their planting schedules, monitor crop growth, and manage resources efficiently.

  1. Market Access and Marketing:

   – E-Marketplaces: Online platforms and mobile apps connect farmers directly with buyers, eliminating the need for intermediaries and ensuring better prices for their produce.

   – E-Commerce: Farmers can sell their products online to a broader customer base, including consumers in urban areas, thus expanding their market reach.

   – Supply Chain Tracking: E-technology enables farmers to track their products through the supply chain, ensuring the quality and traceability of their produce.


Thus, e-technology revolutionizes agriculture by equipping farmers with information, tools, and market access they didn’t have before. This not only improves their production efficiency but also enhances their ability to market their agricultural produce profitably. Moreover, it contributes to the overall modernization and sustainability of the agriculture sector.

4.State the objectives and measures of land reforms in India. Discuss how land ceiling policy on landholding can be considered as an effective reform under economic criteria.


The primary objectives of land reforms in India are redistribution of land, security of tenure, improving agricultural productivity and thereby ensuring social justice.

Measures of Land Reforms in India:

  1. Land Redistribution: Implement land redistribution policies to acquire surplus land from large landowners and distribute it among landless and marginal farmers.
  2. Tenancy Reforms: Protect the rights of tenants and sharecroppers, including providing them with legal recognition and ensuring fair rental terms.
  3. Land Records Modernization: Digitize and update land records to ensure accurate landownership information and reduce land disputes.
  4. Land Consolidation: Facilitate land consolidation schemes to create larger and more viable landholdings, which can be more efficiently farmed.
  5. Ceiling on Land Holdings: Introduce land ceiling policies to limit the maximum amount of land an individual or entity can hold, redistributing surplus land to the landless.

Effectiveness of Land Ceiling Policy under Economic Criteria:

Land ceiling policies can be considered effective under economic criteria for several reasons:

  1. Redistribution of Productive Assets: By imposing limits on land holdings, land ceiling policies aim to redistribute land from large landowners to smaller and often more productive farmers. This can lead to more efficient land use and increased agricultural output.
  2. Encouraging Investment: Smaller landholdings often incentivize farmers to invest in their land, as they can fully utilize the available resources. This includes investments in irrigation, mechanization, and improved farming practices, which can boost productivity.
  3. Enhancing Agricultural Efficiency: Land consolidation resulting from land ceiling policies can lead to more efficient land management.
  4. Reducing Income Inequality: Land ceiling policies contribute to reducing income inequality in rural areas by transferring excess land to landless or marginalized farmers. This can lead to a more equitable distribution of agricultural income.
  5. Boosting Rural Development: The land redistribution effect of land ceiling policies can stimulate rural development by increasing agricultural productivity, generating employment, and reducing rural poverty.


However, Challenges such as land records accuracy, resistance from large landowners, and ensuring that redistributed land remains productive can impact the success of these policies. Additionally, complementary measures like access to credit, technology, and marketing infrastructure are essential to maximize the economic benefits of land reforms.

5.Introduce the concept of Artificial Intelligence (AI). How does AI help clinical diagnosis? Do you perceive any threat to privacy of the individual in the use of AI in healthcare?


Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines or computer systems. It involves the development of algorithms and software that enable computers to perform tasks that typically require human intelligence, such as problem-solving, learning from experience, recognizing patterns, and making decisions. AI technologies include machine learning, natural language processing, computer vision, and robotics.

AI in Clinical Diagnosis:

AI plays a crucial role in healthcare, particularly in clinical diagnosis, by assisting medical professionals in various ways:

  1. Early Disease Detection: AI can analyze large datasets of medical records, imaging, and genetic information to identify early signs of diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular conditions, enabling timely intervention.
  2. Medical Imaging: AI-powered algorithms can analyze medical images, such as X-rays, MRIs, and CT scans, with high accuracy to detect anomalies and assist radiologists in diagnosis.
  3. Pattern Recognition: AI can recognize patterns in patient data and medical records, helping in the identification of disease trends, treatment responses, and potential outbreaks.
  4. Drug Discovery: AI-driven drug discovery accelerates the process of identifying potential drugs and understanding their interactions, reducing development timelines and costs.
  5. Personalized Medicine: AI can analyze genetic data to tailor treatments and medications based on an individual’s genetic makeup, optimizing therapeutic outcomes.

While AI offers significant benefits in healthcare, it also raises privacy concerns:

  1. Data Security: AI systems require access to vast amounts of patient data, including sensitive medical records. Ensuring the security and confidentiality of this data is essential to prevent unauthorized access and breaches.
  2. Data Misuse: There is a risk that AI algorithms trained on patient data could be used for purposes beyond clinical diagnosis, such as targeted advertising or insurance profiling, without patients’ consent.
  3. Informed Consent: Patients must be informed about how their data will be used in AI systems and provide informed consent. Transparency in data usage and sharing is crucial to maintaining patient trust.
  4. Data Anonymization: Effective anonymization techniques must be in place to de-identify patient data used in AI systems, preventing the identification of individuals from the data.
  5. Algorithm Bias: AI algorithms can inherit biases from the data they are trained on, potentially leading to biased diagnoses or treatment recommendations, which could disproportionately affect certain demographic groups.


To address these privacy concerns, healthcare institutions and AI developers must prioritize data security, transparency, informed consent, and regulatory compliance.

6.Discuss several ways in which microorganisms can help in meeting the current fuel shortage.


Microorganisms can play a significant role in addressing the current fuel shortage by contributing to the production of alternative and renewable fuels.

Here are several ways in which microorganisms can help in this regard:

  1. Biofuel Production:

   – Biodiesel: Microorganisms such as microalgae and certain bacteria can be used to produce biodiesel from organic materials like vegetable oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oil.

   – Bioethanol: Yeasts are commonly employed to ferment sugars and starches from crops like corn, sugarcane, and cellulosic biomass into bioethanol, which can be used as a gasoline substitute.

  1. Biogas Production:

   – Anaerobic Digestion: Microorganisms in anaerobic digesters break down organic matter (e.g., agricultural waste, sewage, and food waste) to produce biogas, primarily composed of methane. Biogas can be used for electricity generation and as a cooking and heating fuel.

  1. Hydrogen Production:

   – Dark Fermentation: Certain microorganisms can ferment organic matter in the absence of light to produce hydrogen gas. This hydrogen can serve as a clean energy source for various applications.

  1. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs):

   – Electricity Generation: MFCs use microorganisms to convert organic matter directly into electricity. They have potential applications in wastewater treatment plants and as a sustainable power source in remote areas.

  1. Methane Hydrate Utilization:

   – Methane-Producing Microbes: Microbes can assist in the extraction of methane from methane hydrates, a potential vast source of natural gas trapped in icy deposits beneath the ocean floor. This methane can serve as a natural gas substitute.


Microbial-based fuel production is environmentally sustainable and can reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional fossil fuels.

7.Dam failures are always catastrophic, especially on the downstream side, resulting in a colossal loss of life and property. Analyze the various causes of dam failures. Give two examples of large dam failures.


Dam failures can indeed be catastrophic, especially when they occur on the downstream side. Such failures can result in a significant loss of life and property damage. The consequences can include flooding, destruction of infrastructure, and environmental damage.

Causes of Dam Failures:

  1. Hydraulic Failure:

   – Overtopping: When excessive inflow or heavy rainfall leads to water levels rising above the dam’s spillway capacity, overtopping can occur.

   – Internal Erosion: Seepage through the dam’s foundation or materials can erode it from the inside.

  1. Structural Failure:

   – Foundation Issues: Poor geological conditions in the dam’s foundation can compromise its stability.

   – Design Flaws: Inadequate engineering design can lead to structural weaknesses.

  1. Material Failures:

   – Material Degradation: Deterioration of materials like concrete and steel over time.

   – Construction Defects: Errors during construction can weaken the dam’s structure.

  1. Natural Disasters:

   – Earthquakes: Seismic activity can stress dams.

   – Floods: Extreme rainfall, especially during monsoons, can trigger dam failures.

Examples of Dam Failures in India:

  1. Mettur Dam (1928), Tamil Nadu:

   – Cause: The Mettur Dam failure was primarily due to structural issues and design flaws. The dam was constructed during the British colonial period and suffered a catastrophic failure due to high water levels in the reservoir.

   – Consequences: The dam failure resulted in a loss of life and property.

  1. Machhu Dam (1979), Gujarat:

   – Cause: The Machhu Dam disaster was triggered by heavy rainfall. The excessive inflow caused the dam to overflow and eventually fail.

 – Consequences: The dam failure led to severe flooding in the town of Morbi, resulting in thousands of casualties and extensive damage to property and infrastructure.


These examples highlight the importance of dam safety, maintenance, and adherence to engineering standards.

8.What is oil pollution? What are its impacts on the marine ecosystem? In what way is oil pollution particularly harmful for a country like India?


Oil pollution refers to the release of crude oil or refined petroleum products into the environment, particularly aquatic ecosystems like oceans, seas, and rivers. This type of pollution can occur through various sources, including oil spills from tanker accidents, oil platform leaks, illegal discharge from ships, and runoff from land-based activities.

Impacts of Oil Pollution on the Marine Ecosystem:

  1. Harm to Marine Life: Oil spills coat the fur, feathers, and scales of marine animals, making it difficult for them to regulate body temperature. Oil ingestion or inhalation can be toxic and lead to health issues or death.
  2. Disruption of Food Chains: Oil pollution can contaminate and kill phytoplankton and zooplankton, which form the base of marine food chains. This disruption affects fish and other organisms higher up the food chain, leading to reduced fishery yields.

3.Destruction of Habitats: Oil spills can smother and destroy coastal habitats like mangroves, coral reefs, and marshes, which serve as breeding grounds and nurseries for many marine species.

  1. Water Quality: Oil slicks reduce the amount of sunlight that penetrates the water, affecting photosynthesis in marine plants and depleting oxygen levels, which can lead to dead zones.
  2. Long-Term Contamination: Even after a visible oil spill dissipates, residues can remain in sediments, affecting benthic organisms and the entire ecosystem.
  3. Economic Impact: Oil spills can devastate fishing and tourism industries, causing economic losses for coastal communities.

Why Oil Pollution Is Particularly Harmful for India:

  1. Coastal Economy: India has a long coastline of over 7,500 kilometers, and a significant portion of its population resides in coastal areas. Coastal communities heavily depend on fishing and tourism, making them vulnerable to the economic impacts of oil pollution.
  2. Rich Biodiversity: India’s coastal and marine ecosystems host a diverse range of species, including critical habitats like the Sundarbans mangrove forests and coral reefs. Oil pollution can cause irreversible damage to these ecosystems and disrupt the delicate balance of marine life.
  3. High Shipping Activity: India is one of the world’s busiest shipping regions. The presence of oil tankers and maritime traffic increases the risk of oil spills in its coastal waters.
  4. Limited Response Capacity: While India has made efforts to enhance its oil spill response capabilities, the vastness of its coastline and the complexity of managing oil pollution in diverse ecosystems present ongoing challenges.
  5. Climate Change Resilience: Coastal areas are susceptible to the impacts of climate change, such as sea-level rise and extreme weather events. Oil pollution can exacerbate these vulnerabilities.


Thus, oil pollution poses significant environmental, economic, and social challenges for India, given its extensive coastline, rich biodiversity, and coastal communities’ reliance on marine resources. Effective prevention, preparedness, and response measures are crucial to mitigate the adverse impacts of oil pollution in the Indian context.

9.Winning of ‘Hearts and Minds’ in terrorism affected areas is an essential step in restoring the trust of the population. Discuss the measures adopted by the Government in this respect as part of the conflict resolution in Jammu and Kashmir.


Winning the “Hearts and Minds”  involves not only addressing security concerns but also addressing the underlying socio-economic and political issues that contribute to radicalization and support for terrorism.

  1. Economic Development and Employment Generation:

   – The “Udaan” scheme was launched to provide skill development and job opportunities to the youth in Jammu and Kashmir. It offers training in various sectors and helps local youth secure employment in companies across India.

  1. Education and Youth Engagement:

   – The government has actively promoted education in the region. Initiatives like “Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan” have been implemented to increase school enrollment and improve the quality of education.

  1. Security and Law Enforcement:

   – Security forces have conducted targeted operations against terrorist organizations. For instance, “Operation All Out” was aimed at eliminating top militant commanders and reducing the overall threat level.

  1. Political Engagement:

   – The appointment of Dineshwar Sharma as the government’s representative for dialogue in Jammu and Kashmir was a significant step toward engaging with various political and community stakeholders.

  1. Public Outreach and Communication:

   – The government has used various platforms to communicate with the public. The launch of dedicated radio and TV channels in local languages helps in disseminating information and promoting government initiatives.

  1. Humanitarian Assistance:

   – After incidents of violence or natural disasters, the government has provided humanitarian aid and support, including medical assistance and relief supplies, to affected communities.

  1. Cultural and Religious Heritage Preservation:

   – Preservation and restoration projects for historical sites, religious shrines, and cultural landmarks are ongoing. For instance, the restoration of the Shankaracharya Temple in Srinagar is a notable effort.


These examples illustrate a multifaceted approach aimed at addressing the economic, educational, security, political, and cultural aspects of the conflict in Jammu and Kashmir. While challenges remain, these efforts reflect a commitment to engage with the local population, restore trust, and work toward conflict resolution and lasting peace in the region.

10.The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) by our adversaries across the borders to ferry arms/ammunitions, drugs, etc., is a serious threat to the internal security. Comment on the measures being taken to tackle this threat.


The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), often referred to as drones, by adversaries across borders to ferry arms, ammunition, drugs, and other illicit materials poses a significant threat to a nation’s internal security. Governments worldwide, including India, have recognized the urgency of addressing this threat and have been taking various measures to tackle it.

  1. Legislation and Regulation:

   – Drone Policy: India has implemented a comprehensive drone policy, including regulations and guidelines for drone operations. This policy classifies drones into different categories based on their size and use, prescribing rules for registration, licensing, and operation.

   – No-Fly Zones: Establishing no-fly zones around sensitive areas, such as military installations, airports, and government buildings, to restrict drone operations near critical infrastructure.

  1. Counter-Drone Technology:

   – Anti-Drone Systems: Deployment of anti-drone technology and systems that can detect, track, and neutralize rogue drones. These systems can disrupt communication links with the drone, jam its signals, or physically intercept and disable it.

   – Radar and Surveillance: The use of advanced radar and surveillance technology to detect and monitor unauthorized drone activities along borders and sensitive areas.

  1. Regulatory Enforcement:

   – Law Enforcement Agencies: Training and equipping law enforcement agencies to respond to drone threats effectively, including the confiscation of illegal drones and apprehension of operators.

   – Public Awareness: Conducting awareness campaigns to educate the public about the legal framework and the consequences of illegal drone operations.

  1. Coordination and Intelligence Sharing:

   – Multi-Agency Coordination: Promoting coordination among various law enforcement agencies, defense forces, and intelligence agencies to share information and respond collectively to drone threats.


The threat posed by the misuse of drones for illegal activities is continually evolving, requiring a proactive and multi-faceted approach. India, like many other countries, is actively working to develop and implement comprehensive strategies to detect, deter, and respond to the potential risks associated with drone technology.

11.Most of the unemployment in India is structural in nature. Examine the methodology adopted to compute unemployment in the country and suggest improvements.


Unemployment in India is indeed a complex issue, with both structural and cyclical components. To assess unemployment, the government uses the Current Weekly Status (CWS) methodology, which is part of the larger Periodic Labor Force Survey (PLFS).

Methodology for Computing Unemployment in India:

  1. Current Weekly Status (CWS): This methodology categorizes individuals aged 15 and above into three employment status groups during a reference week:

   – Employed: Those who worked for at least one hour on any day of the reference week.

   – Unemployed: Those who did not work but were actively seeking employment.

   – Not in the Labor Force: Those who did not work and were not seeking employment.

  1. Survey Data: The data is collected through large-scale household surveys conducted by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO).

Areas for Improvement:

  1. Frequent Updates: The PLFS is conducted annually, which can result in a time lag in the availability of data. More frequent updates, perhaps quarterly or semi-annually, could provide policymakers with more real-time insights into the employment situation.
  2. Incorporate Underemployment: The current methodology primarily focuses on unemployment but does not adequately capture underemployment, where individuals work in jobs that are below their skill levels or offer low wages. Expanding the scope to measure underemployment would provide a more comprehensive view of labor market dynamics.
  3. Informal Sector: The PLFS should be improved to better capture employment trends in the informal sector, where a significant portion of India’s workforce is employed. This sector often experiences irregular and low-paying jobs, which need to be accounted for in unemployment data.
  4. Seasonal Variation: India’s labor market is affected by significant seasonal variations, especially in agriculture. Adjusting for these variations in the methodology would lead to more accurate year-round unemployment estimates.
  5. Youth and Gender Disaggregation: Collecting data on youth unemployment (ages 15-29) and gender-specific unemployment rates can help identify specific challenges faced by these groups.
  6. Technology Integration: Utilize modern technology and data analytics to improve the efficiency of data collection and processing, reducing the time lag in reporting.
  7. Data Accessibility: Make survey data more accessible to researchers and analysts, allowing for independent validation and analysis of employment trends.


In summary, while the CWS methodology used to compute unemployment in India provides valuable insights, there is room for improvement to make it more dynamic, comprehensive, and timely. Addressing underemployment, seasonality, the informal sector, and enhancing data collection techniques can lead to a more accurate assessment of the country’s employment situation, aiding policymakers in designing effective interventions and policies.

12.Distinguish between ‘care economy’ and ‘monetized economy’. How can care economy be brought into monetized economy through women empowerment?


The “care economy” refers to all the unpaid and often invisible work that goes into providing care and support to individuals and communities. This includes activities like caregiving, child-rearing, household chores, and community support. Whereas The “monetized economy” refers to the formal economy, where economic activities are typically conducted in exchange for money or a form of payment.

Bringing the Care Economy into the Monetized Economy through Women Empowerment:

Empowering women can help bridge the gap between the care economy and the monetized economy by recognizing, valuing, and compensating care work. Here’s how:

  1. Recognition and Valuation: Acknowledge the significant contribution of women to the care economy and recognize that this work has economic and social value. This recognition can help reduce the invisibility of care work.
  2. Policy Measures: Implement policies that support women’s access to education and skill development, enabling them to participate in the monetized economy. This includes policies that promote women’s participation in formal employment.
  3. Equal Pay: Ensure that women receive equal pay for equal work in the monetized economy. Addressing the gender pay gap is crucial for the economic empowerment of women.
  4. Flexible Work Arrangements: Promote flexible work arrangements, such as part-time work or telecommuting, to enable women to balance their caregiving responsibilities with formal employment.
  5. Childcare and Eldercare Services: Invest in affordable and accessible childcare and eldercare services, which can reduce the burden of care work on women and enable them to engage in paid employment.
  6. Promotion of Women Entrepreneurs: Support women in entrepreneurship and business ownership. Encourage initiatives that help women start and grow their businesses, enabling them to participate actively in the monetized economy.


Empowering women economically and recognizing the value of their caregiving work is essential for achieving gender equality, reducing poverty, and creating a more inclusive and equitable society where both care and monetized work are valued and supported.

13.Explain the changes in cropping pattern in India in the context of changes in consumption pattern and marketing conditions.


Changes in cropping patterns in India are influenced by a complex interplay of factors, including changes in consumption patterns and marketing conditions.

Here’s an explanation of how these factors impact cropping patterns:

  1. Changes in Consumption Patterns:

   – Dietary Shift: As income levels rise, there is often a shift in dietary preferences towards more diversified and processed foods, including fruits, vegetables, dairy, and meat products.

  – Urbanization: With urbanization, there is an increased demand for perishable and high-value crops, such as fruits and vegetables, to supply urban markets.

– Health Awareness: Growing health consciousness among consumers has led to increased demand for organic and healthier food options, influencing the cultivation of crops like organic grains and vegetables.

 – Export Opportunities: Global demand for specific crops, such as basmati rice, spices, and specialty fruits, has led to increased cultivation of these crops for export markets.

  1. Marketing Conditions:

  – Market Access: Improved transportation infrastructure and logistics have enhanced market access for farmers, allowing them to reach distant markets more efficiently.

 – Price Fluctuations: Farmers often adjust their cropping patterns based on price fluctuations. They may switch to crops that offer better prices in response to market conditions.

 – Contract Farming: Contract farming agreements with agribusinesses can influence cropping patterns, as they provide farmers with assured markets and prices for specific crops.

 – Government Policies: Price support mechanisms, minimum support prices (MSPs), and procurement policies can influence cropping choices, as farmers may opt for crops covered by these policies.

 – Export Promotion: Government incentives and export promotion policies may encourage the cultivation of cash crops that have export potential.


Farmers adapt to consumer preferences, market opportunities, and government policies to make cropping decisions that are often influenced by economic considerations and market dynamics.


14.What are the direct and indirect subsidies provided to farm sector in India? Discuss the issues raised by the World Trade Organization(WTO) in relation to agricultural subsidies.


In India, the farm sector receives both direct and indirect subsidies to support agricultural production and rural livelihoods. Here are some examples of direct and indirect subsidies:

Direct Subsidies:

  1. Fertilizer Subsidy: The government provides subsidies on fertilizers to make them more affordable for farmers. This aims to increase agricultural productivity.
  2. Food Subsidy: Under the Public Distribution System (PDS), the government provides subsidized food grains to economically disadvantaged populations, which indirectly benefits farmers by stabilizing food prices.
  3. Crop Insurance Subsidy: Crop insurance schemes are subsidized to protect farmers from losses due to natural calamities, ensuring their financial security.
  4. Irrigation Subsidy: Schemes like the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana provide subsidies for the construction of irrigation infrastructure, helping farmers access water resources more effectively.

Indirect Subsidies:

  1. Electricity Subsidy: Many states in India provide subsidized electricity rates for agricultural purposes, reducing the cost of irrigation and farm operations.
  2. Interest Rate Subsidy: The government often provides interest rate subsidies on agricultural loans, making credit more affordable for farmers.
  3. MSP (Minimum Support Price) Policy: While not a direct subsidy, the MSP policy guarantees a minimum price for certain crops, ensuring that farmers receive a fair return for their produce.
  4. Research and Extension Services: Government-funded research and extension services help farmers access improved farming practices and technology, indirectly supporting their productivity.


The WTO has raised concerns about the impact of agricultural subsidies on international trade and market distortions.

Some key issues raised include:

  1. Market Distortions: Subsidies, particularly those related to MSPs and domestic support measures, can lead to overproduction and stockpiling of agricultural commodities. This excess production can depress global prices and distort international markets, affecting the competitiveness of farmers in other countries.
  2. Trade Barriers: Subsidies that lead to excess production can result in the dumping of surplus commodities in international markets at prices below production costs. This can disrupt global trade and disadvantage farmers in importing countries.
  3. Domestic Support Limits: The WTO has established limits on the level of domestic support that member countries can provide to their agricultural sectors. Countries that exceed these limits may face trade disputes and sanctions.
  4. Uneven Playing Field: Excessive subsidies in some countries can create an uneven playing field for farmers in other nations who do not have access to similar levels of support. This can hinder the competitiveness of farmers in less subsidized countries.
  5. Special and Differential Treatment: Developing countries argue for special and differential treatment, allowing them more flexibility in providing agricultural subsidies to support their rural development and food security goals.


While agricultural subsidies play a vital role in supporting the livelihoods of farmers and ensuring food security in India, they also have international implications related to trade and market distortions. The WTO seeks to address these issues through negotiations and agreements, balancing the need for domestic support with the goal of maintaining fair and open international trade in agricultural products.

15.The adoption of electric vehicles is rapidly growing worldwide. How do electric vehicles contribute to reducing carbon emissions and what are the key benefits they offer compared to traditional combustion engine vehicles?


Electric vehicles (EVs) play a crucial role in reducing carbon emissions and offer several key benefits compared to traditional combustion engine vehicles:

  1. Reduction in Carbon Emissions:

  – Zero Tailpipe Emissions: EVs produce no tailpipe emissions, which means they do not emit harmful pollutants like carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), or particulate matter (PM) during operation. This significantly improves urban air quality and reduces health risks associated with pollution.

   – Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions: EVs generate lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to internal combustion engine vehicles, especially when powered by electricity from renewable sources. Even when charged with electricity from fossil fuels, EVs can be more efficient and emit fewer GHGs due to power plant efficiencies.

   – Energy Efficiency: Electric motors are highly efficient (typically over 90%) compared to the internal combustion engines of traditional vehicles (typically 20-30%), resulting in less energy wasted as heat.

  1. Benefits of Electric Vehicles:

 – Lower Operating Costs: EVs are generally cheaper to operate than traditional vehicles because electricity is cheaper than gasoline or diesel fuel, and EVs have fewer moving parts that require maintenance.

   – Reduced Noise Pollution: EVs are quieter than combustion engine vehicles, reducing noise pollution in urban areas and making for a quieter and more peaceful environment.

   – Instant Torque: Electric motors deliver instant torque, providing quick acceleration and a smooth driving experience.

  – Regenerative Braking: EVs can recover energy during braking, which is typically wasted as heat in traditional vehicles. This feature improves energy efficiency and extends the vehicle’s range.

 – Lower Energy Costs: Charging an EV can be more cost-effective than refueling with gasoline, especially in regions with lower electricity prices.

 – Reduced Oil Dependency: EVs reduce dependence on oil imports, making a country less vulnerable to oil price fluctuations and geopolitical tensions related to oil supply.

– Incentives and Tax Benefits: Many governments offer incentives, tax credits, and subsidies to encourage EV adoption, making them more affordable for consumers.


The electric vehicles contribute significantly to reducing carbon emissions and offer numerous advantages compared to traditional combustion engine vehicles. Their adoption can lead to cleaner air, lower operating costs, and a more sustainable transportation system. However, to maximize their environmental benefits, it’s crucial to ensure that the electricity used to charge EVs comes from renewable and low-carbon sources.

16. What is the main task of India’s third moon mission which could not be achieved in its earlier mission? List the countries that have achieved this task. Introduce the system in the spacecraft launched and explain the role of the ‘Virtual Launch Control Centre’ at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre which contributed to the successful launch from Sriharikota. (Answer in 250 words)


Space is an unforgiving environment, characterized by high vacuum and ionizing radiation. Due to the lack of possibilities for in-situ repairs, the development of space missions demands meticulous planning, design, testing, analysis, and review.

Chandrayaan-3 (CH-3) is an ambitious journey to reach the moon, with the objective of achieving a soft landing, exploring the lunar surface, and collecting invaluable scientific data. This mission is a technological challenge undertaken by India, led by ISRO.


  1. Main Objective of India’s Third Moon Mission: Its MAIN TASK is to demonstrate the capability in safe landing and roving on the lunar surface especially at the moon’s south pole.

Previous Missions: Chandrayan 1 and Chandrayan 2

Unachieved Task: A major step taken was incorporating the learnings from the unsuccessful landing of Chandrayaan-2 mission in 2019. In Ch-2, certain unexpected variations in performances of the Lander module eventually resulted in higher velocities at touchdown, which was beyond the designed capability of the Lander’s legs, resulting in a hard landing.

  1. Countries That Achieved the Task:

III. Subsystems in the Spacecraft

Payloads and their scientific outcome

CH-3 houses a total of seven scientific instruments.

The lander (Vikram) carries four instruments, namely,

  1. ILSA, a seismometer, developed by LEOS
  2. RAMBHA-LP, a Langmuir Probe – designed, realized, and delivered by Space Physics Laboratory SPL/VSSC.
  3. CHASTE, a thermal probe – designed, realized, and delivered by SPL/VSSC.
  4. LRA, a Retroreflector from NASA.

The rover (Pragyan) has two instruments viz.,

  1. APXS, an X-ray spectrometer, provided by Physical Research Laboratory, PRL
  2. LIBS, a laser-based spectrometer, provided by LEOS.

The propulsion module has SHAPE (a spectro-polarimeter) instrument, developed by URSC.

  1. Role of the Virtual Launch Control Centre

Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC): The VSSC is ISRO’s lead unit for launch vehicles and is responsible for the design and development of the LVM3 (formerly GSLV Mk-III) launch vehicle.

Virtual Launch Control Centre: The virtual launch control centre (VLCC) at the VSSC will have an important role to play in safely seeing off the powerful LVM3 launch vehicle carrying the Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft.

Contribution to Launch: The facility allows the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to remotely carry out system checkouts on the launch vehicle prior to a mission.


India’s third moon mission represents a significant step in advancing lunar exploration, particularly in achieving the unaccomplished task. The spacecraft’s subsystems and the innovative use of a Virtual Launch Control Centre have played pivotal roles in this mission’s success, further solidifying India’s position in the field of space exploration.

17.Comment on the National Wetland Conservation Programme initiated by the Government of India and name a few India’s wetlands of international importance included in the Ramsar Sites.


The National Wetland Conservation Programme (NWCP) initiated by the Government of India is a significant conservation effort aimed at the preservation and sustainable management of wetlands across the country. Here are some key aspects and objectives of the NWCP:

Objectives of NWCP:

  1. Conservation: To conserve wetlands, which are vital ecosystems that provide numerous ecological services, including habitat for wildlife, water purification, flood control, and recreational opportunities.
  2. Sustainable Management: To promote the sustainable management of wetlands, ensuring that they continue to benefit both the environment and human communities.
  3. Biodiversity Protection: To protect the rich biodiversity found in wetlands, including numerous species of birds, aquatic life, and plant species.
  4. Awareness and Education: To raise awareness about the importance of wetland conservation among local communities, stakeholders, and the public.
  5. Legal Framework: To strengthen the legal and regulatory framework for wetland conservation in India.

India’s Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites):

India has several wetlands designated as Ramsar Sites, which are internationally recognized for their ecological significance and are protected under the Ramsar Convention.

  1. Chilika Lake, Odisha: Chilika Lake is the largest coastal lagoon in India and is known for its biodiversity, including migratory birds, dolphins, and fish species. It serves as an important stopover point for migratory waterfowl along the East Asia-Australasia Flyway.
  2. Keoladeo National Park, Rajasthan: Also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary, this wetland is a crucial wintering area for migratory birds, including several threatened and endangered species.
  3. Sundarbans, West Bengal: The Sundarbans mangrove forest is the largest deltaic mangrove forest in the world. It is home to the Bengal tiger and various other wildlife species. The Sundarbans are critical for protecting coastal areas from storm surges and serve as a breeding ground for fish and other aquatic species.
  4. Vembanad-Kol Wetland, Kerala: This wetland complex includes the Vembanad Lake, Ashtamudi Lake, and associated rivers and canals. It supports diverse flora and fauna and is essential for local livelihoods and tourism.
18.The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) has predicted a global sea level rise of about one metre by AD 2100. What would be its impact in India and the other countries in the Indian Ocean region?


A global sea level rise of approximately one meter by AD 2100, as predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), would have significant impacts on India and other countries in the Indian Ocean region. These impacts could include:

  1. Coastal Erosion and Flooding:

   – Coastal Cities and Infrastructure: Low-lying coastal cities and infrastructure in India and neighboring countries, such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, and Dhaka, could face increased flooding and erosion risks. This could lead to damage to homes, businesses, and critical infrastructure.

  1. Displacement of Populations:

 – Population Displacement: Sea-level rise could result in the displacement of coastal populations, leading to a strain on inland resources and potential conflicts over land and resources.

  1. Agricultural Impacts:

   – Saline Intrusion: Rising sea levels can lead to the intrusion of saltwater into freshwater sources, affecting agricultural land and reducing crop yields in coastal areas.

  1. Biodiversity Loss:

   – Mangrove Ecosystems: Coastal ecosystems like mangroves, which provide critical habitat for wildlife and act as natural buffers against storm surges, could be threatened.

  1. Economic Costs:

   – Economic Losses: The economic costs associated with sea-level rise, including damage to infrastructure and loss of agricultural productivity, could be substantial for countries in the Indian Ocean region.

  1. Health Risks:

– Water Quality and Disease: Saline intrusion can affect drinking water quality, potentially leading to health issues, and create breeding grounds for disease vectors like mosquitoes.

  1. Infrastructure Vulnerability:

   -Port Facilities: Sea-level rise could impact port facilities and disrupt maritime trade, affecting economies that rely on seaports.


To address these challenges, countries in the Indian Ocean region need to prioritize and invest in adaptation strategies, including the construction of coastal defenses, sustainable land use planning, disaster preparedness, and efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to mitigate further sea-level rise. International cooperation will also be crucial to address these shared challenges effectively.

19.What are the internal security challenges being faced by India? Give out the role of Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies tasked to counter such threats


India faces several internal security challenges, and its Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies play a crucial role in countering these threats. Some of the prominent internal security challenges include:

  1. Terrorism:

   – Threats from both domestic and international terrorist organizations, including radicalized individuals and groups.

   – State-sponsored terrorism emanating from neighboring countries.

  1. Insurgency and Naxalism:

  – Insurgent movements in regions like Jammu and Kashmir, Northeastern states, and areas affected by left-wing extremism (Naxalism).

   – Secessionist movements in some regions, demanding autonomy or independence.

  1. Communal and Ethnic Tensions:

   – Communal and ethnic conflicts, which can lead to violence and social unrest.

   – Issues related to identity politics and inter-community tensions.

  1. Cybersecurity Threats:

– Increasing cyber threats, including cyberattacks on critical infrastructure, financial institutions, and government systems.

   – Cyber espionage and information warfare.

  1. Border Security:

   – Challenges related to border security, including illegal border crossings, smuggling, and infiltration by militants.

   – Maritime security concerns, particularly in coastal regions.

  1. Economic Crimes:

   – Economic offenses, such as financial fraud, money laundering, and corruption.

   – Counterfeiting and smuggling activities.

  1. Radicalization and Extremism:

   – The radicalization of individuals and the spread of extremist ideologies, both online and offline.

   – Preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE) efforts.


Role of Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies:

India has several central intelligence and investigative agencies tasked with addressing these security challenges:

  1. Intelligence Bureau (IB):The IB is India’s internal intelligence agency. It plays a crucial role in gathering intelligence related to threats to national security, including terrorism, insurgency, and communal tensions. It also provides assessments and alerts to the government.
  2. Research and Analysis Wing (RAW): RAW is India’s external intelligence agency but occasionally plays a role in counterterrorism operations abroad when national security is at stake.
  3. National Investigation Agency (NIA): The NIA is responsible for investigating and prosecuting terrorism-related cases and other offenses that threaten national security. It has jurisdiction across India.
  4. Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI):The CBI investigates a wide range of criminal cases, including economic offenses, corruption, and cases referred by state governments. It also plays a role in counterterrorism investigations.
  5. Border Security Force (BSF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Assam Rifles, and Other Paramilitary Forces: These forces are responsible for border security and countering insurgency in various regions, including Jammu and Kashmir and the Northeast.
  6. State Police Forces: State police agencies also play a crucial role in maintaining internal security, investigating crimes, and countering local threats.
  7. Coast Guard: The Indian Coast Guard is responsible for maritime security and plays a role in safeguarding coastal regions.


These agencies work in coordination with each other, sharing intelligence and conducting joint operations when necessary to address internal security challenges effectively. Additionally, efforts are made to enhance intelligence sharing and international cooperation to counter transnational threats like terrorism and cyberattacks.

20. Give out the major sources of terror funding in India and efforts being made to curtail these sources. In the light of this, also discuss the aim and objective of the ‘No Money for Terror NMFT Conference recently held at New Delhi in November 2022.


Terrorist organizations in India rely on various sources for funding their activities.

Some major sources of terror funding in India include:

  1. External Sources including state sponsors of terrorism or sympathizers abroad. This can include funding from neighboring countries or international terrorist networks.
  2. Illegal Trade: Terrorists engage in various forms of illegal trade, such as smuggling of arms, narcotics, and counterfeit currency. Profits from these activities are used to finance their operations.
  3. Extortion and Protection Rackets: Some terrorist groups extort money from local businesses, particularly in areas where they hold influence. They may also run protection rackets, demanding payments from businesses in exchange for “protection” from violence.
  4. Money Laundering: Terrorist organizations may engage in money laundering schemes to legitimize the funds they receive from illegal activities.
  5. Donations: Radicalized individuals or sympathizers may provide financial support to terrorist organizations through donations, often under the guise of charity.

Efforts to curtail these sources of terror funding in India include:

  1. Legislation: India has enacted several laws and regulations to combat terror financing, including the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) and the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA). These laws provide authorities with legal tools to investigate and prosecute individuals and entities involved in terror funding.
  2. Financial Intelligence Units: India’s Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) monitors suspicious financial transactions and reports them to law enforcement agencies. This helps identify and track sources of terror funding.
  3. Increased Border Security: Strengthening border security measures is essential to prevent illegal trade and smuggling of arms, narcotics, and counterfeit currency.
  4. International Cooperation: India collaborates with international agencies and foreign governments to track and disrupt the flow of funds to terrorist organizations. Information sharing and joint operations play a crucial role in this effort.

Regarding the ‘No Money for Terror (NMFT)’ Conference held in New Delhi in November 2022, its aim and objectives were as follows:

The aim of the NMFT Conference was to strengthen international cooperation in the fight against terror financing and to share best practices and experiences among participating countries.


  1. Enhance Information Sharing: The conference aimed to facilitate the exchange of information and intelligence related to terror financing among participating nations. This information sharing helps countries identify and disrupt the flow of funds to terrorist organizations.
  2. Strengthen Legal Frameworks: Discussions centered around improving legal frameworks and regulatory measures to combat money laundering and terror financing.
  3. Promote Technological Solutions: Participants explored technological solutions and innovations that can aid in tracking and preventing the use of digital platforms for terror financing.
  4. Build Capacity: The conference provided a platform for countries to discuss capacity-building initiatives and technical assistance programs that can enhance their abilities to combat terror financing.
  5. International Commitment: It aimed to reaffirm the commitment of participating nations to work collectively to counter the financing of terrorism on a global scale.


Overall, the NMFT Conference played a crucial role in fostering international cooperation and coordination in the ongoing efforts to curtail the sources of funding for terrorist organizations, thereby strengthening global security.