1.(a) Wisdom lies in knowing what to reckon with and what to overlook. An officer being engrossed with the periphery, ignoring the core issues before him, is no rare in the bureaucracy. Do you agree that such preoccupation of an administrator leads to travesty of justice to the cause of effective service delivery and good governance? Critically evaluate. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Yes, it can be safely presumed that an officer’s preoccupation with the periphery and ignorance of core issues can lead to a travesty of justice and hinder effective service delivery and good governance. It is essential for an administrator to prioritize the most critical issues and address them appropriately.

Focusing solely on the periphery can result in overlooking the root causes of problems, leading to ineffective solutions and wasted resources. This approach can also lead to a lack of accountability and transparency, which is crucial for good governance.

Therefore, administrators must strike a balance between addressing peripheral issues and tackling core problems. They must identify the root causes of problems and work towards finding sustainable solutions for the long-term benefit of the people and the organization.

An administrator’s ability to differentiate between peripheral and core issues is crucial in ensuring effective service delivery and good governance. They must prioritize core issues and address them appropriately to achieve sustainable solutions and better outcomes.

1. (b) Apart from intellectual competency and moral qualities, empathy and compassion are some of the other vital attributes that facilitate the civil servants to be more competent in tackling the crucial issues or taking critical decisions. Explain with suitable illustrations. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Empathy and compassion are essential attributes that enable civil servants to better understand and address the needs and concerns of the people they serve. For instance, a civil servant working in a disaster-hit area must have the ability to empathize with the people who have lost their homes and loved ones. This ability to understand and share the feelings of others can help the civil servant to provide better support and assistance to those affected by the disaster.

Similarly, compassion is also crucial in decision-making. Civil servants must consider the impact of their decisions on the people they serve and try to minimize any negative consequences. For instance, a civil servant responsible for implementing policies related to education must have compassion for the students and their families. This can help them to design policies that are more inclusive, equitable, and accessible to all students, regardless of their socio-economic background.

Overall, intellectual competency and moral qualities are important for civil servants, but empathy and compassion are also vital attributes that can help them to be more effective in their roles. By understanding the needs and concerns of the people they serve and making decisions that prioritize their well-being, civil servants can contribute to building a more just and equitable society.

2. (a) The Rules and Regulations provided to all the civil servants are same, yet there is difference in the performance. Positive minded officers are able to interpret the Rules and Regulations in favour of the case and achieve success, whereas negative minded officers are unable to achieve goals by interpreting the same Rules and Regulations against the case. Discuss with illustrations. (Answer in 150 words) 10

The Rules and Regulations are not just a set of guidelines for civil servants, they are also tools that can be used to achieve success. However, it is important to note that the interpretation of these rules is crucial in determining the outcome of a case. Positive-minded officers are able to interpret the rules in a way that benefits their case, while negative-minded officers are unable to do so, leading to failure.

For instance, consider a situation where two officers are assigned the same case with similar circumstances. The positive-minded officer will analyse the rules and regulations, identify any loopholes and use them to favour their case. On the other hand, the negative-minded officer will interpret the rules against their case and fail to achieve their goals.

In conclusion, it is not just about knowing the Rules and Regulations, but also about having the right mindset to interpret them in a way that benefits the case. A positive outlook can go a long way in achieving success as a civil servant.

2.(b) It is believed that adherence to ethics in human actions would ensure in smooth functioning of an organization/system. If so, what does ethics seek to promote in human life? How do ethical values assist in the resolution of conflicts faced by him in his day-to-day functioning? (Answer in 150 words) 10

Ethics plays a crucial role in an individual’s personal and professional life. It aims to promote values such as honesty, integrity, and responsibility. These values assist individuals in making sound decisions and conducting themselves in a responsible and appropriate manner.

In an organizational setting, adherence to ethical principles ensures that the organization operates smoothly and with integrity. Employees who act ethically are more likely to be trusted by their colleagues and superiors, and this trust can lead to more effective collaboration and teamwork.

Ethical values also assist individuals in resolving conflicts that they may face in their day-to-day functioning. When individuals are guided by ethical principles, they are better able to navigate complex situations and make decisions that are fair and just. Ethical values such as respect, empathy, and fairness can help individuals understand the perspectives of others and find solutions that are mutually beneficial.

In conclusion, ethics promotes values that are essential for the smooth functioning of an organization and assists individuals in resolving conflicts in their personal and professional lives. Adherence to ethical principles is crucial for individuals and organizations alike to maintain integrity and uphold the trust of those around them.

3.(a) Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have the right to do and what is right to do.’-Potter Stewart. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Potter Stewart’s quote on ethics highlights the importance of understanding the difference between what we are entitled to do and what is morally right. Ethics is a branch of philosophy that deals with moral principles and values. It guides us in making decisions that affect ourselves and others around us. In today’s world, where people are driven by success and personal gain, ethical principles are often compromised. However, it is crucial to remember that ethical behaviour is critical in building trust, credibility, and relationships.

Living an ethical life is not easy and requires constant effort. It involves being honest and transparent in our dealings, treating others with respect and empathy, and taking responsibility for our actions. Ethical behaviour is essential not only in our personal lives but also in the workplace. Companies that prioritize ethical practices are more likely to attract and retain employees, build a loyal customer base and have a positive impact on society.

In conclusion, ethics is not just about following rules and regulations; it is about doing what is right, even when no one is watching. It is about being responsible and accountable for our actions and decisions. By upholding ethical values and principles, we can create a better world for ourselves and those around us.

3.(b) “If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the father, the mother and the teacher.” – Abdul Kalam. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Abdul Kalam, the former President of India, believed that in order for a country to become corruption-free and achieve intellectual greatness, there are three key societal members who play a crucial role. These members are the father, the mother, and the teacher.

Fathers and mothers are the first teachers a child ever has. They instill values and principles in their children from a very young age. It is important for parents to lead by example and set high standards of honesty, integrity, and responsibility, so that their children grow up with a strong moral compass.

Teachers, on the other hand, have the responsibility of shaping the minds of the future generation. They not only impart knowledge, but also teach values and skills that are necessary for success in life. Teachers have the ability to inspire and motivate students to become responsible citizens who contribute positively to society.

In conclusion, the role of parents and teachers in shaping the minds of the youth is crucial for the development of a nation. By instilling the right values and principles in children from a young age, we can create a society of beautiful minds that is free from corruption and strives towards greatness.

3.(c) “Judge your success by what you had to give up in order to get it.” Dalai Lama. (Answer in 150 words) 10

This quote by the Dalai Lama is a powerful reminder that success often comes at a cost. True success requires sacrifice and hard work, and sometimes that means giving up things we hold dear. It’s important to remember that success isn’t just about achieving our goals, but also about the journey we take to get there.

When we set out to accomplish something, we have to be willing to put in the time and effort required to make it happen. This may mean sacrificing time with loved ones, giving up hobbies or interests, or even facing failure and setbacks along the way. But when we look back on our journey and see how far we’ve come, we can take pride in knowing that our success was hard-earned and well-deserved.

Ultimately, success is about more than just material wealth or social status. It’s about finding fulfilment and purpose in our lives, and making a positive impact in the world around us. So let us judge our success not by what we’ve gained, but by what we’ve given up in order to achieve it.

4. (a) What do you understand by term ‘good governance’? How far recent initiatives in terms of e-Governance steps taken by the State have helped the beneficiaries? Discuss with suitable examples. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Good governance refers to the effective and efficient management of public resources to meet the needs and expectations of citizens. It involves transparency, accountability, participation, and rule of law. Recent initiatives in terms of e-Governance steps taken by the State have played a significant role in promoting good governance and enhancing the delivery of public services.

For example, the implementation of online portals for various services such as issuing of certificates, payment of bills, and filing of taxes has reduced the need for citizens to physically visit government offices and has improved the accessibility of public services. Additionally, the use of digital platforms for communication and feedback has enhanced transparency and accountability in governance.

However, there is still much work to be done in terms of ensuring that e-Governance initiatives reach all sections of society, particularly those in rural and remote areas. It is important to ensure that these initiatives are inclusive and do not leave anyone behind. Overall, e-Governance has the potential to significantly improve the quality of governance and promote the welfare of citizens.

4.(b)Online methodology is being used for day-to-day meetings, institutional approvals in the administration and for teaching and learning in education sector to the extent telemedicine in the health sector is getting popular with the approvals of the competent authority. No doubt it has advantages and disadvantages for both the beneficiaries and system at large. Describe and discuss the ethical issues involved in the use of online method particularly to vulnerable section of society. (Answer in 150 words) 10

The use of online methodology has become increasingly popular in various sectors, including education and healthcare. While it has numerous benefits such as convenience and accessibility, it also poses ethical concerns, especially when it comes to vulnerable sections of society.

One of the main ethical issues is the digital divide. Not everyone has access to technology and the internet, which can create a disadvantage for those who are already marginalized. This can lead to further inequalities and perpetuate the cycle of poverty.

Another concern is privacy and security. Online meetings and transactions can be vulnerable to hacking and cyber attacks, which can compromise sensitive information of individuals and institutions. It is important to ensure that adequate measures are in place to protect the privacy and security of all parties involved.

Moreover, online methodology can also be impersonal and lack the human touch. This can have a negative impact on the quality of interactions, particularly in healthcare, where empathy and compassion are crucial.

Therefore, it is essential to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of online methodology and ensure that vulnerable sections of society are not left behind. It is important to address the ethical concerns and ensure that the benefits of online methodology are accessible to all, without compromising their rights and dignity.

5. (a) Russia and Ukraine war has been going on for the last seven months. Different countries have taken independent stands and actions keeping in view their own national interests. We are all aware that war has its own impact on the different aspects of society, including human tragedy. What are those ethical issues that are crucial to be considered while launching the war and its continuation so far? Illustrate with justification the ethical issues involved in the given state of affair. (Answer in 150 words) 10

The ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine has had far-reaching effects on the two countries and the international community. However, amidst the political and economic implications, it is important to consider the ethical issues surrounding the conflict.

One crucial ethical issue is the justification for war in the first place. While countries have the right to defend themselves, it is important to ensure that war is the last resort after all diplomatic avenues have been exhausted. In this case, both Russia and Ukraine have accused each other of provoking the conflict, and it is unclear who initiated the aggression.

Another ethical issue is the impact of war on civilians. The conflict has led to displacement, loss of homes, and loss of lives. It is vital that both parties adhere to the principles of jus in bello, which requires that war be conducted in a manner that minimizes harm to civilians.

Furthermore, there is the issue of accountability for war crimes and violations of international humanitarian law. Both Russia and Ukraine have been accused of committing such crimes, and it is important that they are held accountable for their actions.

In conclusion, the war between Russia and Ukraine raises several ethical issues that must be considered. It is important that both parties prioritize the protection of civilians and adhere to the principles of international humanitarian law. Ultimately, a peaceful resolution to the conflict is the best outcome for all involved.

5. (b) Write short notes on the following in 30 words each: (i) Constitutional morality (ii) Conflict of interest (iii) Probity in public life (iv) Challenges of digitalization (v) Devotion to duty

(i) Constitutional morality refers to the adherence to the principles and values enshrined in the Constitution. It requires individuals to act in a manner that upholds the Constitution’s spirit and purpose.

(ii) Conflict of interest arises when a person’s personal interest conflicts with their professional duties. It can lead to a breach of trust and misuse of power, and it’s essential to avoid it in public life.

(iii) Probity in public life means adherence to the highest standards of honesty, integrity, and ethical behaviour. It requires public officials to act in the public interest and avoid any behaviour that erodes public trust.

(iv) Digitalization has brought numerous benefits, such as increased efficiency and accessibility. However, it also poses significant challenges, such as cybersecurity threats, privacy concerns, and the need for digital literacy.

(v) Devotion to duty refers to a sense of responsibility and commitment towards one’s work. It requires individuals to perform their duties with diligence and dedication, even in the face of challenges or obstacles. It’s a vital trait for public officials who serve the public interest.

6.(a) Whistle blower, who reports corruption and illegal activities, wrongdoing and misconduct to the concerned authorities, runs the risk of being exposed to grave danger, physical harm and victimization by the vested interests, accused persons and his team. What policy measures would you suggest to strengthen protection mechanism to safeguard the whistle blower? (Answer in 150 words) 10

There are several policy measures that can be put in place to strengthen the protection mechanism for whistle blowers. Firstly, there needs to be a clear and comprehensive legal framework that outlines the rights of the whistle blower, including protection against retaliation, confidentiality and anonymity. This framework should be backed up by effective enforcement mechanisms to ensure that those who violate the rights of whistle blowers are held accountable.

Secondly, there needs to be a culture of support for whistle blowers within organizations. This can be achieved through training and awareness programs that educate employees on the importance of whistle blowing, and the protections available to those who report wrongdoing. Additionally, there should be internal reporting mechanisms that allow employees to report concerns without fear of retaliation.

Thirdly, there needs to be a system in place for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the protection mechanism. This should include regular reviews of the legal framework and its enforcement, as well as feedback from whistle blowers on their experiences.

Overall, the protection of whistle blowers is essential in promoting transparency and accountability, and ensuring the public trust in institutions. By implementing these policy measures, we can create a safe and supportive environment for whistle blowers to come forward and report wrongdoing without fear of reprisal.

6.(b) In contemporary world, corporate sector’s contribution in generating wealth and employment is increasing. In doing so, they are bringing in unprecedented onslaught on the climate, environmental sustainability and living conditions of human beings. In this background, do you Responsibility (CSR) is efficient and sufficient enough to fulfill the social roles and responsibilities needed in the corporate work mandated? Critically examine. (Answer in 150 words) 10

In recent years, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a buzzword in the business world. Many companies are now incorporating CSR into their business models, recognizing the importance of their social and environmental impact. However, the question remains whether CSR is efficient and sufficient enough to fulfill the social roles and responsibilities needed in the corporate world.

While CSR initiatives can certainly have a positive impact, it’s important to recognize that they are not a substitute for fundamental changes to the way businesses operate. In order to truly address the environmental and social challenges we face, businesses must adopt more sustainable practices and prioritize the well-being of their stakeholders over short-term profits.

Additionally, it’s important to acknowledge that CSR initiatives can sometimes be used as a form of greenwashing, where companies use superficial sustainability efforts to distract from more significant issues. Therefore, it’s essential that CSR initiatives are transparent, accountable, and backed up by genuine efforts to improve social and environmental impact.

Overall, CSR can be a useful tool for companies to improve their social and environmental impact, but it should not be seen as a substitute for fundamental changes to the way businesses operate. Critically examining the effectiveness of CSR initiatives is essential to ensure that companies are truly fulfilling their social roles and responsibilities.


7. Prabhat was working as Vice President (Marketing) at Sterling Electric Ltd., a reputed multinational company. But presently the company was passing through the difficult times as the sales were continuously showing downward trend in the last two quarters. His division, which hitherto had been a major revenue contributor to the company’s financial health, was now desperately trying to procure some big government order for them. But their best efforts did not yield any positive success or breakthrough. His was a professional company and his local bosses were under pressure from their London-based HO to show some positive results. In the last performance review meeting taken by the Executive Director (India Head), he was reprimanded for his poor performance. He assured them that his division is working on a special contract from the Ministry of Defence for a secret installation near Gwalior and tender is being submitted shortly. He was under extreme pressure and he was deeply perturbed. What aggravated the situation further was a warning from the top that if the deal is not clinched in favour of the company, his division might have to be closed and he may have to quit his lucrative job. There was another dimension which was causing him deep mental torture and agony. This pertained to his personal precarious financial health. He was a single earner in the family with two school-college going children and his old ailing mother. The heavy expenditure on education and medical was causing a big strain to his monthly pay packet. Regular EMI for housing loan taken from bank unavoidable and any default would render him liable for severe legal action. In the above backdrop, he was hoping for some miracle to happen. There was sudden turn of events. His Secretary informed that a gentleman Subhas Verma wanted to see him as he was interested in the position of Manager which was to be filled by him in the company. He further brought to his notice that his CV has been received through the office of the Minister of Defence. During interview of the candidate-Subhash Verma, he found him technically sound, resourceful and experienced marketeer. He seemed to be well-conversant with tendering procedures and having knack of follow-up and liaising in this regard Prabhat felt that he was better choice than the rest of the candidates who were recently interviewed by him in the last few days. Subhash Verma also indicated that he was in possession of the copies of the bid documents that the Unique Electronics Ltd. would be submitting the next day to the Defence Ministry for their tender. He offered to hand over those documents subject to his employment in the company on suitable terms and conditions. He made it clear that in the process, the Sterling Electric Ltd. could outbid their rival company and get the bid and hefty Defence Ministry order. He indicated that it will be win-win situation for both-him and the company. Prabhat was absolutely stunned. It was a mixed feeling of shock and thrill. He was uncomfortable and perspiring. If accepted, all his problems would vanish instantly and he may be rewarded for securing the much awaited tender and thereby boosting company’s sales and financial health. He was in a fix as to the future course of action. He was wonder-struck at the guts of Subhash Verma in having surreptitiously removing his own company papers and offering to the rival company for a job. Being an experienced person, he was examining the pros and cons of the proposal/situation and he asked him to come the next day. (a) Discuss the ethical issues involved in the case. (b) Critically examine the options available to Prabhat in the above situation. (c) Which of the above would be the most appropriate for Prabhat and why? (Answer in 250 words) 20

(a) The case raises several ethical issues. Firstly, Subhash Verma’s actions of stealing confidential bid documents from his current employer and offering them to Sterling Electric Ltd. for personal gain is a clear violation of professional ethics and corporate policies. Secondly, Prabhat’s consideration of accepting the stolen documents and using them to win the government contract can be seen as unethical and illegal. It can also harm the reputation of the company and cause irreversible damage to its relationship with the government. Thirdly, the pressure from the top to secure the contract at any cost and the threat of division closure and job loss for Prabhat if the deal is not clinched can be seen as a moral dilemma.

(b) Prabhat has several options available to him. He can choose to report Subhash Verma’s actions to his current employer and refuse to use the stolen documents. Alternatively, he can choose to accept the documents and use them to win the contract, but this would be unethical and illegal. He can also choose to interview other candidates and select one who is qualified for the job without resorting to unethical practices. Lastly, he can choose to resign from his job and look for other opportunities that align with his personal and professional ethics.

(c) The most appropriate option for Prabhat would be to interview other qualified candidates and select one without resorting to unethical practices. While the pressure from the top and his personal financial situation may be stressful, using stolen bid documents can harm the reputation of the company and cause irreversible damage to its relationship with the government. Prabhat should also report Subhash Verma’s actions to his current employer to prevent him from engaging in such unethical practices in the future. It may be challenging, but choosing the ethical path is the right thing to do and will benefit the company and its stakeholders in the long run.

8. Ramesh is State Civil Services Officer who got the opportunity of getting posted to the capital of a border State after rendering 20 years of service. Ramesh’s mother has recently been detected cancer and has been admitted in the leading cancer hospital of the city. His two adolescent children have also got admission in one of the best public schools of the town. After settling down in his appointment as Director in the Home Department of the State, Ramesh got confidential report through intelligence sources that illegal migrants are infiltrating in the State from the neighbouring country. He decided to personally carry out surprise check of the border posts along with his Home Department team. To his surprise, he caught red-handed two families of 12 members infiltrated with the connivance of the security personnel at the border posts. On further inquiry and investigation, it was found that after the migrants from neighbouring country infiltrate, their documentation like Aadhaar Card, Ration Card and Voter Card are also forged and they are made to settle down in a particular area of the State. Ramesh prepared the detailed and comprehensive report and submitted to the Additional Secretary of the State. However, he has summoned by the Additional Home Secretary after a week and was instructed to withdraw the report. The Additional Home Secretary informed Ramesh that the report submitted by him has not been appreciated by the higher authorities. He further cautioned him that if he fails to withdraw the confidential ort, he will not only be posted out from the prestigious appointment from the State capital but his further promotion which is due in near future will also get in jeopardy. (a) What are the options available to Ramesh as the Director of the Home Department of the bordering State? (b) What option should Ramesh adopt and why? (c) Critically evaluate each of the options. (d) What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by Ramesh? (e) What policy measures would you suggest to combat the menace of infiltration of illegal migrants from the neighbouring country? (Answer in 250 words) 20

As the Director of the Home Department of the bordering State, Ramesh has several options available to him. He can choose to withdraw the report as instructed by the Additional Home Secretary, or he can choose to stand his ground and refuse to withdraw the report. If he chooses the latter, he can either escalate the matter to higher authorities or he can choose to resign from his position.

Ramesh should choose to stand his ground and refuse to withdraw the report. This is because he has a moral and ethical obligation to report illegal activity and uphold the law, even if it means going against the wishes of his superiors. By withdrawing the report, he would be compromising his integrity and betraying the trust of the citizens he is meant to serve.

However, this option comes with risks. Ramesh could face consequences such as being posted out from his prestigious appointment in the State capital or jeopardizing his future promotion. It is important for him to evaluate these risks and determine whether standing up for what is right is worth the potential repercussions.

The ethical dilemma faced by Ramesh is whether to prioritize his personal interests and job security or uphold his principles and report illegal activity. He must weigh the consequences of each option and determine which course of action aligns with his values.

To combat the menace of infiltration of illegal migrants from the neighbouring country, policy measures such as strengthening border security, conducting thorough background checks on individuals seeking citizenship, and implementing stricter penalties for those involved in illegal activities need to be put in place. It is also essential to create awareness among citizens about the dangers of illegal migration and the importance of reporting any suspicious activity to the authorities.

10. You have done MBA from a reputed institution three years back but could not get campus placement due to COVID-19 generated recession. However, after a lot of persuasion and series of competitive tests including written and interview, you managed to get a job in a leading shoe company. You have ageur parents who are dependent and staying with you. You also recently got married after getting this decent job. You were allotted the Inspection Section which is responsible for clearing the final product. In first one year, you learnt your job well and was appreciated for your performance by the management. The company is doing good business for last five years in domestic market and this year it is decided even to export to Europe and Gulf countries. However, one large consignment to Europe was rejected by their Inspecting Team due to certain poor quality and was sent back. The top management ordered that ibid consignment to be cleared for the domestic market. As a part of Inspecting Team, you observed the glaring poor quality and brought to the knowledge of the Team Commander. However, the top management advised all the members of the team to overlook these defects as the management cannot bear such a huge loss. Rest of the team members except you promptly signed and cleared the consignment for domestic market, overlooking glaring defects. You again brought to the knowledge of the Team Commander that such consignment, if cleared even for domestic market, will tarnish the image and reputation of the company and will be counter-productive in the long run. However, you were further advised by the top management that if you do not clear the consignment, the company will not hesitate to terminate your services citing certain innocuous reasons. (a) Under the given conditions, what are the options available to you as a member of the Inspecting Team? (b) Critically evaluate each of the options listed by you. (c) What option would you adopt and why? (d) What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by you? (e) What can be the consequences of overlooking the observations raised by the Inspecting Team? (Answer in 250 words) 20

(a) As a member of the Inspecting Team, the options available to you are:

  • Ignore the poor quality and clear the consignment as instructed by the top management to avoid risking your job.
  • Refuse to clear the consignment and risk losing your job.
  • Report the poor quality to the authorities and risk losing your job.

(b) Ignoring the poor quality and clearing the consignment would be unethical and could lead to long-term damage to the company’s reputation. Refusing to clear the consignment would be the right thing to do ethically, but it could result in losing your job and causing financial difficulties for yourself and your family. Reporting the poor quality to the authorities would also be the right thing to do ethically, but it could lead to losing your job as well.

(c) The best option would be to refuse to clear the consignment and report the poor quality to the authorities. Clearing the consignment would be ethically wrong and could have long-term consequences for the company’s reputation. Reporting the poor quality to the authorities is the right thing to do, even if it means risking your job.

(d) The ethical dilemmas faced by you are deciding between doing the right thing and risking your job, and balancing your responsibility towards your family and the company’s reputation.

(e) Overlooking the poor quality could harm the company’s reputation in both domestic and international markets and lead to loss of business in the long run. It could also result in legal action and damage the trust of customers and stakeholders. Clearing the consignment despite poor quality could harm the company’s image, which could lead to loss of customer trust, and ultimately, loss of business.

11. Rakesh was working as a Joint Commissioner in Transport department of a city. As a part of his job profile, among others, he was entrusted with the task of overseeing the control and functioning of City Transport Department. A case strike by drivers’ union of City Transport Department over the issue of compensation to a driver who died on duty while driving the bus came up before him for decision in the matter. He gathered that the driver (deceased) was plying Bus No. 528 which passed through busy and congested roads of the city. It so happened that near an intersection on the way, there was an accident involving the a middle-aged man. It was found that there was altercation between the driver and the car driver. Heated arguments between them led to fight and the driver gave him a a blow. Lot of passerbys had gathered and tried to intervene but without success. Eventually, both of them were badly injured and profusely bleeding and were taken to the nearby hospital. The driver succumbed to the injuries and could not be saved. The middle-aged driver’s condition was also critical but after a day, he recovered and was discharged. Police had immediately come to the spot and FIR was registered. Police investigation revealed that the quarrel in was started by the bus driver and he had resorted to physical violence. There exchange of blows between them. The City Transport Department management is considering of not giving any extra compensation to the driver’s (deceased) family. The family is very aggrieved. depressed and agitated against the discriminatory and non-sympathetic approach of the City Transport Department management. The bus driver (deceased) was 52 years of age, was survived by his wife and two school-college going daughters. He was the sole earner of the family. The City Transport Department workers’ union took up this case and when found no favourable response from the management, decided to go on strike. The union’s demand was two fold. First was full extra compensation as given to other drivers who died on duty and secondly employment to one family member. The strike has continued for 10 days and the deadlock remains. (a) What are the options available to Rakesh to meet the above situation? (b) Critically examine each of the options identified by Rakesh (c) What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by Rakesh? (d) What course of action would Rakesh adopt to diffuse the above situation? (Answer in 250 words) 20

(a) Rakesh has a few options available to him to handle the situation. Firstly, he could recommend to the City Transport Department management to grant compensation to the driver’s family and offer employment to one of the family members. Secondly, he could try to mediate between the management and the union to find a middle ground and reach a mutually beneficial solution. Thirdly, he could take a firm stand and not yield to the union’s demands.

(b) Each option has its own advantages and disadvantages. Granting compensation and employment to the family members would show empathy and compassion towards the driver’s family and could potentially end the strike. However, it could set a precedent for other similar cases and put a financial burden on the City Transport Department. Mediation could help reach a compromise and maintain a positive relationship with the union, but it could also be time-consuming and may not result in a satisfactory outcome for either party. Taking a firm stand may maintain discipline and uphold the principles of the City Transport Department, but it could also escalate the situation and damage the relationship with the union.

(c) The ethical dilemmas faced by Rakesh include balancing the interests of the City Transport Department management, the driver’s family, and the union. He must also consider the impact of his decision on the overall functioning of the department and the potential precedent it could set. Additionally, he must ensure that his decision is fair, just, and in accordance with the laws and regulations.

(d) The best course of action for Rakesh would be to try and mediate between the management and the union and find a middle ground. He could suggest that the compensation and employment be granted to the driver’s family on a case-by-case basis and not set a precedent. He could also propose setting up a committee to review such cases and make recommendations. This would show empathy towards the driver’s family while maintaining the discipline and principles of the City Transport Department.

12. You are appointed as an officer heading the section in Environment Pollution Control Board to ensure compliance and its follow-up. In that region, there were large number of small and medium industries which had been granted clearance. You learnt that these industries provide employment to many migrant worker. Most of the industrial units have got environmental clearance certificate in their possession. The environmental clearance seeks to curb industries and projects that supposedly hamper environment and living species in the region, But in practice. most of these units remain to be polluting units in several ways like air, water and soil pollution. As such, local people encountered persistent health problems. It was confirmed that majority of the industries were violating environmental compliance. You issued notice to all the industrial units to apply for fresh environmental clearance certificate from the competent authority. However, your action met with hostile response from a section of the industrial units, other vested interest persons and a section of the local politicians. The workers also became hostile to you as they felt that your action would lead to the closure of these industrial units, and the resultant unemployment will lead to insecurity uncertainty in their livelihood. Many owners of the industries approached you with the plea that you should not initiate harsh action as it would compel them their units, and cause huge financial loss, shortage of their products in the market. These would obviously add to the sufferings of the labourers and the consumers alike. The labour union also sent you representation requesting against the closure of the units. You simultaneously started receiving threats from unknown corners. You however received supports from some of your colleagues, who advised you to act freely to ensure environmental compliance. Local NGOs also came to your support and they demanded the closure of the polluting units immediately. (a) What are the options available to you under the given situation? (b) Critically examine the options listed by you. (c) What type of mechanism would you suggest to ensure environmental compliance? (d) What are the ethical dilemmas you faced in exercising your option? (Answer in 250 words) 20

Under the given situation, there are several options available to the officer heading the section in Environment Pollution Control Board. One option is to strictly enforce environmental compliance and shut down the polluting units that are violating the clearance certificate. Another option is to work with the industries to improve their practices and ensure they follow the regulations. A third option is to provide financial and technical assistance to help the industries switch to cleaner technologies.

If the officer chooses the first option of strict enforcement, they may face backlash from the industries, workers, and politicians. The closure of the units may lead to unemployment and economic instability in the region. If the second option of working with the industries is chosen, it may require more resources and time to ensure compliance. The third option of providing assistance may require funding and resources from the government.

To ensure environmental compliance, the officer can suggest the implementation of a monitoring mechanism that tracks the industries’ compliance with regulations. The mechanism can also include regular inspections and audits to ensure the industries are following the regulations. The mechanism can also include incentives for industries that adopt cleaner technologies and practices.

In exercising their options, the officer may face ethical dilemmas. The closure of industries may lead to unemployment and economic instability, while allowing the industries to pollute may lead to health problems for the local people. The officer must balance the interests of the industries, workers, and the environment and make decisions that are in the best interest of everyone. The officer must also ensure they are not influenced by any external factors and make decisions based on ethical principles.