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June 2 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm



Astronomers have made a groundbreaking discovery using the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), revealing the most distant galaxy ever observed.  

This ancient galaxy, named JADES-GS-z14-0, existed a mere 400 million years after the Big Bang, offering a glimpse into the very early universe. Age: Formed about 290 million years after the Big Bang 

  • Location: Observed as part of the JWST Advanced Deep Extragalactic Survey (JADES) program 

Characteristics of JADES-GS-z14-0 

  • Size: Measures approximately 1,700 light years across 
  • Mass: Equivalent to 500 million sun-sized stars 
  • Star Formation: Rapidly forming about 20 new stars each year 
  • Brightness: Surprising for its age, indicating unique properties 

Scientific Implications 

  • Early Universe Insights: Challenges understanding of galaxy formation soon after the Big Bang 
  • Comparison: Larger and brighter than other early galaxies, suggesting unusual formation processes 
  • Previous Record: The previous oldest-known galaxy dated 320 million years after the Big Bang 

Hypotheses for Brightness 

  • Supermassive Black Holes: Ruled out as the cause of brightness 
  • Star Population: Possibly more stars than expected 
  • Star Luminosity: Early stars may be brighter than those today 

Related Discovery 

  • Second Oldest Galaxy: JADES-GS-z14-1 
  • Age: About 303 million years post-Big Bang 
  • Size and Mass: Smaller, with 100 million sun-sized stars, forming about two new stars per year 


Primary Function: 

  • Hubble Space Telescope: Visible and ultraviolet light observation 
  • James Webb Space Telescope: Infrared light observation 


  • Hubble Space Telescope: Less sensitive, limited by Earth’s atmosphere 
  • James Webb Space Telescope: Highly sensitive, can see faint and distant objects 

Wavelength Range: 

  • Hubble Space Telescope: Narrower wavelength range 
  • James Webb Space Telescope: Wider wavelength range, including infrared 


  • Hubble Space Telescope: Primarily observing nearby galaxies and stars 
  • James Webb Space Telescope: Observing the early universe, formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, and exoplanet atmospheres 


  • Hubble Space Telescope: Revolutionized astronomy in the late 20th and early 21st centuries 
  • James Webb Space Telescope: Expected to revolutionize astronomy in the 21st century and beyond 

Big Bang Theory 

  • Origin of the Universe: Proposes the universe began from an extremely hot, dense state. 
  • Expansion: Universe has been expanding ever since the initial explosion. 


  • Redshift of Galaxies: Observed by Edwin Hubble, showing galaxies moving away from us. 
  • Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation: Remnant heat from the initial explosion, detected as faint microwave radiation. 
  • Abundance of Light Elements: Predicts proportions of hydrogen, helium, and lithium observed in the universe. 


  • Singularity: Universe began as a singularity around 13.8 billion years ago. 
  • Expansion: Rapid expansion called “inflation” occurred in the first fractions of a second. 
  • Formation of Atoms: As the universe cooled, protons and neutrons combined to form simple atoms. 
  • Formation of Stars and Galaxies: Over billions of years, gravity pulled matter together to form stars and galaxies. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. Identify the strongest evidence supporting the Big Bang theory from the following:
  1. The abundance of light elements like hydrogen and helium in the universe. 
  1. The observation of galaxies moving away from each other (redshift). 
  1. The presence of cosmic microwave background radiation. 
  1. All of the above 



Abundance of light elements: The Big Bang theory predicts the observed ratio of light elements like hydrogen and helium in the universe, which cannot be explained by other theories. 

Redshift: The observation of galaxies moving away from each other (redshift) is consistent with the universe’s expansion, a key prediction of the Big Bang theory. 

Cosmic microwave background radiation: The cosmic microwave background radiation is the afterglow of the Big Bang, providing direct evidence for the theory. 



The division of Andhra Pradesh into two states, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, ten years ago, remains a significant event with lasting political, economic, and social implications. Initially contentious, the animosity has faded, with both states now functioning with distinct identities and little nostalgia for their united past. 

Separate Identities: 

  • Telangana and Andhra Pradesh function with distinct political, social, and economic identities. 
  • The regions were united under different authorities for about 150 years before 1956. 
  • Similar linguistic states (Kannada and Marathi) remained united under reorganization. 

Unity Question: 

  • The breakup questions the strength of the linguistic unity principle. 
  • Future stability of other linguistic states is uncertain. 

Organizing Principle 

Linguistic Basis: 

  • Most Indian states are organized on linguistic lines. 
  • The division of Andhra Pradesh raises doubts about the viability of this principle. 

Political Implications 

  • Smaller states have less influence in the central legislature. 
  • Andhra Pradesh’s influence diminished after division, impacting its political clout. 

Emerging Issues: 

  • Unaddressed grievances from both states may resurface. 
  • Telangana’s initial euphoria might fade, revealing issues from the division. 

Economic Struggles: 

  • Andhra Pradesh’s focus on a new capital and welfare schemes has led to financial strain. 
  • Unfulfilled promises from the Centre contribute to ongoing discontent. 

Revaluation Needed: 

  • The division of Andhra Pradesh highlights the need to reconsider core principles of state organization. 
  • A thorough examination is necessary to ensure stable governance and address future challenges. 


Formation of Andhra State: 

  • 1953: On October 1st, the Telugu-speaking area of Madras State was carved out to form Andhra State, with Kurnool as its capital. 

Merger with Hyderabad State: 

  • 1956: Based on the “Gentlemen’s Agreement,” the States Reorganisation Act merged the Telugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad State with Andhra State on November 1st. Hyderabad became the capital of the unified Andhra Pradesh. 

Telangana Movement and Division: 

  • 1969: Agitations began in Telangana, demanding separate statehood due to perceived neglect and lack of development. 
  • 1971: The Telangana Praja Samithi (TPS) won 10 out of 11 Lok Sabha seats but later merged with the Congress, leading to a temporary lull in the movement. 
  • 1990s: The movement gained momentum again, with the formation of the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) in 2001. 
  • 2009: The central government announced the formation of Telangana State on December 9th, but the decision was put on hold due to protests in other regions of Andhra Pradesh. 
  • 2014: After continued protests and negotiations, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act was passed by the Parliament, paving the way for Telangana’s formation. 
  • June 2nd, 2014: Telangana officially became the 29th state of India, with Hyderabad as its capital. The remaining portion of Andhra Pradesh continued as a separate state. 

The Indian Constitution provides for the creation and alteration of states through two main articles: 

Article 2: 

  • This article empowers the Parliament to admit new states into the Union or establish new states on terms and conditions it deems fit. 
  • This provision was used to admit Sikkim as a state in 1975. 

Article 3: 

  • This article outlines the specific ways in which states can be formed or altered: 
  • Separation of territory: A new state can be created by separating territory from an existing state. 
  • Uniting states or parts of states: Two or more states or parts of states can be merged to form a new state. 
  • Uniting territory with part of a state: Any territory can be united with a part of an existing state. 
  • Increasing or decreasing the area of a state: The Parliament can increase or decrease the area of any state. 
  • Altering state boundaries: The Parliament can alter the boundaries of any state. 

Key Points: 

  • Laws passed under Articles 2 and 3 are not considered amendments to the Constitution and can be passed by a simple majority in Parliament. 
  • This gives the Parliament significant power to redraw the political map of India. 


  • The creation of Telangana state in 2014 was a major example of state division under Article 3. 
  • The States Reorganisation Act of 1956, which significantly reshaped the map of India, was also based on these provisions. 



Women’s representation in the workforce increased from 23.9% in 2016 to 27.3% in 2022, but it stagnated at 27.3% in 2023 and then decreased to 26.8% in January 2024. 

Senior Leadership Positions 

Slow Progress: 

  • Women’s representation in senior roles increased from 18.8% in 2016 to 25.2% in 2021. 
  • Increase was slow, gaining only 1 percentage point every four years. 
  • Decline observed after 2021, with a decrease noted in January 2024. 

Sector-Wise Representation 

High Representation Sectors (Chart 4): 

  • Administrative and support services, healthcare and hospitals, consumer services, government administration, and education. 
  • Women in senior positions: 22%-30%. 
  • Highest in education sector: 30%. 

Moderate Representation Sectors (Chart 3): 

  • Accommodation and food services, financial services, retail, technology, and media. 
  • Women in senior roles: 15%-20%. 

Low Representation Sectors (Chart 2): 

  • Oil, gas and mining, construction, utilities, wholesale, manufacturing, transportation, and real estate. 
  • Women in leadership roles: 11%-14%. 
  • Lowest in oil industry: around 11%. 


  • Bias, societal norms, and structural barriers hinder women’s advancement. 
  • Slowdown in hiring women for leadership roles. 
  • Legislative Compliance 

Companies Act, 2013: 

  • Mandates women directors on company boards. 
  • Poor compliance observed. 
  • Between April 2018 and December 2023, 507 companies fined for non-compliance. 
  • 90% of fined companies were listed companies. 

Efforts for Improvement 

  • Focus on “women-led development”. 
  • Efforts by policymakers and business leaders to overcome challenges. 

India’s Labour Force Participation Rate 

  • Recent data from the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) shows India’s Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) has fallen to 40%, down from 47% in 2016. 
  • Indicates more than half of India’s working-age population (15 years and older) is opting out of the job market, with this proportion increasing. 

What is LFPR? 

Definition: The labour force includes individuals aged 15 or older who are either: 

  • Employed 
  • Unemployed but willing and actively looking for work 
  • Demand for Jobs: LFPR represents the percentage of the working-age population seeking employment, both employed and unemployed. 
  • LFPR in India has decreased from 47% in 2016 to 40% as of December 2021. 

Unemployment Rate (UER): The proportion of unemployed individuals within the labor force. 

Why is India’s LFPR so Low? 

  • Female LFPR: The main reason is the extremely low participation rate of women in the labor force. 
  • Male LFPR: 67.4% 
  • Female LFPR: 9.4% 
  • Global Comparison: According to the World Bank, India’s female labor force participation rate is around 25%, compared to the global average of 47%. 

Reasons for Low Female LFPR: 

  • Unfavourable working conditions for women: 
  • Law and order issues 
  • Inefficient public transportation 
  • Violence against women 
  • Societal norms 
  • Many women are exclusively engaged in household responsibilities and caring for their families. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. Consider the following statements:
  1. India’s Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) has been steadily increasing over the past decade, reaching a record high in 2024. 
  1. The LFPR for women in India remains significantly lower than that of men, particularly in rural areas. 
  1. The Government of India has launched several initiatives to improve female labour force participation, including the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao scheme and the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only 
  1. 2 and 3 only 
  1. 1 and 3 only 
  1. All of the above 



LFPR in India has been declining in recent years, not increasing. 

The gender gap in LFPR is a significant issue in India, with women’s participation being much lower than men’s, especially in rural areas. 

The government has implemented various schemes to encourage female participation in the workforce. 



Inequality, often debated for its impact on economic and social dynamics, holds a central position in contemporary discourse. While some argue its potential benefits in incentivizing entrepreneurial activity, others highlight its adverse effects on democratic processes and economic growth.  

Inequality and its Economic Effects 

Inequality and Democracy: 

  • High levels of inequality can harm democratic processes. 
  • This is because the wealthy may have more influence on policy decisions, leading to unequal representation. 

Inequality and Economic Growth: 

Monopoly Power: 

  • Companies with monopoly power can set higher prices, leading to lower real wages and reduced consumption. 
  • This can also lead to lower investment and economic growth. 

Multiplier Effect: 

  • When companies have monopoly power, the multiplier effect of investment is weaker. 
  • This means that investment has a smaller impact on overall economic growth. 
  • An unequal economy puts more money in the hands of those who consume less, further weakening the multiplier effect. 

Redistribution and Growth: 

  • Some argue that high taxes on the wealthy could discourage investment and job creation. 
  • Investment decisions are based on expected future profits, not accumulated wealth. 
  • Therefore, taxing wealth would not necessarily affect investment. 

Potential Benefits of Redistribution: 

  • Redistribution can lead to stronger economic growth through: 
  • Increased consumer demand due to higher incomes. 
  • Lower prices and higher real wages due to reduced monopoly power. 
  • Creation of new businesses by individuals freed from wage dependence. 

GDP is a widely used indicator of economic performance, it’s crucial to recognize its limitations when assessing a country’s true development. 

  • Focus on Production, not Wellbeing: GDP measures the total value of goods and services produced, but it doesn’t directly capture the well-being of the population. A high GDP can coexist with significant poverty, lack of access to healthcare and education, and social unrest. 
  • Inequality Matters: GDP tells us nothing about how wealth is distributed within a society. A country with a high GDP can also have extreme levels of inequality, where a small portion of the population enjoys immense wealth while the majority struggles to meet basic needs. This can lead to social instability and hinder overall progress. 
  • Environmental Impact: GDP doesn’t take into account the environmental costs associated with economic activity. Unsustainable practices that deplete resources and pollute the environment can contribute to long-term damage, even if GDP numbers appear positive in the short term. 

Multiple Choice Question: 

  1. Consider the following statements:
  1. High GDP growth is a necessary and sufficient condition for a country’s development. 
  1. GDP measures the total value of goods and services produced, but it doesn’t directly reflect the well-being of the population. 
  1. Sustainable development requires addressing environmental concerns alongside economic growth. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only 
  1. 2 and 3 only 
  1. 1 and 3 only 
  1. All of the above 



High GDP growth is not a sufficient condition for development. While it indicates economic activity, it doesn’t guarantee improvements in human well-being, social justice, or environmental sustainability. 

GDP measures the total value of goods and services produced, but it doesn’t directly capture the well-being of the population. High GDP can coexist with poverty, lack of access to basic needs, and inequality. 

Sustainable development requires addressing environmental concerns alongside economic growth. Unsustainable practices that deplete resources and pollute the environment can have long-term negative consequences, even if GDP numbers appear positive in the short term. 



Recently discovered beneath a religious centre’s floor. Belongs to Ramesses II, a renowned ancient Egyptian pharaoh. 

Sarcophagus Overview: 

  • Sarcophagus is a fancy coffin or box-like container. 
  • Originally meant for above-ground display. 
  • Used since ancient times in Egypt, Rome, and Greece. 
  • The term “sarcophagus” means “eater of flesh” in Greek. 

Sarcophagus Features: 

  • Made mostly of stone, like limestone, granite, sandstone, or marble. 
  • Elaborate decorations including carvings, images, and writing. 
  • Typically bears the name of the deceased. 

Archaeological Significance: 

  • Vital for understanding the cultures that made them. 
  • Decorations and inscriptions offer historical insights. 
  • Example: Tutankhamun’s golden sarcophagus is iconic. 




Delhi-based think tank CSE urges developed nations to fulfil financial commitments against climate change.  

SB60 Overview: 

  • Mid-year climate conference, gathering signatory nations to UNFCCC. 
  • Expected to host around 6,000 participants, including national delegates and civil society representatives. 
  • Crucial midpoint between CoP28 in Dubai and CoP29 in Azerbaijan. 

Key Focus Areas: 

  • Climate finance: Addressing financial support for climate-related initiatives. 
  • Progress on NDCs: Advancing national climate action plans. 
  • Submission of Transparency Reports: Timely reporting on climate-related actions. 
  • National Adaptation Plans: Developing strategies to adapt to climate change. 
  • Just Transition: Ensuring a fair shift towards sustainable practices. 

Annual Global Stocktake (GST) Dialogue: 

  • Inaugural event aimed at sharing effective strategies and lessons learned in incorporating GST outcomes into NDCs. 
  • Promotes collaborative learning and progress in global climate action. 



Karnataka State Department of Archaeology Museums and Heritage team uncovers ancient rock shelter paintings. 

  • Estimated to be approximately 2,500 years old. 
  • Located near Pampa Lake in the Hampi World Heritage Area. 


  • Situated in Koppal district near Hampi, Karnataka. 
  • Positioned to the south of the Tungabhadra River. 
  • One of the five sacred lakes in Hindu mythology, known as Panch-Sarovar. 
  • Mythologically significant as the place where Pampa, a form of Shiva’s consort Parvati, performed penance. 
  • Mentioned in the Hindu epic Ramayana as the waiting place of Shabhari, a devotee of Lord Rama. 
  • Surrounded by hills, temples, and lotus-filled waters. 

Cultural and Historical Significance: 

  • Reflects ancient artistic expressions. 
  • Offers insights into the religious and mythological beliefs of the region. 
  • Adds to the rich heritage of the Hampi World Heritage Area. 



China’s space agency announces successful landing of uncrewed spacecraft on the far side of the moon on June 2nd. 


Chang’e-6 Overview: 

  • Landed in the South Pole-Aitken Basin on the far side of the moon. 
  • First human sampling and return mission from the far side. 
  • Launched by Chinese Long March-5 rocket from Wenchang Space Launch Center 53 days prior. 
  • Craft includes orbiter, returner, lander, and ascender modules. 

Technological Features: 

  • Lander equipped with various sensors including microwave, laser, and optical imaging sensors for navigation and obstacle detection. 
  • Scheduled to complete sampling within two days using drilling and robotic arm methods. 
  • Focuses on intelligent and rapid sampling techniques. 


  • Breakthrough in lunar retrograde orbit design and control technology. 
  • Aims to achieve key sampling technologies. 
  • Marks the second successful mission to the far side, following China’s Chang’e-4 in 2019. 


June 2
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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