Q1. ‘Constitutional Morality’ is rooted in the Constitution itself and is founded on its essential facets. Explain the doctrine of ‘Constitutional Morality’ with the help of relevant judicial decisions. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

Constitutional Morality is a concept that is deeply rooted in the Indian Constitution. It refers to the adherence of constitutional principles and values by all citizens, including those in positions of power. The doctrine of Constitutional Morality has been explained by various judicial decisions over the years.

One landmark case that helped define this concept is Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala, where the Supreme Court held that the Constitution is supreme and that all laws made by Parliament must be in conformity with it. The court also stated that Constitutional Morality requires adherence to the basic structure of the Constitution, which cannot be amended to the extent that it destroys the essence of the Constitution.

Another important case that exemplifies the doctrine of Constitutional Morality is Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India, where the Supreme Court struck down Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which criminalized homosexuality. The court held that the Constitution guarantees equal protection of laws to all citizens, and that Constitutional Morality mandates the protection of the rights of the LGBTQ+ community.

In conclusion, the doctrine of Constitutional Morality is a vital concept in Indian constitutional law. It emphasizes the need for adherence to constitutional principles and values by all citizens, including those in power, and has been given meaning through various judicial decisions.

Q2. Discuss the desirability of greater representation to women in the higher judiciary to ensure diversity, equity and inclusiveness. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

Greater representation of women in the higher judiciary is an essential step towards achieving diversity, equity, and inclusiveness. Women’s representation in the judiciary has been historically low, and this has resulted in a lack of diversity in the decision-making process. By including more women in the higher judiciary, we can ensure that the perspectives and experiences of a significant portion of the population are represented.

Additionally, greater representation of women in the judiciary can lead to more equitable outcomes in legal cases. This is because women are more likely to be aware of the unique challenges and biases that women face in society. They may be better equipped to recognize and address these issues in their judgments.

Inclusiveness is also crucial in the judiciary, and greater representation of women can help create a more welcoming and inclusive environment for women and other marginalized groups. Women who see other women in positions of power and authority may be more likely to pursue careers in the legal profession, leading to a more diverse and representative judiciary in the future.

Overall, increasing representation of women in the higher judiciary is not only desirable but necessary for achieving diversity, equity, and inclusiveness in our legal system.

Q3. How have the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission of India enabled the states to improve their fiscal position?(Answer in 150 words) 10 M

The recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission of India have played a key role in enabling the states to improve their fiscal position. One of the major recommendations was to increase the share of states in the divisible pool of taxes from 32% to 42%. This has provided the states with greater financial resources to fund their developmental activities and meet their expenditures.

The Commission also recommended the use of performance-based incentives to encourage states to improve their fiscal discipline and undertake reforms. This has led to states implementing measures such as the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax (GST), improving tax administration and increasing the coverage of Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) schemes.

Furthermore, the Commission also recommended the creation of a Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act for the states, which has helped in improving their fiscal discipline and ensuring greater accountability in their financial management.

Overall, the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission have enabled the states to have greater autonomy in their fiscal management and have provided them with the necessary resources to undertake development activities and improve their overall economic growth.

Q4. To what extent, in your view, the Parliament is able to ensure accountability of the executive in India? (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

The Parliament plays a crucial role in ensuring accountability of the executive in India. As the legislative body of the government, it is responsible for holding the executive branch accountable for its actions and decisions.

One of the ways the Parliament ensures accountability is through its power to conduct inquiries and investigations into the actions of the executive. This allows members of Parliament to scrutinize the actions of the executive and hold them accountable for any wrongdoing or mistakes.

Additionally, the Parliament also has the power to pass resolutions and hold debates on issues of national importance, which can put pressure on the executive to take action or be more transparent in their decision-making process.

However, the effectiveness of the Parliament in ensuring accountability is often hindered by political divisions and party affiliations. Members of Parliament may be more inclined to protect their party’s interests rather than holding the executive accountable.

Overall, while the Parliament has the potential to ensure accountability of the executive, it is important for its members to prioritize the interests of the people they represent and work towards a more transparent and accountable government.

Q5. “Pressure groups play a vital role in influencing public policy making in India.” Explain how the business associations contribute to public policies. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

Business associations play an important role in shaping public policies in India. They act as pressure groups by advocating for policies that benefit their members and the business community at large. These associations are made up of diverse groups of businesses, including small and large companies, and they work together to influence policy decisions.

One way in which business associations contribute to public policy making is by providing expertise and research on specific issues. They can provide policymakers with data and analysis on issues related to their industry, such as taxation, trade regulations, and labor laws. This information can help policymakers make informed decisions that benefit both businesses and the public.

Another way in which business associations influence public policies is by lobbying government officials. They can use their resources and influence to advocate for policies that align with their interests. For example, business associations may lobby for tax breaks or regulatory changes that benefit their members.

Overall, business associations serve as a powerful force in shaping public policy in India. Their advocacy and expertise help ensure that policies are in the best interest of businesses and the public alike.

Q6. “Besides being a moral imperative of Welfare State, primary health structure is a necessary pre-condition for sustainable development.” Analyse. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

Primary health structure is an essential component of any nation’s healthcare system. It is the first point of contact between patients and medical professionals, and it plays a crucial role in the early detection and prevention of diseases. The primary health system is also responsible for providing routine check-ups, vaccinations, and other preventive measures to ensure the overall well-being of the population.

Apart from being a moral imperative of a Welfare State, the primary health structure is also essential for sustainable development. A healthy population is vital for the growth and development of any nation. When people are healthy, they can work productively, contribute to the economy, and participate in various activities that enhance the overall quality of life. The primary health system also helps to reduce the burden on secondary and tertiary healthcare facilities, which can focus on more critical cases.

In conclusion, primary health structure is a necessary pre-condition for sustainable development. It ensures that the population is healthy and productive, and it plays a vital role in the early detection and prevention of diseases. A strong primary health system is crucial for any nation’s healthcare system, and it should be a priority for policymakers to ensure that it is adequately funded and supported.

Q7. “‘Earn while you learn’ scheme needs to be strengthened to make vocational education and skill training meaningful.” Comment. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

The “Earn while you learn” scheme is a great initiative to provide vocational education and skill training to individuals. However, there is a need to strengthen this scheme to make it more effective and meaningful.

One way to achieve this is by increasing the number of industries and sectors that participate in the scheme. This will not only provide more opportunities for individuals to learn and earn but also help in bridging the skill gap in various industries.

Another way to strengthen the scheme is by providing more incentives and benefits to the participants. This can include financial assistance, recognition, and opportunities for career growth.

Additionally, there should be a focus on creating a better curriculum that aligns with the current industry needs. This will ensure that individuals are learning skills that are in demand and relevant to the job market.

In conclusion, the “Earn while you learn” scheme has the potential to transform vocational education and skill training. However, to make it more meaningful, there is a need to strengthen it by increasing industry participation, providing more incentives to participants, and creating a curriculum that aligns with industry needs.

Q8. Can the vicious cycle of gender inequality, poverty and malnutrition be broken through microfinancing of women SHGs? Explain with examples. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

Microfinancing of women’s self-help groups (SHGs) has shown great potential in breaking the vicious cycle of gender inequality, poverty, and malnutrition. When women are given access to financial resources, they are empowered to become financially independent and make decisions about their own lives.

For instance, in India, the National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) has been successful in empowering women through microfinancing. NRLM provides financial assistance to SHGs, which enables them to start small businesses, such as tailoring or selling vegetables. These businesses not only provide women with a source of income but also give them a sense of pride and dignity.

Moreover, women who have access to financial resources are more likely to invest in their children’s education and health, which can help break the cycle of malnutrition and poverty. This has been demonstrated in various studies across the world.

In conclusion, microfinancing of women’s SHGs can be a powerful tool for breaking the vicious cycle of gender inequality, poverty, and malnutrition. It not only empowers women but also has a positive impact on their families and communities.

Q9. “If the last few decades were of Asia’s growth story, the next few are expected to be of Africa’s.” In the light of this statement, examine India’s influence in Africa in recent years. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

In recent years, India has been actively expanding its influence in Africa through various initiatives and policies. India-Africa Forum Summit (IAFS) has been a key platform for strengthening bilateral relationships and cooperation. India has also been providing financial assistance to African countries through lines of credit, grants, and aid. Moreover, India has been investing in various sectors such as agriculture, healthcare, education, and infrastructure development in African countries.

India’s engagement with Africa has also been evident through its participation in peacekeeping missions in countries like Sudan and South Sudan. India has also been providing training to African defence and security personnel through its Defence Cooperation programme.

India’s approach towards Africa has been based on mutual respect and cooperation. India has been supporting Africa’s development aspirations and has been a reliable partner in the region. India’s growing influence in Africa has also been viewed positively by African countries as it provides them with alternative sources of investment and aid. In conclusion, India’s influence in Africa in recent years has been significant and is expected to grow further in the years to come.

Q10. “The USA is facing an existential threat in the form of a China, that is much more challenging than the erstwhile Soviet Union.” Explain. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

The rise of China as a global superpower has been a concern for the United States for quite some time. While the Soviet Union posed a significant threat during the Cold War era, China’s emergence as a formidable economic and military power in recent years has created an existential threat to the US.

One of the major challenges posed by China is its aggressive territorial claims in the South China Sea, which has led to increased tensions with its neighbors and the US. China’s rapid military modernization and expansion has also been a cause for concern, as it continues to develop advanced technology and weapons systems.

In addition, China’s economic policies and practices, such as intellectual property theft, state subsidies, and currency manipulation, have had a significant impact on the US economy. The trade war between the two countries has further escalated tensions and highlighted the economic threat posed by China.

Overall, the US is facing a complex and multifaceted challenge from China that requires a comprehensive and strategic approach. The US will need to continue to invest in advanced technology and military capabilities, while also working to strengthen alliances and partnerships in the Asia-Pacific region to effectively counter China’s influence.

Q11. The jurisdiction of the Central Bureau of Investigation(CBI) regarding lodging an FIR and conducting probe within a particular state is being questioned by various States. However, the power of States to withhold consent to the CBI is not absolute. Explain with special reference to the federal character of India. (Answer in 250 words) 15

The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is a premier investigating agency in India, responsible for conducting investigations into high-profile crimes and cases of national importance. However, the jurisdiction of the CBI has been under scrutiny in recent times, with several states questioning their authority to conduct investigations within state borders.

It is important to note that India is a federal nation, with power divided between the central government and the state governments. As a result, the powers of the CBI are not absolute and are subject to the consent of the state government in which the investigation is being conducted.

However, the power of the state government to withhold consent is not absolute either. The federal character of India ensures that the central government has certain powers that cannot be taken away by the state governments. This means that in cases where the central government deems an investigation to be of national importance, the state government cannot withhold their consent to the CBI.

Therefore, while the power of the state government to withhold consent to the CBI is not absolute, it is important for the central government to respect the federal nature of India and work collaboratively with state governments to ensure that investigations are conducted efficiently and effectively. This will not only uphold the rule of law but also ensure that justice is served in a fair and impartial manner.

Q12. Though the Human Rights Commissions have contributed immensely to the protection of human rights in India, yet they have failed to assert themselves against the mighty and powerful. Analyzing their structural and practical limitations, suggest remedial measures. (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

Human Rights Commissions are an integral part of any democratic society, especially in the context of India where the population is diverse and complex. They have played a crucial role in safeguarding the rights of the vulnerable and marginalized sections of the society. However, it is a well-known fact that these commissions have not been able to assert themselves against the powerful and influential individuals or institutions.

One of the primary reasons for this is the structural limitations of these commissions. They are mostly dependent on the government for their functioning and funding, which often leads to a conflict of interest. Additionally, the appointment of members of these commissions is largely influenced by political considerations, which undermines their independence and impartiality.

Another issue is the practical limitations of these commissions. They lack the necessary powers to enforce their recommendations or decisions, which makes them toothless in the face of non-compliance by the violators. Moreover, the lack of awareness among the general public about the functioning of these commissions and their rights further weakens their impact.

To address these limitations, several remedial measures need to be taken. Firstly, the appointment of members of these commissions must be done through a transparent and independent process, free from any political influence. Secondly, their budgetary allocation should be increased and protected from any interference by the government. Thirdly, they must be given more powers to enforce their decisions, and non-compliance should be dealt with strictly. Finally, awareness programs must be conducted to educate the public about their rights and the functioning of these commissions.

In conclusion, Human Rights Commissions have a significant role to play in protecting the rights of the people, but their limitations need to be addressed to make them more effective and assertive against the powerful and mighty.

Q13. Analyze the distinguishing features of the notion of Equality in the Constitutions of the USA and India. (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

The concept of equality is enshrined in both the Constitutions of the USA and India. However, there are some distinguishing features that set them apart.

In the USA, the notion of equality is rooted in the concept of individualism. The Constitution of the USA guarantees equal protection under the law to all citizens. This means that the government cannot discriminate against any individual on the basis of their race, gender, religion, or any other factor. The USA Constitution also provides for the notion of equal opportunity, which means that everyone has the right to pursue their goals and aspirations without being held back by any arbitrary barriers.

On the other hand, the Indian Constitution takes a more holistic approach to the notion of equality. In India, equality is not just about individual rights, but also about ensuring social and economic justice. The Indian Constitution provides for reservations and affirmative action to ensure that historically marginalized and disadvantaged groups are given equal opportunities and access to resources. This is based on the principle of positive discrimination, which recognizes that in order to achieve true equality, some groups may need additional support and assistance.

Overall, while both the USA and India share a commitment to the notion of equality, their approaches differ in terms of their emphasis on individualism versus collectivism, and their recognition of the need for positive discrimination to achieve social and economic justice.

Q14. Explain the constitutional provisions under which Legislative Councils are established. Review the working and current status of Legislative Councils with suitable illustrations. (Answer in 250 words) 15

Legislative Councils are established under Article 169 of the Indian Constitution. According to this article, a Legislative Council may be established in a state if the Legislative Assembly of that state passes a resolution to that effect by a special majority. The special majority required is a majority of the total membership of the assembly, and a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting.

The working of Legislative Councils is similar to that of the Legislative Assembly, with the significant difference being that the Legislative Council is a permanent house. One-third of the members of the Legislative Council retire every two years, and the vacancies are filled through elections and nominations.

Currently, six states have Legislative Councils – Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh. The Legislative Council in Jammu and Kashmir was abolished in 2019 after the state was reorganized into two union territories.

The Legislative Councils have been criticized for being a burden on the state exchequer and for not being effective in their functioning. However, they have also been praised for being a platform for discussion and debate on issues that might not be raised in the Legislative Assembly.

In conclusion, while the establishment of Legislative Councils is a constitutional provision, their effectiveness in terms of governance and representation is debatable. Their role and relevance in the political landscape of India need to be re-evaluated and potentially reformed.

Q15. Do Department -related Parliamentary Standing Committees keep the administration on its toes and inspire reverence for parliamentary control? Evaluate the working of such committees with suitable examples. (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committees have been established to keep the administration accountable and to ensure that parliamentary control is respected. These committees are mandated to oversee the functioning of governmental departments and to examine their policies, plans, and budget proposals.

These committees can be seen as a vital link between the administration and Parliament. They provide a platform for the parliamentarians to scrutinize the work of the executive and to offer constructive feedback and suggestions. They also help to bring transparency and accountability to the administration by providing a mechanism to investigate and address any wrongdoings or inefficiencies.

One example of the effective functioning of such committees is the Public Accounts Committee (PAC). The PAC is responsible for examining the accounts of the government and to ensure that public funds are being used in an efficient and effective manner. The committee has been successful in exposing financial irregularities and corruption in various departments of the government.

Another example is the Committee on Subordinate Legislation, which is responsible for examining the rules, regulations, and by-laws framed by the executive. The committee has been instrumental in ensuring that the subordinate legislation is in line with the parent act and does not exceed the scope of the delegated authority.

Overall, the Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committees have played a crucial role in ensuring that the administration remains accountable and that parliamentary control is respected. However, there is still room for improvement in terms of their effectiveness and efficiency. The committees need to be strengthened with more resources and powers to carry out their mandate effectively.

Q16. Has digital illiteracy, particularly in rural areas, couple with lack of Information and Communication Technology(ICT) accessibility hindered socio-economic development? Examine with justification. (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

Digital illiteracy and lack of ICT accessibility have been a challenge for rural areas in terms of socio-economic development. The digital divide between urban and rural areas has widened over the years, leaving many rural residents without access to the internet and other digital technologies that have become essential in the modern world. This has led to a significant disadvantage for rural residents in terms of education, health care, employment opportunities, and access to information.

The lack of ICT infrastructure in rural areas has also hindered the growth of small businesses and entrepreneurship. Digital technologies have enabled small businesses to expand their reach and access new markets, but without access to these technologies, rural entrepreneurs are left at a significant disadvantage. This has led to a concentration of economic growth in urban areas, leaving rural areas behind.

Moreover, digital illiteracy has also become a significant barrier to the adoption of digital technologies in rural areas. Many rural residents lack the skills and knowledge to effectively use digital technologies, making it difficult for them to take advantage of the benefits that these technologies offer. This has also contributed to the widening of the digital divide between urban and rural areas.

In conclusion, digital illiteracy and lack of ICT accessibility have significantly hindered socio-economic development in rural areas. Addressing these challenges will require a concerted effort from governments, private sector organizations, and civil society organizations to invest in ICT infrastructure, digital literacy programs, and entrepreneurship development initiatives in rural areas. By bridging the digital divide, we can create more equitable and inclusive societies where everyone has the opportunity to succeed.

Q17. “Though women in post-Independent India have excelled in various fields, the social attitude towards women and feminist movement has been patriarchal.” Apart from women education and women empowerment schemes, what interventions can help change this milieu? (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

There are several interventions that can help change the patriarchal milieu towards women and feminist movement in post-Independent India.

Firstly, it is important to create awareness and sensitization campaigns aimed at changing the social attitudes towards women. This can be achieved through education and advocacy programs that focus on the importance of gender equality and women’s rights.

Secondly, there is a need to create policies and laws that protect women’s rights and ensure that they are not discriminated against. This can be achieved through the creation of gender-sensitive policies and laws that address issues such as sexual harassment, domestic violence, and gender-based discrimination.

Thirdly, there is a need to create more opportunities for women in various fields. This can be achieved through affirmative action programs that provide women with equal opportunities in education, employment, and leadership positions.

Finally, it is important to involve men in the fight for gender equality. Men can play an important role in changing social attitudes towards women and supporting the feminist movement by becoming allies and advocates for gender equality.

In conclusion, changing the patriarchal milieu towards women and feminist movement in post-Independent India requires a multifaceted approach that involves education, advocacy, policy changes, affirmative action, and the involvement of men in the fight for gender equality.

Q18. Can Civil Society and Non-Governmental Organizations present an alternative model of public service delivery to benefit the common citizen. Discuss the challenges of this alternative model. (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

Civil Society and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have increasingly been recognized for their role in promoting public service delivery that benefits the common citizen. The alternative model of public service delivery they propose is one that is community-driven, participatory, and responsive to the needs of the people it serves. This model offers a stark contrast to the traditional top-down approach of government-led service delivery, which often lacks transparency and accountability.

However, there are several challenges associated with this alternative model. One of the most significant challenges is the lack of resources available to NGOs and civil society organizations. Many of these organizations rely on donor funding, which can be unpredictable and insufficient to sustain long-term service delivery programs. Additionally, the bureaucratic and legal hurdles that NGOs and civil society groups must navigate to operate can be complex and time-consuming.

Another challenge is the potential for co-optation of these organizations by powerful interests. This can lead to mission drift, where the original goals of the organization are compromised in favor of serving the interests of the powerful. Additionally, the lack of robust monitoring and evaluation mechanisms can mean that the impact of these organizations is difficult to measure, making it harder to secure funding and partnerships.

Despite these challenges, the alternative model of public service delivery proposed by civil society and NGOs has the potential to transform service delivery for the common citizen. By prioritizing community participation, transparency, and accountability, this model can ensure that public services are more responsive to the needs of the people they serve. However, to truly succeed, these organizations need sustained support from both public and private sector actors, as well as a commitment to transparency and accountability at all levels.

Q19. Critically examine the aims and objectives of SCO. what importance does it hold for India. (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) was founded in 2001 with the aim of promoting security, economic cooperation, and cultural ties among its member states. The organization comprises eight member states, including China, Russia, India, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

The objectives of SCO include enhancing regional security by fighting against terrorism, separatism, and extremism. The organization also aims to promote economic cooperation and trade among its member states through various initiatives such as the SCO Business Council and the SCO Interbank Consortium. Additionally, SCO aims to foster cultural and educational exchanges among its member states to promote mutual understanding and respect.

For India, SCO holds significant importance as it provides a platform for India to engage with its neighboring countries, particularly China and Pakistan. The organization also provides India with an opportunity to enhance its economic ties with Central Asia, a region that is rich in natural resources and is strategically important for India’s energy security.

Moreover, SCO’s focus on combating terrorism and extremism is of great significance for India, given its geographical location and history of facing terrorist threats. India has been actively participating in various SCO initiatives, including the SCO Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure, to enhance regional security and stability.

Overall, SCO’s aims and objectives align with India’s interests in the region, and India’s participation in the organization is crucial for promoting regional cooperation, stability, and economic development.

Q20. The newly tri-nation partnership AUKUS is aimed at countering China’s ambitions in the Indo-Pacific region. Is it going to supersede the existing partnerships in the region? Discuss the strength and impact of AUKUS in the present scenario. (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

The newly formed tri-nation partnership AUKUS between Australia, United Kingdom, and the United States has stirred up a lot of debate and discussion. The primary objective behind this partnership is to counter China’s growing influence and assertiveness in the Indo-Pacific region. However, the question that arises is whether this new alliance is going to supersede the existing partnerships in the region.

The existing partnerships in the region, such as the Quad alliance between India, Japan, Australia, and the United States, have been working towards maintaining peace and stability in the Indo-Pacific region. AUKUS can be seen as a complementary partnership that aims to enhance the military capabilities of its members.

The strength of AUKUS lies in the fact that it brings together three powerful countries that have a shared interest in maintaining a free and open Indo-Pacific region. The partnership will focus on areas such as defense, technology, and intelligence sharing, which will help to strengthen the security architecture in the region.

The impact of AUKUS on the present scenario is yet to be seen. It is likely that this new partnership will change the dynamics of the region and have an impact on the existing partnerships. However, it is important to note that AUKUS is not a military alliance and does not aim to isolate or contain China. The partnership is aimed at promoting peace and stability in the region.

In conclusion, AUKUS is a significant development in the Indo-Pacific region. The partnership has the potential to strengthen the security architecture in the region and enhance the military capabilities of its members. However, it is important to ensure that this new partnership does not lead to a new arms race or escalate tensions in the region.