1. Why is Public Private Partnership (PPP) required in infrastructural projects ? Examine the role of PPP model in the redevelopment of Railway Stations in India. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Public Private Partnership (PPP) is a model where the government joins hands with the private sector to undertake a project. The primary reason for the adoption of PPP in infrastructural projects is to reduce the burden on the government’s finances. PPP model allows both the public and private sector to share the risks and benefits of a particular project.

In the case of the redevelopment of Railway Stations in India, PPP model has proved to be a game-changer. The government has partnered with private players to revamp the railway stations to international standards. The private players invest in the project, and in return, they are given the right to operate and maintain the railway stations for a specified period.

The PPP model has helped in the timely completion of the project, and the quality of infrastructure has also improved significantly. The private players bring in expertise and technology, which is not readily available with the government. Furthermore, the PPP model has also led to the creation of job opportunities, which has helped in boosting the economy.

In conclusion, the PPP model has played a crucial role in the redevelopment of railway stations in India. The government should continue to explore the PPP model for infrastructural projects to ensure timely completion and quality infrastructure.

2. Is inclusive growth possible under market economy ? State the significance of financial inclusion in achieving economic growth in India. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Inclusive growth is a key challenge for many developing economies, including India. While market economy has been successful in generating economic growth, it has also created significant income inequality. This has led to a situation where a large section of the population is unable to participate in the growth process, leading to social exclusion and economic disparities.

One way to address this challenge is by promoting financial inclusion. Financial inclusion refers to providing access to formal financial services such as banking, insurance, and credit to all sections of the population, especially those who are marginalized and excluded. By providing access to financial services, individuals and households are able to better manage their finances, invest in education and health, and start and grow businesses, thus participating in the growth process.

In the Indian context, financial inclusion has been a key priority for policymakers in recent years. The government has launched several initiatives such as Jan Dhan Yojana, Aadhaar, and mobile banking to promote financial inclusion. Despite these efforts, much remains to be done to ensure that all sections of the population have access to formal financial services. Achieving financial inclusion is critical not only for achieving inclusive growth but also for building a more resilient and sustainable economy.

3. What are the major challenges of Public Distribution System (PDS) in India ? How can it be made effective and transparent ? (Answer in 150 words) 10

The Public Distribution System (PDS) in India has been facing numerous challenges over the years. One of the major challenges is the issue of leakages, which results in a large percentage of the food grains not reaching the intended beneficiaries. Another challenge is the poor quality of food grains distributed through the system. Moreover, there have been instances of corruption and black marketing of PDS commodities.

To make PDS effective and transparent, the government needs to implement various measures. One of the most important steps is to modernize the system through the use of technology, such as biometric identification and online tracking of supplies. This will help in plugging the leakages and ensuring that the food grains reach the intended beneficiaries.

Another measure that can be taken is to involve the local community in the implementation of PDS. This can be done through the formation of vigilance committees, which can monitor the distribution of PDS commodities in their respective areas. Additionally, the government can increase the transparency of the PDS system by making the information regarding the distribution of food grains available online.

Overall, the government needs to take a comprehensive approach to address the challenges faced by the PDS system in India. By implementing the right measures, PDS can be made more effective and transparent, thereby ensuring that the intended beneficiaries receive the benefits of the system.

4. Elaborate the scope and significance of the food processing industry in India. (Answer in 150 words) 10

The food processing industry is one of the most significant sectors in India’s economy. It is an essential component of the agricultural value chain and provides employment to millions of people across the country. The industry involves transforming raw agricultural produce into value-added products, such as packaged foods, beverages, dairy products, and spices.

The significance of the food processing industry lies in its potential to increase farmers’ income, reduce food wastage, and improve food security in the country. It also plays a crucial role in contributing to the country’s GDP and foreign exchange earnings.

The Indian food processing industry has grown significantly in recent years, with a CAGR of 8.4% between 2014 and 2019. It is expected to continue this growth trajectory, driven by factors such as rising disposable incomes, changing consumer preferences, and increasing urbanization.

However, the food processing industry in India still faces several challenges, such as inadequate infrastructure, lack of quality raw materials, and low levels of technology adoption. Addressing these challenges will require significant investments in infrastructure and technology, as well as policy interventions to support the sector’s growth.

5. The increase in life expectancy in the country has led to newer health challenges in the community. What are those challenges and what steps need to be taken to meet them ? (Answer in 150 words) 10

As the average lifespan of people in the country increases, there are newer health challenges that have emerged in the community. One of the significant challenges is the rise in chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, and heart diseases. These diseases require long-term medical attention and care, leading to increased healthcare costs.

Another challenge is the mental health of the elderly population. With changing lifestyles and lack of social support, many older adults experience loneliness and isolation, leading to depression and anxiety disorders.

To tackle these challenges, the government needs to invest in preventive health measures, such as promoting a healthy lifestyle through physical activity, healthy eating, and regular health checkups. It is also essential to create awareness among the elderly population and their caregivers about the importance of mental health and provide access to mental health services.

Moreover, the government should work towards making healthcare affordable and accessible to all, especially the elderly population who require long-term medical attention. By taking these steps, we can ensure that the elderly population lives a healthy and fulfilling life, contributing to the growth and development of the country.

6. Each year a large amount of plant material, cellulose, is deposited on the surface of Planet Earth. What are the natural processes this cellulose undergoes before yielding carbon dioxide, water and other end products ? (Answer in 150 words) 10

Cellulose is a major component of plant material and is deposited on the surface of the Earth in large amounts every year. This cellulose undergoes a series of natural processes before yielding carbon dioxide, water, and other end products. The process of decomposition by microorganisms is one such process that breaks down the cellulose into simpler compounds. The microorganisms responsible for this decomposition process are mainly bacteria and fungi that live in the soil. These microorganisms secrete enzymes that break down the complex cellulose molecules into simpler molecules, which can then be utilized as a source of energy by the microorganisms.

The decomposition process is a crucial part of the carbon cycle, as it releases carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide released during this process is used by plants during photosynthesis, which in turn produces more cellulose. This cycle of carbon dioxide release and uptake by plants is essential for maintaining a balance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Apart from microorganisms, abiotic factors such as temperature, humidity, and oxygen availability also play a significant role in the decomposition process. The rate of decomposition is faster in warm, moist conditions with ample oxygen supply. Overall, the natural processes of decomposition play a crucial role in the cycling of carbon on Earth and are essential for maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

7. Discuss in detail the photochemical smog emphasizing its formation, effects and mitigation. Explain the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Photochemical smog is a type of air pollution that occurs when sunlight reacts with nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds emitted by vehicles, factories, and other sources. This reaction produces a mixture of pollutants including ozone, aldehydes, and peroxyacetyl nitrates.

The effects of photochemical smog can be harmful to human health, causing respiratory problems, eye irritation, and aggravating asthma. It can also have negative impacts on plant and animal life, as well as damage to buildings and materials.

To mitigate photochemical smog, efforts can be made to reduce emissions from vehicles and industrial sources, as well as promoting the use of alternative modes of transportation such as biking and public transit. The 1999 Gothenburg Protocol is an international agreement aimed at reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and other pollutants that contribute to acid rain, eutrophication, and photochemical smog. The protocol sets emission reduction targets for participating countries and encourages the use of cleaner technologies and fuels.

8. Explain the mechanism and occurrence of cloudburst in the context of the Indian subcontinent. Discuss two recent examples. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Cloudbursts are intense and sudden rainstorms that can cause flash floods and landslides. In the context of the Indian subcontinent, cloudbursts are common during the monsoon season, which lasts from June to September. During this time, warm and moist air from the Indian Ocean moves towards the Himalayas, where it collides with cooler air, leading to the formation of massive thunderclouds.

Two recent examples of cloudbursts in the Indian subcontinent occurred in Uttarakhand in 2013 and Ladakh in 2014. In Uttarakhand, heavy rainfall led to flash floods, landslides, and the washing away of entire villages. The disaster claimed thousands of lives and caused extensive damage to the state’s infrastructure. In Ladakh, a cloudburst caused flash floods and landslides, which damaged roads and buildings and claimed several lives.

To prevent and mitigate the effects of cloudbursts, it is essential to improve early warning systems, strengthen infrastructure, and promote sustainable land use practices. Additionally, community-based disaster preparedness and response plans can help save lives and reduce the impact of cloudbursts on vulnerable communities.

9. Discuss the types of organized crimes. Describe the linkages between terrorists and organized crime that exist at the national and transnational levels. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Organized crimes can be categorized into various types, such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, money laundering, cybercrime, and weapons trafficking. These criminal activities are often carried out by groups of individuals who have organized themselves into criminal networks to maximize their profits and minimize their risks.

In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of a connection between organized crime and terrorism. At the national level, terrorist groups have been known to collaborate with organized crime networks to finance their operations. This is often done through drug trafficking or other illegal activities.

At the transnational level, the links between terrorists and organized crime are even more complex. Criminal networks have been known to provide logistical support to terrorist organizations, such as arms smuggling, money laundering, and even training camps. This has led to concerns about the potential for terrorist groups to acquire weapons of mass destruction and other dangerous technologies.

Overall, it is clear that the links between terrorists and organized crime pose a significant threat to global security. As such, it is essential that law enforcement agencies work together to disrupt these networks and prevent them from carrying out their criminal activities.

10. What are the maritime security challenges in India ? Discuss the organisational, technical and procedural initiatives taken to improve the maritime security. (Answer in 150 words) 10

India faces a number of maritime security challenges due to its vast coastline and the presence of several critical ports. These challenges include piracy, terrorism, drug trafficking, and illegal fishing. In recent years, the Indian government has taken several steps to improve the country’s maritime security.

Organisational initiatives include the establishment of the Indian Coast Guard, which is responsible for protecting India’s maritime interests and enforcing maritime law. Technical initiatives include the use of modern technology such as radar systems, satellite imagery, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor and secure India’s maritime borders.

Procedural initiatives include the implementation of the Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) system, which is designed to provide real-time information on vessel movements and other maritime activities. This system helps to identify and track potential security threats and enables quick responses to incidents.

Overall, India’s efforts to improve maritime security have been commendable, but there is still room for improvement. The government must continue to invest in new technologies and training programs to stay ahead of the evolving threats to the country’s maritime security.

11. Economic growth in the recent past has been led by increase in labour activity.” Explain this statement. Suggest the growth pattern that will lead to creation of more jobs without compromising labour productivity. (Answer in 250 words) 15

The statement “Economic growth in the recent past has been led by increase in labour activity” means that the growth in the economy has been primarily driven by an increase in the number of people participating in the labor force. This could be due to factors such as population growth, an increase in the number of people entering the workforce, or policies that encourage labor force participation.

However, simply increasing labor force participation is not enough to create sustainable economic growth. It is important to focus on growth patterns that will lead to the creation of more jobs without compromising labor productivity. One approach is to focus on industries that are labor-intensive and have the potential to create more jobs while also boosting productivity. Another approach is to invest in education and training programs that will help workers develop the skills they need to be successful in high-demand industries.

Another important factor is to create an environment that is conducive to business growth. This includes policies that promote investment in infrastructure, reduce regulatory burdens, and lower taxes. By creating a business-friendly environment, companies are more likely to invest in new projects, expand their operations, and create more jobs.

Ultimately, the goal should be to create a virtuous cycle of economic growth, where increased labor activity leads to more job creation, which in turn leads to higher productivity and greater economic growth. By focusing on policies and strategies that promote sustainable economic growth, we can create a stronger, more prosperous economy for all.

12. Do you think India will meet 50 percent of its energy needs from renewable energy by 2030 ? Justify your answer. How will the shift of subsidies from fossil fuels to renewables help achieve the above objective ? Explain. (Answer in 250 words) 15

India’s ambitious target of meeting 50 percent of its energy needs from renewable energy by 2030 is certainly achievable, although there are several challenges that need to be addressed. One of the main factors that will contribute to the success of this goal is the shift of subsidies from fossil fuels to renewables.

Currently, the Indian government provides subsidies to the fossil fuel industry, which has led to the dominance of coal in the energy sector. However, this approach is not sustainable in the long run, as coal is a non-renewable resource that contributes significantly to air pollution and climate change. By shifting subsidies to renewables, the government can encourage investment in wind, solar, and other forms of clean energy, which will help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality.

In addition to the shift of subsidies, there are other measures that India can take to meet its renewable energy targets. These include improving the regulatory environment for renewables, investing in energy storage technologies, and increasing public awareness about the benefits of clean energy. India has already made significant progress in this regard, with the introduction of the National Solar Mission and other initiatives aimed at promoting renewables.

Overall, the shift of subsidies from fossil fuels to renewables is a crucial step in achieving India’s goal of meeting 50 percent of its energy needs from clean energy sources by 2030. While there are challenges to be overcome, India has the potential to become a world leader in renewable energy and play a significant role in the fight against climate change.

13. What are the main bottlenecks in upstream and downstream process of marketing of agricultural products in India ? (Answer in 250 words) 15

The marketing of agricultural products in India faces several bottlenecks in both upstream and downstream processes. One of the main challenges in the upstream process is the lack of modern farming techniques and technologies, which leads to low productivity and poor quality of crops. This also affects the supply chain as it becomes difficult to regulate the quantity and quality of crops being produced.

Another bottleneck in the upstream process is the inadequate infrastructure for storage and transportation of agricultural products. The lack of proper storage facilities results in wastage of crops, while poor transportation facilities lead to increased transportation costs and longer transit times, affecting the quality of the products.

In the downstream process, the main bottleneck is the inadequate marketing infrastructure. The absence of proper marketing channels for agricultural products causes farmers to rely on intermediaries, who often exploit them by offering low prices for their products. This leads to a situation where the farmers are unable to reap the benefits of their hard work and investment.

Apart from these, other bottlenecks include the lack of market intelligence, information, and access to credit. The absence of these factors makes it difficult for farmers to make informed decisions, and they end up losing out on potential profits.

To overcome these bottlenecks, the government needs to invest in modern farming techniques, create better storage and transportation facilities, and develop efficient marketing channels for agricultural products. Additionally, farmers need to be provided with market intelligence, information, and access to credit to help them make informed decisions and increase their profits.

14. What is Integrated Farming System ? How is it helpful to small and marginal farmers in India ? (Answer in 250 words) 15

Integrated Farming System (IFS) is a sustainable agricultural production system that integrates different agricultural activities such as crop production, livestock, poultry, fishery, and agroforestry in a single farming system. The main objective of IFS is to improve farm productivity, reduce environmental pollution, and increase farmers’ income.

IFS is particularly helpful to small and marginal farmers in India who have limited resources and land. Through IFS, farmers can diversify their production and increase their income by incorporating different farming activities. For example, farmers can use animal waste to produce organic fertilizer, which can be used to increase crop yield. They can also incorporate fishery and poultry farming, which can provide additional sources of income.

Another advantage of IFS is that it can help reduce the use of chemical inputs and pesticides, which can be costly and harmful to the environment. Instead, farmers can use natural methods such as crop rotation and intercropping, which can improve soil fertility and reduce pest attacks.

Furthermore, IFS can help improve the resilience of small and marginal farmers to climate change. By diversifying their production, farmers can reduce the risk of crop failure due to extreme weather events such as droughts or floods.

In conclusion, Integrated Farming System is a sustainable agricultural production system that can offer numerous benefits to small and marginal farmers in India. It can help improve productivity, reduce environmental pollution, increase income, and improve resilience to climate change.

15. Launched on 25th December, 2021, James Webb Space Telescope has been much in the news since then. What are its unique features which make it superior to its predecessor Space Telescopes ? What are the key goals of this mission ? What potential benefits does it hold for the human race? (Answer in 250 words) 15

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the largest and most powerful space telescope ever built. Its unique features include a much larger mirror than its predecessor, the Hubble Space Telescope, allowing it to capture more light and see deeper into space. It also operates in the infrared range, which allows it to see through clouds of dust and gas that can obscure visible light.

The key goals of the JWST mission are to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, stars, and planetary systems, and to search for signs of life on exoplanets. By studying the light from distant objects, the telescope will be able to provide insights into the early universe and the processes that shaped it. It will also be able to study the atmospheres of exoplanets, searching for the chemical signatures of life.

The potential benefits of the JWST mission are significant. By advancing our understanding of the universe and its origins, it has the potential to inspire future generations of scientists and engineers. It could also lead to new technologies and innovations that benefit society in a variety of ways. Additionally, the search for life beyond our own planet has profound philosophical and cultural implications, and could help us to better understand our place in the universe.

Overall, the James Webb Space Telescope represents a major leap forward in our ability to explore the cosmos and unlock its secrets. Its unique features and ambitious goals make it one of the most exciting scientific projects of our time.

16. What is the basic principle behind vaccine development? How do vaccines work? What approaches were adopted by the Indian vaccine manufacturers to produce COVID-19 vaccines ? (Answer in 250 words) 15

Vaccines work by training the immune system to recognize and fight against specific diseases. Typically, vaccines contain a weakened or inactivated form of the disease-causing pathogen, or a piece of the pathogen known as an antigen. When the vaccine is administered, the body’s immune system recognizes the antigen as a foreign invader and responds by producing antibodies to fight it. These antibodies are then retained by the immune system, ready to recognize and fight the actual pathogen if the person is ever exposed to it in the future.

In the case of COVID-19 vaccines, Indian vaccine manufacturers have adopted various approaches to develop and produce effective vaccines. Some have used inactivated or weakened forms of the virus, while others have used genetic material from the virus to trigger an immune response. One Indian company has even developed a vaccine that uses a harmless virus to deliver the genetic material from the COVID-19 virus into cells, triggering an immune response without causing illness.

Despite the different approaches, all COVID-19 vaccines produced by Indian manufacturers have undergone rigorous testing and clinical trials to ensure their safety and effectiveness. These vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of severe illness and death from COVID-19, and are a crucial tool in the fight against the ongoing global pandemic.

17. Discuss global warming and mention its effects on the global climate. Explain the control measures to bring down the level of greenhouse gases which cause global warming, in the light of the Kyoto Protocol, 1997. (Answer in 250 words) 15

Global warming is a major issue that has been affecting the global climate for many years. It refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s surface due to the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. These gases trap heat from the sun and cause the Earth’s temperature to rise, leading to various negative impacts such as sea level rise, extreme weather events, and loss of biodiversity.

To control global warming, it is important to reduce the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol, which was adopted in 1997, is an international agreement that aims to do just that. Under this protocol, developed countries agreed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by a certain amount by the year 2012.

There are several control measures that can be implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One of the most effective ways is to increase the use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. This reduces the dependence on fossil fuels, which are major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions.

Another way to control global warming is to promote energy efficiency. This can be done by using energy-efficient appliances and buildings, reducing waste, and improving transportation systems.

In addition, afforestation and reforestation programs can help to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This involves planting trees and other vegetation, which absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis.

Overall, there are many ways to control global warming and reduce the level of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol is an important step in this direction, and it is important that countries continue to work towards achieving its goals.

18. Explain the causes and effects of coastal erosion in India. What are the available coastal management techniques for combating the hazard ? (Answer in 250 words) 15

Coastal erosion is a natural process that occurs when waves, tides, and winds erode the coastline. In India, coastal erosion is primarily caused by human activities such as construction, mining, and dredging. These activities disrupt the natural processes of the coastline, leading to increased erosion.

The effects of coastal erosion in India are far-reaching. It can cause loss of property, infrastructure, and livelihoods. It also leads to the loss of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and coral reefs, which are critical breeding grounds for marine life. Moreover, it increases the risk of flooding and storm surges, which can have devastating consequences for coastal communities.

To combat coastal erosion, India has implemented several coastal management techniques. These include beach nourishment, where sand is replenished on eroded beaches, and construction of seawalls and breakwaters to protect the coastline from wave action. Additionally, India has implemented measures to regulate human activities along the coast, such as the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) notification, which restricts construction activities within 500 meters of the coastline.

In conclusion, coastal erosion is a significant hazard in India that requires immediate attention. By implementing effective coastal management techniques and regulating human activities along the coast, we can mitigate the effects of erosion and protect our coastal communities and ecosystems.

19. What are the different elements of cyber security ? Keeping in view the challenges in cyber security, examine the extent to which India has successfully developed a comprehensive National Cyber Security Strategy. (Answer in 250 words) 15

Cyber security can be broken down into several key elements, including confidentiality, integrity, availability, authentication, and non-repudiation. Confidentiality refers to the protection of sensitive information from unauthorized access, while integrity ensures that data remains accurate and unmodified. Availability focuses on ensuring that information is accessible when needed, and authentication confirms the identity of users and devices. Non-repudiation is the ability to prove that a particular action was taken by a specific individual.

India has made significant strides in developing a comprehensive National Cyber Security Strategy. The country has established a number of institutions and organizations dedicated to combating cyber threats, including the National Cyber Security Coordinator and the Computer Emergency Response Team. Additionally, India has implemented a number of policies and regulations aimed at strengthening cyber security, such as the Information Technology Act and the National Cyber Security Policy.

Despite these efforts, however, India still faces significant challenges in the realm of cyber security. The country continues to be vulnerable to a range of cyber threats, including cyber espionage, cyber terrorism, and cybercrime. Moreover, India’s digital infrastructure remains relatively weak, with many organizations lacking the necessary resources and expertise to effectively safeguard their networks and systems.

Moving forward, it will be critical for India to continue investing in its cyber security capabilities and infrastructure. This will require ongoing collaboration between government agencies, private sector stakeholders, and international partners, as well as a sustained commitment to education and awareness-raising efforts. By taking these steps, India can better protect itself against cyber threats and ensure the safety and security of its citizens and businesses in the digital age.

20. Naxalism is a social, economic and developmental issue manifesting as a violent internal security threat. In this context, discuss the emerging issues and suggest a multilayered strategy to tackle the menace of Naxalism. (Answer in 250 words) 15

Naxalism is a complex problem that requires a comprehensive approach to address it. It is a product of social, economic, and developmental issues that have plagued certain parts of India for decades. To tackle this menace, a multilayered strategy is needed.

Firstly, the government needs to address the socio-economic conditions of the areas affected by Naxalism. This can be done by providing adequate education, healthcare, and employment opportunities. The government needs to ensure that these areas receive the same level of attention and investment as the rest of the country.

Secondly, the government needs to work towards improving the law and order situation in these areas. This can be achieved by strengthening the police force, providing them with better training and equipment, and improving their intelligence gathering capabilities. The government also needs to work closely with the local communities to gain their trust and support.

Thirdly, the government needs to engage in a dialogue with the Naxalites. This can be a difficult and delicate process, but it is necessary if we want to bring an end to the violence. The government needs to address the legitimate grievances of the Naxalites and find a way to integrate them into the mainstream.

Fourthly, strengthening of the CAPFs with equipment, training and intelligence apparatus. This will be a check on their growth. 

Fifthly, a strong propaganda mechanism to highlight the real intent of the maoists will break their bond with the masses. 

Finally, the government needs to address the root causes of Naxalism, which are poverty, inequality, and lack of development. This requires a long-term and sustained effort to improve the lives of the people living in these areas.

Tackling Naxalism requires a multi-pronged approach that addresses the socio-economic conditions, law and order situation, dialogue with the Naxalites, and the root causes of the problem. It is only through sustained efforts that we can hope to bring an end to this violent internal security threat.