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April 29 @ 7:00 am - 11:30 pm


The use of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) and Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) systems has become a cornerstone of India’s electoral process, revolutionizing the way elections are conducted in the country.

The Supreme Court’s recent decision in the Association of Democratic Reforms v. Election Commission of India Case, 2024, underscored the significance of EVMs and VVPATs in ensuring fair and transparent elections.

Evolution of EVMs and VVPATs in India

  • The concept of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) was first conceived in 1977, with a prototype developed by the Electronics Corporation of India Ltd (ECIL) in 1979.
  • In 1980, the Election Commission demonstrated an EVM, and by 1982, EVMs were tested in 50 polling stations during elections in the Parur seat of Kerala. However, legal challenges arose, questioning the legality of EVM usage.
  • In December 1988, an amendment to the Representation of the People Act, 1951, introduced a new section, 61A, empowering the Election Commission to use EVMs. This paved the way for the official adoption of EVMs in Indian elections.
  • By 1990, an Electoral Reforms Committee recommended the widespread use of EVMs, marking them as technically sound, secure, and transparent. Subsequently, EVMs were gradually introduced in state assembly elections across various states.
  • The year 2004 witnessed the use of EVMs in all 543 constituencies during Lok Sabha elections, signifying a significant milestone in India’s electoral history.
  • The introduction of Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) machines in 2013 further enhanced the transparency and credibility of the electoral process. VVPATs provided voters with a physical paper trail of their votes, offering an additional layer of verification.

Advantages of EVMs and VVPATs over Paper Ballot Systems

Accuracy and Reduced Errors:

  • EVMs eliminate the possibility of human errors such as miscounting and double voting, ensuring precise tabulation of votes.
  • Additionally, VVPATs provide voters with a tangible proof of their vote, minimizing disputes over electoral outcomes.

Faster Counting and Results:

  • EVMs significantly reduce the time required for vote counting compared to manual methods, enabling quicker declaration of election results.
  • This expedited process helps in minimizing uncertainties and delays associated with traditional paper ballots.

Environmental Sustainability:

  • EVMs contribute to environmental conservation by reducing paper usage, thereby lowering the environmental impact associated with printing and managing large quantities of paper ballots.
  • The transition to electronic voting corresponds with international endeavours to encourage environmentally sustainable practices in electoral procedures.

Enhanced Security Measures:

  • EVMs incorporate advanced security features such as encryption and tamper detection mechanisms, making them less susceptible to tampering or fraud.
  • The digital encryption of votes ensures the integrity and confidentiality of the electoral process, enhancing overall security and trust in election outcomes.

Supreme Court’s Observations on EVMs and VVPATs

  • The Supreme Court’s recent ruling upheld the use of EVMs and rejected a return to paper ballots, citing insufficient evidence to question the current polling system.
  • The Court also dismissed the request for 100% cross-verification of EVM votes with VVPAT slips, maintaining the current random 5% verification in Assembly constituencies.
  • However, the Court issued directives to the Election Commission to strengthen the existing system, emphasizing the importance of transparency and security in electoral processes.
  • The Court highlighted the neutrality of EVM microcontrollers and underscored the security measures in place to prevent unauthorized access and tampering.
  • Overall, the Court’s observations reaffirmed the credibility and reliability of EVMs and VVPATs in ensuring free and fair elections in India.


  • The evolution of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) and Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) systems has transformed India’s electoral landscape, making elections more efficient, transparent, and secure.
  • The recent Supreme Court ruling reaffirmed the integrity of EVMs and VVPATs, underscoring their pivotal role in upholding democracy and ensuring the voice of every voter is heard.
  • As India continues to embrace digital technologies in its electoral processes, EVMs and VVPATs remain indispensable tools in fostering trust, transparency, and accountability in the democratic process.


April 29
7:00 am - 11:30 pm
Event Category:
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