Q1. Explain the difference between computing methodology of India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) before the year 2015 and after the year 2015. (Answer in 150 words)

Before the year 2015, India’s methodology for computing GDP relied heavily on the base year 2004-2005. This meant that the data used to calculate GDP was outdated and did not accurately reflect the changes in the economy over time. Additionally, the previous methodology only factored in production-based data and did not fully capture the contributions of the service sector.

After the year 2015, India adopted a new methodology for computing GDP which uses the base year 2011-2012. This updated methodology includes both production-based and expenditure-based data to provide a more comprehensive picture of the economy. The new methodology also places a greater emphasis on the service sector, which has become a significant contributor to India’s GDP in recent years.

Overall, the new methodology for computing GDP in India provides a more accurate and up-to-date understanding of the country’s economic performance. However, some critics argue that there are still areas for improvement and that the methodology should continue to evolve to reflect the changing nature of the economy.

Q2. Distinguish between Capital Budget and Revenue Budget. Explain the components of both these Budgets. (Answer in 150 words)

Capital budget and revenue budget are two important financial budgets used by companies and governments to plan their expenses and investments.

Revenue budget is a short-term budget that focuses on the everyday expenses of an organization. It includes all the money that an organization spends on salaries, rent, utilities, and other operational expenses that are essential for the day-to-day functioning of the organization. The revenue budget also includes expected income from sales, taxes, and other sources.

On the other hand, capital budget is a long-term budget that focuses on investments in fixed assets such as property, plant, and equipment. It includes all the money that an organization spends on acquiring and maintaining these assets. Capital budgeting decisions are generally more strategic and require a lot of planning and analysis.

The components of revenue budget include operating expenses, revenue from sales, taxes, and other sources. The components of capital budget include investments in fixed assets, such as property, plant, and equipment.

In summary, while revenue budget focuses on short-term expenses and income, capital budget focuses on long-term investments in fixed assets. Understanding the differences and components of both budgets is essential for making strategic financial decisions.

Q3. How did land reforms in some parts of the country help to improve the socio-economic conditions of marginal and small farmers ? (Answer in 150 words)

Land reforms in some parts of India have played a significant role in improving the socio-economic conditions of marginal and small farmers. By redistributing land from large landowners to small landholders, land reforms have helped to reduce income inequality and promote a more equitable distribution of resources.

Additionally, land reforms have helped to increase agricultural productivity and promote rural development. Small farmers who previously lacked access to land and resources have been able to invest in their farms and improve their yields, leading to increased incomes and a better standard of living.

In some cases, land reforms have also led to the formation of cooperatives and farmer collectives, which have helped to strengthen small farmers’ bargaining power and improve their access to markets and credit.

Overall, land reforms have been an important policy tool for promoting rural development and reducing poverty in India. However, there is still much work to be done to ensure that all farmers, especially those belonging to marginalized communities, have access to land and resources that can help them improve their socio-economic conditions.

Q4. How and to what extent would micro-irrigation help in solving India’s water crisis ? (Answer in 150 words)

Micro-irrigation is a water-efficient method of irrigation that delivers water directly to the root zone of plants. This method can help in addressing India’s water crisis by reducing water wastage and improving crop yields. Micro-irrigation can be more effective than traditional irrigation methods such as flood irrigation, which can lead to waterlogging and excessive water evaporation.

Moreover, micro-irrigation can be used in conjunction with other water conservation techniques such as rainwater harvesting and wastewater recycling. It can also help in conserving groundwater, which is a critical resource in India’s water-stressed regions.

However, the adoption of micro-irrigation in India faces several challenges, including high upfront costs and inadequate technical knowledge among farmers. The government and private sector must work together to provide financial incentives and technical support to farmers to encourage the adoption of micro-irrigation.

In conclusion, micro-irrigation has the potential to play a significant role in solving India’s water crisis by improving water efficiency and crop productivity. However, a concerted effort is needed to overcome the barriers to its adoption and promote its widespread use.

Q5. How is S-400 air defence system technically superior to any other system presently available in the world? (Answer in 150 words)

The S-400 air defence system is considered to be one of the most advanced and sophisticated systems in the world. Its superior technical capabilities make it stand out from other air defence systems currently available.

One of the primary reasons for its technical superiority is its ability to simultaneously engage multiple targets at different altitudes. The system’s long-range radar can detect aircraft, missiles, and drones up to 600 km away, allowing it to engage targets far beyond the range of most other air defence systems.

Another key feature that sets the S-400 apart is its advanced missile technology. The system has several different types of missiles, including long-range, medium-range, and short-range missiles, each designed to take down different types of targets. Additionally, the system’s missiles are highly maneuverable and can change direction mid-flight, making them extremely difficult for enemy aircraft to evade.

The S-400 also has advanced electronic warfare capabilities, which allow it to jam enemy radars and communication systems, making it more difficult for them to launch attacks. This electronic warfare capability also helps to protect the S-400 system itself from enemy attacks.

Overall, the S-400 air defence system’s technical superiority is due to its ability to detect and engage multiple targets at long ranges, its advanced missile technology, and its electronic warfare capabilities. These features make it a formidable air defence system that is capable of protecting against a wide range of threats in a variety of environments.

Q6. Explain the purpose of the Green Grid Initiative launched at World Leaders Summit of the COP26 UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow in November, 2021. When was this idea first floated in the International Solar Alliance (ISA) ? (Answer in 150 words)

The Green Grid Initiative was launched at the World Leaders Summit of the COP26 UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow in November 2021 with the aim of accelerating the global transition to renewable energy. The initiative seeks to create a global network of interconnected electricity grids powered by renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, and hydro. This interconnected grid would help countries to share clean energy with one another, thereby reducing their dependence on fossil fuels and lowering greenhouse gas emissions.

The idea of the Green Grid Initiative was first floated in the International Solar Alliance (ISA) in 2018. The ISA is a treaty-based intergovernmental organization that aims to promote solar energy use and reduce reliance on fossil fuels. The initiative was proposed as a way to address the challenges of integrating high levels of renewable energy into electricity grids, particularly in developing countries.

By creating a global network of interconnected grids, the Green Grid Initiative has the potential to transform the way we generate and distribute energy, paving the way for a more sustainable future. It is hoped that the initiative will encourage greater investment in renewable energy infrastructure and help to accelerate the transition to a low-carbon economy.

Q7. Describe the key points of the revised Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs) recently released by the World Health Organisation (WHO). How are these different from its last update in 2005? What changes in India’s National Clean Air Programme are required to achieve these revised standards ? (Answer in 150 words)

The revised Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs) released by the World Health Organisation (WHO) provide updated recommendations for air pollution limits and their effects on human health. These revised guidelines are based on the latest scientific evidence and are more stringent than the previous guidelines released in 2005.

The key points of the revised AQGs include lowering the recommended limits for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, as well as introducing new limits for nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. The guidelines also emphasize the importance of reducing exposure to indoor air pollution, which can have a significant impact on public health.

In order to achieve these revised standards, India’s National Clean Air Programme will need to implement a range of measures, including improving air quality monitoring and data collection, reducing industrial emissions, promoting cleaner transportation, and increasing public awareness of the risks associated with air pollution. Additionally, the government will need to work closely with local communities and stakeholders to ensure that these measures are effective and sustainable over the long term. By taking these steps, India can help to protect the health and well-being of its citizens and contribute to global efforts to improve air quality.

Q8. Discuss about the vulnerability of India to earthquake related hazards. Give examples including the salient features of major disasters caused by earthquakes in different parts of India during the last three decades. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

India is highly vulnerable to earthquake-related hazards due to its location in the seismic zone. The country experiences earthquakes frequently, with different parts of the country being affected at different times. The last three decades have seen multiple major disasters caused by earthquakes in India.

One of the most devastating earthquakes in recent history was the 2001 Gujarat earthquake. It had a magnitude of 7.7 and caused widespread destruction, leading to the loss of over 20,000 lives. The earthquake had a significant impact on the infrastructure of the region, with many buildings and bridges collapsing.

Another significant earthquake occurred in 2015 in Nepal, which is geographically close to India. The earthquake had a magnitude of 7.8 and resulted in the loss of over 9,000 lives. India also experienced the impact of this earthquake, with several northern states being affected.

The 2011 Sikkim earthquake is another example of a major disaster caused by an earthquake in India. The earthquake had a magnitude of 6.9 and led to the loss of over 100 lives. It also resulted in significant damage to infrastructure, including roads and bridges.

Overall, India’s vulnerability to earthquake-related hazards is a significant concern. The country needs to take measures to improve its infrastructure and preparedness to minimize the impact of future disasters.

Q9. Discuss how emerging technologies and globalisation contribute to money laundering. Elaborate measures to tackle the problem of money laundering both at national and international levels. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

Emerging technologies and globalisation have made it easier for criminals to launder money through various channels such as online transactions, cryptocurrency, and offshore accounts. The anonymity and speed of these channels provide a safe haven for money launderers to carry out their illegal activities without detection.

To tackle the problem of money laundering, countries need to implement effective measures both at national and international levels. At the national level, governments can strengthen their anti-money laundering laws and regulations to ensure that financial institutions are equipped to identify and report suspicious transactions. Banks and other financial institutions can also improve their due diligence procedures to prevent money laundering activities.

At the international level, countries can collaborate to share information and intelligence on money laundering activities. Interpol and other international organisations can also provide training and technical assistance to countries that lack the capacity to combat money laundering effectively.

In conclusion, money laundering is a complex problem that requires a coordinated effort from all stakeholders to prevent it. It is essential to implement effective measures at both national and international levels to combat this illegal activity and ensure that the financial system remains secure and transparent.

Q10 . Keeping in view India’s internal security, analyse the impact of cross-border cyber attacks. Also discuss defensive measures against these sophisticated attacks. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

India faces a significant threat from cross-border cyber attacks, which can have a severe impact on the country’s internal security. These attacks can target critical infrastructure, such as power plants or financial systems, and can disrupt essential services, leading to significant social and economic damage.

To mitigate the impact of these sophisticated attacks, India needs to adopt a comprehensive cybersecurity strategy that focuses on prevention, detection, and response. This strategy should include measures such as the development of secure networks, the use of advanced encryption technologies, and the establishment of a robust incident response capability.

Another critical aspect of India’s defence against cyber attacks is increased collaboration and information sharing with other countries and international organizations. This can help to identify and respond to threats more quickly and effectively, reducing the risk of significant damage.

Overall, the threat of cross-border cyber attacks is a significant challenge for India’s internal security. However, with a comprehensive and coordinated cybersecurity strategy, and a focus on collaboration and information sharing, India can effectively defend against these sophisticated attacks and safeguard its critical infrastructure and citizens.

Q11. Do you agree that the Indian economy has recently experienced V- shapes recovery? Give reasons in support of your answer. (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

The Indian economy has indeed experienced a V-shaped recovery in recent times. This is primarily due to the various measures taken by the government to revive economic growth amid the COVID-19 pandemic. One of the key factors contributing to this recovery has been the significant increase in government spending, particularly in infrastructure development and healthcare. The government’s focus on boosting domestic demand through measures such as tax cuts and increased subsidies has also played a crucial role in reviving the economy.

Furthermore, the Reserve Bank of India’s (RBI) monetary policy measures have been instrumental in supporting the economy during these difficult times. The RBI has implemented various measures such as reducing interest rates, providing liquidity support to banks, and announcing loan restructuring schemes to ease the financial burden on individuals and businesses. These measures have helped to maintain the stability of the financial system and support economic growth.

Another important factor contributing to the V-shaped recovery has been the resilience of the Indian business community. Despite facing significant challenges due to the pandemic, businesses have adapted to the changing environment by embracing digital technologies and adopting new business models. This has enabled them to continue operating and even grow their businesses in some cases.

In conclusion, the Indian economy has indeed experienced a V-shaped recovery in recent times, thanks to the various measures taken by the government and the resilience of the business community. However, there is still a long way to go before the economy fully recovers from the impact of the pandemic, and continued government support will be crucial in achieving this goal.

Q12. “Investment in infrastructure is essential for more rapid and inclusive economic growth. ”Discuss in the light of India’s experience. (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

India’s economic growth over the past few decades has been impressive, but there is still much work to be done in terms of infrastructure development. Investment in infrastructure is crucial for sustaining this growth and making it more inclusive for all segments of society.

One area that requires significant investment is transportation infrastructure. India’s road network, in particular, needs improvement in terms of both quality and quantity. Better roads would not only reduce travel time and increase efficiency, but also make it easier for people in rural areas to access markets and services.

Another area that requires attention is energy infrastructure. India is one of the world’s largest consumers of energy, and demand is only set to increase in the coming years. Investment in renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, can help reduce India’s dependence on imported fossil fuels and contribute to a more sustainable future.

Investment in digital infrastructure is also essential for India’s economic growth. Broadband internet penetration in India is still relatively low, and this limits the potential for e-commerce and digital services. By improving access to high-speed internet, India can unlock new economic opportunities and bridge the digital divide.

In summary, investment in infrastructure is critical for India’s economic growth and development. By improving transportation, energy, and digital infrastructure, India can create a more inclusive economy that benefits all of its citizens.

Q13. What are the salient features of the National Food Security Act, 2013 ? How has the Food Security Bill helped in eliminating hunger and malnutrition in India?(Answer in 250 words) 15 M

The National Food Security Act, 2013 is a landmark legislation that aims to improve the food security situation in India. The act provides a legal right to a certain quantity of food grains at subsidized rates to two-thirds of the population, including 75% of rural and 50% of urban households. Additionally, the act also aims to provide nutritional support to pregnant women, lactating mothers, and children in the age group of 6 months to 14 years through the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and mid-day meal schemes.

The Food Security Bill has played a significant role in eliminating hunger and malnutrition in India. As a result of the act, millions of people now have access to affordable food grains, which has helped in reducing hunger and malnutrition. The ICDS and mid-day meal schemes have also been instrumental in providing nutritional support to vulnerable sections of the population, especially children.

Furthermore, the Food Security Bill has also helped in reducing poverty and improving the socio-economic conditions of the population. By ensuring food security, the government has been able to reduce the burden of healthcare costs, which is particularly important for families living in poverty. The act has also been successful in reducing food wastage and ensuring that food grains reach the intended beneficiaries.

Despite its success, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to ensure that the Food Security Bill continues to be effective in the long term. These include improving the efficiency of the public distribution system, addressing issues of corruption and leakages, and improving the quality of food grains provided to beneficiaries. Overall, the National Food Security Act, 2013 has been a positive step towards improving food security and eliminating hunger and malnutrition in India.

Q14. What are the present challenges before crop diversification? How do emerging technologies provide an opportunity for crop diversification? (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

Crop diversification is a strategy that seeks to expand the range of crops grown in a given region or area. One of the primary challenges facing crop diversification today is the increasing demand for food and fiber, which has led to the intensification of agriculture and the use of monoculture farming practices. This has led to a loss of biodiversity and soil fertility, as well as increased vulnerability to pests and diseases.

Fortunately, emerging technologies provide an opportunity for crop diversification. For example, precision agriculture technologies such as remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) can help farmers identify areas of their fields that are best suited for different crops. This can help farmers make more informed decisions about what crops to plant and where to plant them.

Another technology that can facilitate crop diversification is biotechnology. Genetically modified crops that are resistant to pests and diseases can help farmers grow a wider range of crops without the need for harmful pesticides or chemicals. Additionally, new breeding techniques such as CRISPR-Cas9 can help create crops with novel traits that are better suited to changing environmental conditions.

Overall, crop diversification is crucial for sustainability and food security. While there are challenges to overcome, emerging technologies offer promising solutions to help farmers diversify their crops and adapt to a changing climate.

Q15. What are the research and developmental achievements in applied biotechnology/? How will these achievements help to uplift the poorer sections of the society? (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

Biotechnology refers to using living organisms, cells, and biomolecules to develop new technologies and products. It has a wide range of applications. Medicine, agriculture, industrial processes and environmental conservation are among them. 

Applied biotechnology has come a long way in recent years, and its research and developmental achievements have far-reaching implications for improving the lives of people in all walks of society. One of the most significant areas of focus has been the development of new treatments and therapies for a range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and genetic disorders.

In addition to these medical breakthroughs, applied biotechnology has also led to advancements in agriculture, environmental science, and industrial manufacturing. For example, genetically modified crops can help farmers to grow more food with fewer resources, while bioremediation techniques can be used to clean up polluted water and soil.

Perhaps most importantly, these achievements have the potential to uplift the poorer sections of society by providing them with access to cutting-edge technologies and treatments that were previously unavailable or too expensive. By improving healthcare and food security, biotechnology can help to reduce poverty and improve quality of life for millions of people around the world.

However, it is important to note that there are also concerns about the ethical and social implications of some biotechnological advancements. As such, it is important that researchers and policymakers work together to ensure that these technologies are used responsibly and for the benefit of all members of society.

Q16. The Nobel Prize in Physics of 2014 was jointly awarded to Akasaki, Amano and Nakamura for the invention of Blue LEDs in 1990s. How has this invention impacted the everyday life of human beings ? (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

The invention of Blue LEDs in the 1990s has had a significant impact on the everyday life of human beings. Before the invention of Blue LEDs, only red and green LEDs were available which had limited applications. The development of Blue LEDs opened up a new world of possibilities in the field of lighting technology, leading to the creation of energy-efficient and long-lasting white LED lights.

These LED lights have become a ubiquitous part of our daily lives, from lighting up our homes and offices to illuminating roads and streets. They are also used in traffic lights, smartphones, TVs, and computer screens. The energy efficiency of LED lights has resulted in significant cost savings and reduced carbon emissions, making them an environmentally friendly option.

Moreover, the invention of Blue LEDs has contributed to the advancement of medical technology. Blue LED light therapy is used to treat skin conditions such as acne, psoriasis, and eczema, as well as to promote wound healing. Blue LEDs are also used in dental offices to cure dental composites and in the treatment of some types of cancer.

In conclusion, the invention of Blue LEDs by Akasaki, Amano, and Nakamura has revolutionized the lighting industry, leading to significant energy savings, cost reductions, and environmental benefits. Its impact extends beyond the realm of lighting, contributing to advancements in medical technology and improving the quality of life for many people.

Q17. Describe the major outcomes of the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). What are the commitments made by India in this conference? (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

The 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was held in Glasgow, Scotland, in November 2021. The conference brought together leaders from all over the world to discuss the latest developments in climate science and to negotiate a new global climate agreement.

One of the major outcomes of the conference was the adoption of the Glasgow Climate Pact, which aims to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The pact includes commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase climate finance, and scale up adaptation efforts.

India, as one of the largest developing countries and major emitters of greenhouse gases, made several commitments at the conference. These include a pledge to achieve net-zero emissions by 2070, with a target of 500 gigawatts of renewable energy capacity by 2030. India also committed to increasing its climate finance contributions and to improving the resilience of its communities to the impacts of climate change.

Overall, the 26th session of the COP to the UNFCCC demonstrated a renewed commitment from the global community to tackling the urgent issue of climate change. While there is still much work to be done, the conference provided a platform for countries to come together and take meaningful action towards a more sustainable future.

Q18. Describe the various causes and the effects of landslides. Mention the important components of the National Landslide Risk Management Strategy. (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

Landslides are a natural disaster that can be caused by a variety of factors, including heavy rainfall, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and human activities such as deforestation and construction. These factors can destabilize the ground and cause large masses of soil and rock to slide down slopes, sometimes with catastrophic consequences.

The effects of landslides can be significant, causing property damage, loss of life, and disruption to transportation and infrastructure. Landslides can also lead to secondary hazards such as flooding and debris flows.

To address the risks posed by landslides, many countries have developed National Landslide Risk Management Strategies. These strategies typically involve a range of measures, including risk assessment and mapping, early warning systems, and the development of response plans.

Some important components of a National Landslide Risk Management Strategy might include the identification of high-risk areas, the development of hazard maps, and the creation of community-based programs to raise awareness of landslide risks and encourage preparedness.

In addition to these measures, effective risk management strategies may also involve the development of sustainable land-use policies, the promotion of reforestation efforts, and the implementation of engineering solutions such as slope stabilization and drainage systems.

Overall, a comprehensive National Landslide Risk Management Strategy can help to minimize the risks posed by landslides and protect communities from the devastating consequences of this natural hazard.

Q19. Analyse the multidimensıonal challenges posed by external state and non-state actors, to the internal security of India. Also discuss measures required to be taken to combat these threats. (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

India faces a range of challenges to its internal security from both state and non-state actors. These challenges are multidimensional and require a comprehensive approach to address them effectively.

One of the major threats to India’s internal security comes from cross-border terrorism. Pakistan-based terrorist groups like Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed have been responsible for several attacks in India, including the 2008 Mumbai attacks. In addition, internal conflict situations in Jammu and Kashmir, Northeast India, and Maoist-affected areas pose significant security challenges.

Non-state actors like cybercriminals and organized crime syndicates also pose a threat to India’s internal security. Cyber-attacks on critical infrastructure and financial systems can cause massive disruptions and loss of data. The rise of fake news and misinformation on social media platforms has also become a major concern.

To combat these threats, India needs to adopt a multi-pronged strategy that includes both hard and soft power measures. Strengthening border security and intelligence capabilities, enhancing coastal security, and modernizing the police force are some of the steps that need to be taken.

India also needs to focus on building strong international partnerships to tackle cross-border terrorism. The country must work closely with its neighbors to ensure that terrorist groups are not able to operate with impunity in the region.

Finally, India must invest in building robust cybersecurity infrastructure to protect critical systems from cyber-attacks. This includes developing advanced technologies, building a skilled workforce, and creating a legal framework to deal with cybercrime.

India’s internal security challenges are complex and require a multidimensional approach. The country needs to adopt a comprehensive strategy that focuses on both hard and soft power measures to effectively combat these threats.

Q20. Analyse the complexity and intensity of terrorism, its causes, linkages and obnoxious nexus. Also suggest measures required to be taken to eradicate the menace of terrorism. (Answer in 250 words) 15 M

Terrorism is a complex and intense phenomenon that has plagued societies around the world for decades. The causes of terrorism are varied, and often involve deep-seated grievances, political instability, economic inequality, and religious extremism. While terrorism can be carried out by individuals or groups, it is often linked to larger networks and organizations that provide funding, training, and ideological support.

One of the most obnoxious aspects of terrorism is its nexus with other forms of criminal activity, such as drug trafficking, arms smuggling, and money laundering. These activities not only fund terrorist operations, but also enable them to recruit new members and expand their influence.

To eradicate the menace of terrorism, it is essential to address its root causes and disrupt the networks that support it. This requires a multifaceted approach that includes political, economic, and social reforms, as well as law enforcement and military action.

Political reforms may involve addressing issues of governance and corruption, promoting democratic institutions and the rule of law, and addressing the grievances of marginalized communities. Economic reforms may include measures to reduce inequality, provide greater opportunities for education and employment, and promote sustainable development.

Social reforms may involve promoting interfaith dialogue and tolerance, countering extremist ideologies, and empowering civil society organizations to promote peace and reconciliation.

At the same time, law enforcement and military action may be necessary to disrupt terrorist networks, prevent attacks, and bring perpetrators to justice. This requires strong international cooperation, intelligence sharing, and targeted sanctions against individuals and organizations involved in terrorism.

Ultimately, eradicating the menace of terrorism requires a sustained and multifaceted effort that addresses its root causes, disrupts its networks, and promotes peace, justice, and security for all.