Q1. (a) Identify five ethical traits on which one can plot the performance of a civil servant. Justify their inclusion in the matrix. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

One of the primary ethical traits that can be plotted on the performance matrix of a civil servant is honesty. This is because honesty is a crucial aspect of public service, and civil servants are expected to maintain high levels of integrity in their dealings with the public. Another ethical trait that can be included in the matrix is impartiality. Civil servants are required to remain unbiased and neutral in their decision-making, and this is critical to ensuring fairness and justice in public service.

Another ethical trait that can be added is accountability. Civil servants must be accountable for their actions and decisions, and they must take responsibility for any mistakes or errors that occur under their watch. Additionally, transparency is another ethical trait that is integral to the performance of a civil servant. Transparency ensures that civil servants are open and honest about their actions and decisions, and this is essential for building trust and confidence in public service. Lastly, respect is an ethical trait that is critical to the performance of a civil servant. Civil servants must treat all members of the public with respect and dignity, regardless of their background, status or affiliations. This ensures that public service is delivered in a fair and just manner.

1. (b) Identify ten essential values that are needed to be an effective public servant. Describe the /ways and means to prevent non-ethical behaviour in the pubic servants. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

To be an effective public servant, one must possess certain essential values. These values include honesty, integrity, accountability, transparency, respect for diversity, professionalism, commitment to public service, empathy, impartiality, and fairness. These values are crucial in ensuring that public servants carry out their duties with the utmost integrity and serve the public interest.

To prevent non-ethical behavior in public servants, there are several ways and means that can be employed. Firstly, there should be a strong code of ethics that outlines the expected behavior of public servants. This code should be communicated to all public servants and should be enforced through disciplinary actions when necessary.

Secondly, public servants should undergo regular training on ethics and values. This training should equip them with the necessary knowledge and skills to make ethical decisions and avoid non-ethical behavior.

Thirdly, there should be a system of checks and balances in place to monitor the conduct of public servants. This can be achieved through regular audits, reviews, and evaluations of the performance of public servants.

Lastly, there should be a culture of transparency and accountability in the public service. This means that public servants should be open and honest about their actions and decisions, and they should be willing to take responsibility for their mistakes.

By implementing these measures, non-ethical behaviour in public servants can be prevented, and the public can be assured of a professional and ethical public service.

Q2. (a) Impact of digital technology as reliable source of input for rational decision making is debatable issue. Critically evaluate with suitable example. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

The impact of digital technology on rational decision making has been a topic of debate for quite some time now. While some argue that it provides reliable information, others believe that it can be misleading and biased.

One suitable example of this debate can be seen in the field of medicine. With the rise of digital technology, patients can now access a vast range of medical information online. While this can be empowering for patients, it can also lead to self-diagnosis and incorrect treatment.

On the other hand, digital technology has also allowed doctors to access vast amounts of medical research and data, which can aid in making more informed and accurate decisions. However, the reliability of this information can also be questioned, as it may be influenced by the biases of those who conducted the research or funded the studies.

In conclusion, while digital technology can provide a wealth of information for rational decision making, it is important to critically evaluate the sources and consider any potential biases or limitations.

2. (b) Besides domain knowledge, a public official needs innovativeness and creativity of a high order as well, while resolving ethical dilemmas. Discuss with suitable example. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

When it comes to ethical dilemmas, public officials often face complex situations where they need to be innovative and creative in their solutions. For instance, let’s consider a case where a public official must make a decision on whether to approve a construction project that poses a significant environmental risk. In this scenario, the official must weigh the economic benefits of the project against the potential harm it may cause to the environment and the surrounding communities.

In such situations, an official with a high level of innovativeness and creativity may explore alternative solutions that balance the economic and environmental concerns. They may consider implementing additional regulations or incentives to mitigate the environmental impact of the project. Alternatively, they may suggest alternative sites for the project that pose less of a risk to the environment.

Ultimately, public officials must be able to think creatively and outside of the box when faced with ethical dilemmas. By doing so, they can make decisions that are not only legally and ethically sound but also meet the needs of their constituents.

Q3. What does each of the following quotations mean to you? (a) “Every work has got to pass through hundreds of difficulties before succeeding. Those that persevere will see the light, sooner or later.-Swami Vivekananda (Answer in 150 words) 10 M (b) “We can never obtain peace in the outer world until and unless we obtain peace within ourselves.” – Dalai Lama (Answer in 150 words) 10 M (c) Life doesn’t make any sense without interdependence. We need each other, and the sooner we learn that, it is better for us all.” -Erik Erikson word (Answer in 150 word) 10 M

(a) The quote by Swami Vivekananda, “Every work has got to pass through hundreds of difficulties before succeeding. Those that persevere will see the light, sooner or later,” means that success is not easily attainable. It requires hard work, determination, and perseverance. Every work or project will face challenges, but it is important to keep going and not give up. Success may not come immediately, but with persistence, one will eventually achieve it. This quote can be applied to various aspects of life, such as academics, career, and personal goals. It reminds us that success is not an overnight process and requires dedication and patience.

(b) The quote by Dalai Lama, “We can never obtain peace in the outer world until and unless we obtain peace within ourselves,” means that inner peace is crucial to achieving external peace. It emphasizes the importance of self-reflection and self-care. If we are not at peace with ourselves, we cannot expect to find peace in the world around us. This quote highlights the need for individuals to focus on their own mental and emotional well-being. By achieving inner peace, we can radiate positivity and contribute to creating a more peaceful world.

(c) The quote by Erik Erikson, “Life doesn’t make any sense without interdependence. We need each other, and the sooner we learn that, it is better for us all,” means that we are all interconnected and rely on each other for a fulfilling life. It emphasizes the importance of community and relationships. This quote highlights the need for individuals to value and support one another. We need to learn to work together and help each other grow and succeed. This quote can be applied to various aspects of life, such as personal relationships, work environments, and society as a whole. It reminds us that we are all in this together and that we can achieve more when we collaborate and support one another.

Q4. (a) Attitude is an important component that goes as input in the elopement of human How to build a suitable needed for a public servant? (Answer in 150 words) 10 M (b) In case of crisis of conscience does emotional intelligence help to overcome the same without compromising the ethical or moral stand that you are likely to follow? Critically examine. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

When it comes to building a suitable attitude for a public servant, there are several key factors to consider. Firstly, it is important to have a strong sense of responsibility and accountability towards the public and the duties assigned. Secondly, a public servant should possess good communication skills, both verbal and written, to effectively convey information and ideas to the public. Thirdly, patience and resilience are crucial in dealing with difficult situations and challenging individuals. Additionally, a public servant must be knowledgeable about the laws and regulations governing their work and be committed to upholding them.

In the case of a crisis of conscience, emotional intelligence can indeed play a significant role in helping an individual overcome the situation without compromising their ethical or moral stand.

Emotional intelligence involves the ability to understand and manage one’s own emotions, as well as the emotions of others. This can help individuals to navigate difficult situations by remaining calm, empathetic, and rational. However, it is important to note that emotional intelligence is not a guarantee of ethical behavior. Ultimately, it is up to the individual to make the right decision and act in accordance with their values and principles.

Q5. (a) “Refugees should not be turned back to the country where they would face persecution or human right violation.” Examine the statement with reference to ethical dimension being violated by the nation claiming to be democratic with open society. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M (b) Should impartial and being non-partisan be considered as indispensable qualities to make a successful civil servant? Discuss with illustrations. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

(a) The statement “Refugees should not be turned back to the country where they would face persecution or human right violation” highlights an ethical dimension that is often violated by nations claiming to be democratic and having an open society. The principle of non-refoulement, which is enshrined in international law, prohibits countries from returning refugees to a country where their life or freedom would be threatened. However, many nations have been known to turn back refugees, ignoring this ethical dimension.

This violation of ethical principles not only puts the lives of refugees at risk but also undermines the basic values of humanity. As nations that claim to be democratic and having an open society, it is imperative that they uphold ethical principles and protect the rights of refugees. The failure to do so not only reflects poorly on the nation but also undermines the credibility of the international system.

(b) Being impartial and non-partisan are indispensable qualities for a civil servant. Civil servants are expected to work for the common good and serve the people, regardless of their political affiliation or personal beliefs. Impartiality ensures that civil servants are fair and just in their decision-making process and do not show any bias or favoritism towards any particular group.

Similarly, being non-partisan ensures that civil servants do not align themselves with any political party or interest group and are free to work for the betterment of society. This quality ensures that civil servants can work independently and without any pressure from external forces.

Illustrations of impartial and non-partisan civil servants can be found in different parts of the world. They have been instrumental in ensuring transparent governance, protecting human rights and promoting democratic values. Therefore, it can be concluded that impartiality and non-partisanship are crucial qualities for a successful civil servant.

Q6. (a) An independent and empowered social audit mechanism is an absolute must in every sphere of public service, including judiciary, to ensure performance, accountability and ethical conduct. Elaborate. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M (b) “Integrity is a value that empowers the human being.” Justify with suitable illustration. (Answer in 150 words) 10 M

(a) In order to maintain transparency and accountability in every sphere of public service, including the judiciary, it is imperative to have an independent and empowered social audit mechanism. The social audit mechanism is a tool that allows for the evaluation of the performance of public institutions, ensuring that they are meeting their objectives in a responsible and ethical manner. By having this mechanism in place, the public can hold these institutions accountable for their actions, ensuring that they are serving their intended purpose.

Furthermore, a social audit mechanism can help to identify areas where improvements can be made. This can ultimately lead to better decision-making, improved policies, and a greater level of trust between the public and government institutions.

(b) integrity is a fundamental value that empowers individuals to make ethical decisions and take actions that are in the best interest of society. When people act with integrity, they are acting in accordance with their moral principles and are motivated by a desire to do what is right, rather than personal gain.

Integrity can be seen as a powerful tool in the hands of individuals, enabling them to make a positive impact on society. For instance, when public officials act with integrity, they are more likely to make decisions that benefit the public rather than their own interests. This, in turn, can lead to greater trust and confidence in government institutions, ultimately resulting in a more efficient and effective public service.


Q8. You are Vice Principal of a degree college in one of the middle – class towns. Principal has recently retired and management is looking for his replacement. There are also feelers that the management may promote you as Principal. In the meantime, during annual examination the flying squad came from the university caught two students red-hande3d involving in unfair means. A senior lecturer of the college was personally helping these student in this act. This senior lecturer also happens to be close to the management. One of the students was son of a local politician who was responsible in getting college affiliated to the present reputed university. The second student was son of a local businessman who has donated maximum funds for running of the college. You immealately informed the management regarding this unfortunate incident. The management told you to resolve the issue with flying squad at any cost. They further said that such incident will not only tarnish the image of the college but also the politician and businessman are very important personalities for the functioning of the college. You were also given hint that your further promotion to Principal depends on your capability in resolving this issue with flying squad. In the meantime, you were intimated by your administrative officer that certain members of the student union are protesting outside the college gate against the senior lecturer and the students involved in this incident and demanding strict action against defaulters. Discuss the ethical issues involved in the case. Critically examine the options available with you as Vice Principal. What option will you adopt and why? (Answer in 250 words)

Ethical Issues Involved

The situation at hand presents a complex array of ethical issues that need to be addressed. Firstly, there is the issue of academic integrity, as the two students were caught cheating during the annual examinations. Secondly, there is the unethical conduct of the senior lecturer who was personally helping the students cheat. Thirdly, there is the influence of external factors such as the politician and businessman who have vested interests in the functioning of the college.

As Vice Principal, it is your responsibility to ensure that the integrity of the academic process is not compromised. In this case, it is important to take strict action against the students who were caught cheating and the senior lecturer who facilitated the act. However, the involvement of influential personalities in the matter complicates the situation.

Options available with the Vice Principal

The options available to you as Vice Principal are limited but critical. Firstly, you could choose to ignore the incident and risk the reputation of the college being tarnished. Secondly, you could choose to report the incident to the flying squad and risk the ire of the management and influential personalities. Lastly, you could choose to negotiate with the flying squad to overlook the incident, but this would be an unethical and illegal act.

As an ethical and responsible leader, it is imperative to report the incident to the flying squad and take strict action against the defaulters, irrespective of the consequences. The integrity of the academic process must be upheld at all costs, and there can be no compromise on this front. The management and influential personalities may not be pleased with this decision, but it is the right thing to do. It is important to communicate the decision to the student union and reassure them that the matter is being dealt with justly and transparently.

In conclusion, the situation at hand requires a strong and ethical leadership approach. It is important to prioritize academic integrity above all else and take strict action against the defaulters, irrespective of external pressures. The reputation of the college and the trust of the students and faculty must be protected at all costs.

Q9. An elevated corridor is being constructed to reduce traffic congestion in the capital of a particular state. You have been selected as project manager of this prestigious project on your professional competence and experience. The deadline is to complete the project in next two years by 20 June, 2021, since this project is to be inaugurated by the Chief Minister before the elections are announced in the second week of July 2021. While carrying out the surprise inspection by inspecting team, a minor crack was noticed in one of the piers of the elevated corridor possibly due to poor material used. You immediately informed the chief engineer and stopped further work. It was assessed by you that minimum three piers of the elevated corridor have to be demolished demolished and reconstructed. But this process will delay the project minimum by four to six months. But the chief engineer overruled the observation of inspecting team on the ground that it was a minor crack which will not in any way impact the strength and durability of the bridge. He ordered you to overlook the observation of inspecting team and continue working with same speed and tempo. He informed you that the minister does not want any delay as he wants the chief Minister to inaugurate the elevated corridor before the elections are declared. Also informed you that the contractor is far relative of the minister and he wants him to finish the project. He also gave you hint that your further promotion as additional chief engineer is under consideration with the ministry. However, you strongly felt that the minor crack in the pier of the elevated corridor will adversely affect the health and life of the bridge and therefore it will be very dangerous not to repair the elevated corridor. Under the given conditions, what are the options available to you as a project manager? What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by the project manager? What are the professional challenges likely to be faced by the project manager and his response to overcome such challenges? What can be the consequences of overlooking the observation raised by the inspecting team? (Answer in 250 words)

a. As the project manager, you have a few options available to you in this situation. Firstly, you can inform the higher authorities about the chief engineer’s decision and express your concerns regarding the safety of the bridge. You can also suggest that the necessary repairs be made to the bridge before continuing with the project. Secondly, you can continue with the project as per the chief engineer’s instructions, but at the same time, document the inspection report and the concerns raised by the inspecting team. This documentation can be used as evidence if any issues arise in the future.

b. The ethical dilemmas being faced by the project manager are the conflict between the safety of the bridge and the pressure to complete the project on time. The project manager needs to make a tough decision between following the orders of the chief engineer and safeguarding the safety of the public.

c. The professional challenges likely to be faced by the project manager are the pressure to complete the project on time, while also ensuring that the quality of the work is not compromised. To overcome such challenges, the project manager could hold meetings with the higher authorities and explain the importance of safety and quality in the project. The project manager could also suggest alternative ways to speed up the project without compromising on safety and quality.

d. Overlooking the observation raised by the inspecting team can have severe consequences. The minor crack in the pier of the elevated corridor could worsen over time, leading to the collapse of the entire bridge. This could result in loss of life, property damage, and legal action against the project team. The project manager must prioritize safety over speed and take the necessary steps to repair the bridge before continuing with the project.

Q10 The coronavirus disease (CoVID-19) pandemic has quickly spread to various countries. As on May 8th, 2020, in India 56342 positive cases of corona had been reported. India with a population of more than 1-35 billion had difficulty in controlling the transmission of coronavirus among its population. Multiple strategies became necessary to handle this outbreak. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India raised awareness about this outbreak and to take all necessary actions to control the spread of COVID-19. Indian Government implemented a 55-day lockdown throughout the country to reduce the transmission of the virus. Schools and colleges had shifted to alternative mode of teaching- learning-evaluation and certification. Online mode became popular during these days. India was not prepared fora sudden onslaught of such a crisis due to limited infrastructure in terms of human resource, money and other facilities needed for taking care of this situation. This disease did not spare anybody irrespective of caste, creed, religion on the one hand and have and have not’ on the other. Deficiencies in hospital beds, oxygen cylinders, ambulances, hospital staff and crematorium were the most crucial aspects You are a hospital administrator in a public hospital at the time when coronavirus had attacked large number of people and patients were pouring into hospital day in and day out. What are your criteria and justification for putting your clinical and non-clinical staff to attend to the patients knowing fully well that it is highly infectious disease and resources and infrastructure are limited? If yours is a private hospital, whether your justification and decision would remain same as that of a public hospital? (Answer in 250 words)

As a hospital administrator in a public hospital during the coronavirus pandemic, my top priority would be to ensure the safety and well-being of both patients and staff. In order to do this, I would need to establish clear criteria and justifications for assigning clinical and non-clinical staff to attend to patients.

Firstly, I would ensure that all staff members are provided with proper personal protective equipment (PPE) and are trained in how to use it effectively. Additionally, I would prioritize staff members who are at lower risk for complications from COVID-19, such as younger and healthier individuals, to care for patients who are infected with the virus.

Furthermore, I would evaluate the availability of resources and infrastructure in the hospital and allocate staff members accordingly. For example, I would assign more staff to areas where there is a shortage of hospital beds or oxygen cylinders.

In a private hospital, the decision-making process may differ due to the potential financial implications. However, as a healthcare professional, the safety and well-being of patients and staff should always be the top priority. Therefore, I would make the same justifications and decisions as I would in a public hospital, ensuring that proper protocols are in place to prevent the spread of the virus and protect everyone involved.

Overall, the criteria and justifications for assigning clinical and non-clinical staff to attend to patients during the coronavirus pandemic must prioritize safety, availability of resources, and the well-being of everyone involved.

Q11. A Reputed food product company based in India developed a food product for international market and started exporting the same after getting necessary approvals. The company announced this achievement and also indicated that soon the product will be made available for the domestic consumers with almost sane quality and health benefits. Accordingly, the company got its product approved by the domestic competent authority and launched the product in Indian market. The company could increase its market share over a period of time and earned substantial profit both domestically and internationally. However, the random sample test conducted by inspecting team found the product being sold domestically in variance with the approval obtained from the competent authority. On further investigation, it was also discovered that the food company was not only selling products which were not meeting the health standard of the country but also selling the rejected export products in the domestic market. This episode adversely affected the reputation and profitability of the food company. What action do you visualize should be taken by the competent authority against the food company for violating the laid down domestic food standard and selling rejected export products in domestic market? What course of action is available with the food company to resolve the crisis and bring back its lost reputation? Examine the ethical dilemma involved in the case. (Answer in 250 words)

In response to the situation described, the competent authority should take strict action against the food company for violating domestic food standards and selling rejected export products in the domestic market. The company should be held accountable for its actions and face legal consequences. The competent authority should also conduct a thorough investigation into the company’s practices to ensure that they comply with all regulations in the future.

To resolve the crisis and regain its lost reputation, the food company should take immediate corrective actions to ensure that its products meet the required health standards. The company should also take measures to regain the trust of its customers by being transparent about its practices and ensuring that all products sold in the domestic market meet the required standards.

The ethical dilemma involved in this case is that the food company prioritized profits over the health and well-being of its customers. By selling products that did not meet the required health standards, the company put the health of its customers at risk. Additionally, by selling rejected export products in the domestic market, the company engaged in unethical practices that violated the trust of its customers. The company should prioritize the health and safety of its customers over profits and ensure that all products sold meet the required standards.

Q12. Pawan is working as an officer in the State Government for the last ten years. As a part of routine transfer, he was posted to another department. He joined in a new office along with five other colleagues. The head of the office was a senior officer conversant with the functioning of the office. As a part of general inquiry, Pawan gathered that his senior officer carries the reputation of being difficult and insensitive person having his own disturbed family life. Initially, all seem to go well. However, after some time Pawan felt that the senior officer was belittling him and at times unreasonable. Whatever suggestions given or views expressed by Pawan in the meetings were summarily rejected and the senior officer would express displeasure in the presence of others. It became a pattern of boss’s style of functioning to show him in bad light highlighting his shortcomings and humiliating publically. It became apparent that though there are no serious work-related problems/shortcomings, the senior officer was always on one pretext or the other and would scold and shout at him. The continuous harassment and public criticism of Pawan resulted in loss of confidence, self-esteem and equanimity. Pawan realized that his relations with his senior officer are becoming more toxic and due to this, he felt perpetually tensed, anxious and stressed. His mind was occupied with negativity and caused him mental torture, anguish and agony. Eventually, it badly affected his personal and family life. He was no longer joyous, happy and contented even t home. Rather without any reason he would loose his temper with his wife and other family members. The family environment was no longer pleasant and congenial. His wife who was always supportive to him also became a victim of his negativity and hostile behaviour. Due to harassment and humiliation suffering by him in the office, comfort and happiness virtually vanished from his life. Thus it damaged his physical and mental health. What are the options available with Pawan to cope with the situation? What approach Pawan should adopt for bringing peace, tranquillity and congenial environment in the office and home? As an outsider, what are your Suggestions for both boss and subordinate to overcome this situation and for improving the work performance, mental and emotional hygiene? In the above scenario, what type of training would you suggest for at various levels in the government offices? (Answer in 250 words)

The situation that Pawan is facing at work is not an uncommon one. Many employees have to deal with a difficult boss who makes their work life unpleasant. Pawan has a few options available to him to cope with the situation. He can try to talk to his boss and explain to him how his behavior is affecting him. He can also try to find a mentor or ally within the organization who can help him deal with the situation. Another option is to approach the human resources department and file a formal complaint against his boss.

b. To bring peace, tranquillity, and a congenial environment at work and home, Pawan should adopt a positive approach. He should try to remain calm and composed and not let his boss’s behavior affect him. He should focus on his work and try to do his best. He should also try to maintain a good relationship with his colleagues and not let his boss’s behavior affect his interactions with them. At home, he should try to leave work problems at work and not let them affect his family life.

As an outsider, my suggestion for both boss and subordinate would be to try to communicate better. The boss should try to understand Pawan’s perspective and work towards resolving the issues. Pawan should also try to understand his boss’s point of view and work towards building a better relationship with him. Both parties should try to find common ground and work towards improving the work environment.

c. In the above scenario, I would suggest that training programs be conducted at various levels in the government offices. These programs should focus on improving interpersonal skills, communication, conflict resolution, and emotional intelligence. The training programs should be mandatory for all employees and should be conducted regularly to ensure that employees are equipped with the skills to handle difficult situations at work.