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February 26 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm


India is poised for a transformation in its nuclear energy sector, signalling a substantial policy shift by inviting private companies to invest around USD 26 billion.

This initiative aligns with India’s ambitious targets for renewable energy adoption and aims to propel electricity generation from non-carbon-emitting sources.

Alignment with India’s Energy Goals:

National Targets:

  • India strives to escalate its non-fossil fuels-based electricity generation capacity to 50% by 2030, up from the present 42%.
  • Private investment in nuclear power generation is pivotal in achieving this target, facilitating a transition to cleaner energy.

Investment and Capacity Addition:

  • Leading companies like Reliance Industries, Tata Power, Adani Power, and Vedanta Ltd. are in negotiation with the government for substantial investments in the nuclear energy sector.
  • The goal is to add 11,000 MW of new nuclear power generation capacity by 2040 through this investment.

Diversification and Energy Security:

  • The initiative is anticipated to diversify India’s energy mix, reduce dependence on fossil fuels, and fortify energy security in the long run.

India’s Energy Goals:

Net Zero Emissions by 2070:

  • India aspires to achieve net zero emissions by 2070, showcasing its commitment to sustainable practices.

Renewable Energy Target:

  • Aiming for 50% of electricity from renewable sources by 2030, India underscores its dedication to clean energy solutions.

Non-Fossil Fuel Energy Capacity:

  • India targets a non-fossil fuel energy capacity of 500 GW by 2030, emphasizing the transition towards sustainable alternatives.

Green Hydrogen Production:

  • The goal is to produce 5 million tonnes of green hydrogen by 2030, focusing on eco-friendly energy sources.

CO2 Emission Reduction:

  • Aiming to reduce CO2 emissions by 1 billion tons by 2030, India emphasizes its commitment to combating climate change.

Implementation of Investment Plan:

Private Sector Responsibilities:

  • Private companies will invest in nuclear plants, acquire land and water, and undertake construction activities.

NPCIL’s Role:

  • Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. (NPCIL) will retain rights for building, operating, and managing nuclear stations, along with fuel management.

Revenue Generation:

  • Private companies are expected to generate revenue from electricity sales, while NPCIL will operate projects for a fee.

FDI Policy and Regulatory Framework:

  • Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the atomic energy sector is restricted by the Consolidated FDI policy, but opportunities exist in manufacturing nuclear equipment.
  • The Atomic Energy Act 1962 governs the subject, and discussions are ongoing regarding potential FDI.



Current Energy Landscape:

·      India’s total installed power capacity is 428 GW, expected to double to 810 GW by 2030.

·      Nuclear power presently contributes approximately 3% to India’s energy mix.

Current Nuclear Power Scenario:

·      India operates 22 nuclear power reactors with a total capacity of 6.8 GW, contributing 3% to the nation’s energy.

·      11 additional nuclear power plants are under construction, aiming to add 8,700 MW of capacity.

Key Players and Regulation:

·      The Department of Atomic Energy, NPCIL, and NTPC are key players under the Union government’s control.

·      The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board oversees safety and regulatory processes, with the Indian Nuclear Insurance Pool providing coverage.


·      Safety and security concerns, nuclear waste management, land acquisition hurdles, and the lack of substantial public funding pose challenges.

·      Ensuring safety standards and efficient waste management practices remains critical.


·      India targets increasing nuclear power’s share from 3% to 9-10% of its energy mix.

·      Opportunities exist for foreign and private companies, especially in non-nuclear parts of power plants and services sectors.

·      Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) offer cost-saving and technology-sharing prospects.

Mains Question:

  1. Discuss the significance of India’s move to invite private companies for a USD 26 billion investment in the nuclear energy sector. Examine the potential contributions of private sector involvement in achieving India’s nuclear energy objectives and the challenges and opportunities associated with this transformative step. (150 WORDS)


February 26
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
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